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Full text of "A glossary of judicial and revenue terms and of useful words occurring in official documents relating to the administration of the government of British India, from the Arabic, Persian, Hindustani, Sanskrit, Hindi, Bengali, Uriya, Marathi, Guzarathi, Telugu, Karnata, Tamil, Malayalam and other languages. Compiled and published under the authority of the Honorable the Court of Directors of the East-India Co"

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H. H. WILSON, M.A. F.R.S. 


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P K E F A C E. 

THE numerous documents relating to the administration of the government of India by the East-India 
Company which have been printed, and the still more voluminous correspondence which remains in 
manuscript, have, from the earliest to the most recent dates, been thickly studded with terms adopted from 
*he vernacular languages of the country, and commonly inserted without any explanation of their purport. 
Various reasons may be assigned for a practice which, to say the least of it, is attended with considerable 
perplexity to those who have not studied the languages of India at all, and is not free from embarrassment 
even to many by whom those languages have been in part only, or imperfectly acquired. In many cases, no 
doubt, it might be difficult or impossible to discover exact equivalents for the native words in English, and the 
use of the original term most expressively conveys its meaning to those to whom the occasion of its employment 
is familiar, although they be not Oriental scholars : Ryot and Ryotwar, for instance, suggest more precise 
and positive notions in connexion with the subject of the land revenue in the south of India, than would 
IKJ conveyed by cultivator, or peasant, or agriculturist, or by an agreement for rent or revenue with the 
individual members of the agricultural classes : in this and similar instances the employment of the original 
native term is recommended by the advantages of conciseness and precision. 

In the far greater number of cases, however, the practice cannot be vindicated by an equally cogent plea, 
and must be ascribed to other considerations. It may sometimes, perhaps, be assigned to a pedantic affectation 
of conversancy with the native languages, but it may more frequently be attributed to indolence to a 
reluctance to take the trouble of ascertaining the proper sense of the word, and of seeking for a suitable 
equivalent, even where such an equivalent is at hand, and where the original term denotes nothing peculiar 
<>r technical. It is scarcely necessary, for example, to introduce the word Midde in its native dress, when it 
signifies only " an Upper-storied house;" and " Widow " is quite as much to the purpose as Avira, especially when 
the latter is barbarously transmuted to Obeera. It is very obvious, however, that whatever may be the familiarity 
acquired in some instances with the spoken language of the Courts of Justice and Revenue, that familiarity 
is restricted to a few of the dialects, and that a critical acquaintance, even with those that are understood, is 
far from common. This is very evident when, as is sometimes the case, an attempt has been made by officers 
of unquestioned efficiency in other respects, to analyse etymologically the terms they employ, particularly in 
regard to the languages of the south of India. Thus it is said by a functionary of more than ordinary merit, 
and one who was specially selected for his knowledge of the languages, that the last syllable of Dessaye is 
a Canarese term for " mother," when it is nothing more than the abridgment of adhi,"over one who is 
placed in authority over a district." The same functionary explains Desmukh, literally the head or chief 
(mukhya) of a country (des), as meaning " ten blows," confounding evidently the Sanscrit des, " a country," 
with the Hindi das, " ten," and mukha, " face," with the Hindustani muth, " a fist" East- India Selections, 
iv. 798. In fact, the whole linguistic stock of the major portion of the Civil Service was for many years a 
little Hindustani and less Persian ; and it is only recently that attempts have been made to extend the range 
of attainment, and place it upon a sound and comprehensive basis. 

Whatever the acquirements, however, of those with whom Indian official documents originate, it is 
undeniable that many of those to whom they are addressed, or for whose information they are designed, 
members of the Court of Proprietors, of the Court of Directors, of the Board of Controul, the Houses of 


Parliament, the British public, pretend to no acquaintance with the languages of India, and to them an 
interpretation of the native words which come before them is indispensable. A few may have become almost 
naturalized by repetition, but by far the greater number remain unintelligible. Even of the meaning of those 
however which have been longest and most extensively current, precise ideas are not always entertained ; and 
it may be doubted if there are many persons, of those who have not been in India, or who have no knowledge 
of Hindustani, who possess a ready and correct conception of the purport of such frequently recurring terms, 
as Adalat and Zamindar. 

But besides the great proportion of those who may feel it their duty to consult the records of the Indian 
governments for information, without pretending to any conversancy with the Indian languages, many even 
of those who have been educated for the service of the Company will be occasionally perplexed by the 
appearance of native terms with which they are unacquainted. The Company's servants at the different 
Presidencies are not expected to be proficients in the languages spoken in the territories of other Presidencies 
than their own, and yet they must find it of material benefit to be able to consult their records ; while even 
in their own branch of the service, they will not unfrequently be crossed by unusual designations. Tin- 
Persian or Hindustani scholar will not, therefore, always be competent to appreciate the value of the Sanskrit 
and Arabic vocables which constitute the language of Hindu and Mohammadan law. Those languages will 
but imperfectly prepare the Bengal civilian for Hindi, Bengali, and Panjabi : they will be of equally little 
avail in the peninsula for the interpretation of terms pertaining to Tamil, Telugu, Karnata, and Malayalim ; 
and they will but lamely help the Bombay servant over the intricacies of Marathi and Guzerathi, to say 
nothing of Sindhi and Marwuri. Even with the scale of acquirements extended as far as may be- reasonably 
expected, the great variety of the prevailing -forms of speech in India renders it impossible, perhaps, that even 
all those which would be of service may be so mastered, that words derived from them will always convey 
the meanings they bear independently of such explanation as is to be looked for from a Glossary or a 

Supposing, indeed, that a much more comprehensive and critical acquaintance with the languages of 
India existed than that which usually prevails, such knowledge will still not be always sufficient to enable its 
possessor to recognise a native word, however familiar to him in its original characters, in the unusual and 
often preposterous form in which it appears when represented by the English alphabet. Of course, English 
documents cannot admit Oriental letters ; and Indian words, when transferred from their native garb to an 
English dress, are often so strangely disguised, that it is always difficult, sometimes impossible, to identify 
them. The causes of their transfiguration are easily understood : they may have been written down by the 
European functionary from native enunciation, agreeably to his conception of the sound, without advertence 
to the original characters, the only guides entitled to reliance : the ear is far from accurate, particularly the 
English ear, which is unaccustomed to a definite system of pronunciation in its own alphabet, especially as 
regards the vowel sounds. The consequences are, an entire misrepresentation of the original spelling, and a 
total want of consistency, the very same word being written in every possible variety of orthography. 
Another source of error is the employment of a native amanuensis, who knows a little English, to write the 
word, and in all likelihood, he will diverge still farther from accuracy than his European superior. The 
term thus incorrectly and blunderingly set down has to be transcribed repeatedly by native copyists for 
transmission to higher authority, and eventually, perhaps, to England ; and every time that it is re-written 
there is a renewed probability of error. In this state it comes home, and is here re-copied by English clerks, 
who are, of course, unable to correct the most palpable mistakes, and are fully qualified to commit more. In 
the last place, it has to be transferred to the press, the correction of which is entrusted to incompetent 
revision, and by which fresh blunders are copiously grafted on the already abundant crop. Many printed 
documents, of the first importance as to their subjects, and upon which very great expense has been incurred 
by the Company, have been rendered almost useless by the innumerable inaccuracies which disfigure almost 
every page. The collection, for example, known as Selections from the Judicial and Revenue Records, in four 
Mo volumes, containing many most important and valuable documents, is all but spoiled by the perpetual 
recurrence of such errors as Lokar and Sokar for Lohar; Sale for Lai; Derk and Desk for Derh ; Pottar 
for Pot-d&r , Swinjammy for Sarinjami; Kadarnaibh for Kaduramlam. Such as these admit of correction : 
others are more puzzling, but may be corrected conjecturally : Bazar-heetick, is no doubt intended for 
Bazar-baithak ; Mohcuddum Quaz appears from the context to be designed for Mukaddam-karz ; 



and Ooleim kaley and Muddum kaley are intended for Uttama kali and Madhyama kali. Others, again, 
baffle conjecture. It passes my ingenuity to propose probable substitutes for Barhee Mutputti, Herymut 
desa, or Quaeem seodi jumma. The Selections are not singular in this respect, and strange perversions find 
their way into official reports, even when printed in India, where competent revision is more plentiful than it 
should be in this country. In the reports of the judicial proceedings in the Zila Courts we have Jummee, 
and even Jemmy for Janmi, " one who holds a birthright ;" and Half an, " by or upon oath," is metamorphosed 
to Hul Fun. Documents emanating from the highest authority are not exempt from such disfigurement. 
In the Instructions to the Settlement Officers from the Governor of the North-west Provinces we have 
Dhurkast for Durkhast ; and La the Decisions of the Sadr Adalat we find Tun-khaw for Tankhwdh, and 
Joonmoohoostee for Junum-moohoortee, "the hour of nativity." Now, whether these be blunders of 
transcription or typography, they are calculated to perplex even Oriental scholars, and are grave blemishes in 
documents emanating from authority, and intended to communicate information on which implicit reliance 
may be placed. 

The deficiencies in this respect, of the published and unpublished documents relating to India, as well as the 
want of a more comprehensive key to the numerous native terms employed than any previously compiled, having 
been brought to the attention of the Court of Directors in August 1842, it was resolved to adopt measures for 
forming a Glossary of words in current use in various parts of India, relating to the administration of public 
business in every department, the want of which had long been found a source of much inconvenience. Under 
an impression that this could not be effected without the co-operation of the Company's servants locally 
employed in all parts of India, instructions were given to the Supreme Government of India to call upon the 
functionaries at the several Presidencies for their assistance. In order to serve as a guide for their proceedings, 
a rough Glossary, alphabetically arranged, was compiled in the India-House, taken chiefly from a list of 
words collected by the late Mr. Warden during his residence at Bombay, and from sundry printed collections ; 
and a sufficient number of printed copies were transmitted to India for distribution to the several officers. In 
this Glossary the words were inserted purposely as they were met with, without any attempt to correct them, or to 
reduce their spelling to a uniform system ; as, in the absence of the native characters, any attempt to represent 
the words in those of Europe might only have multiplied the obvious inaccuracies of the original collection : 
their correction was left to the Indian authorities, by whom the proper native orthography could be most 
readily ascertained, and they were instructed to return the lists in an accurate form, and accompanied by the 
native characters of the district in which the words were current. The authorities were also directed to add 
to the collection the many words that were known to be wanting, and to subjoin full, careful, and accurate 
explanations of their meaning. The copies were printed in such a shape as to admit of the insertion of the 
requisite additions and emendations, and several hundreds were sent out from time to time, with an expectation 
expressed that they would be returned in six months from the time of their distribution. The final 
arrangement of the whole work was to be committed to the compiler of the present publication. 

After a much more protracted interval than that of six months, the rough Glossaries found their way 
back from Bengal and partially from Madras : from Bombay none returned. The latter default was not 
much to be regretted, for however judicious the design, its execution at the other Presidencies proved almost 
an entire failure. Many of the lists came back blank ; of several the leaves had not been cut; in the far 
greater number, a mere pretence of doing something was displayed by the insertion of a few terms neither 
novel nor important ; a few afforded some serviceable materials, especially when, as was frequently the case, 
the task had been transferred to the subordinate officers, Munsiffs, Amins, Sadr-amins, and Deputy-collectors, 
the uncovenanted servants of the Company. Some of these did furnish lists of native terms, of a useful 
description, written in both the English and native characters. Several of the native officers, however, 
misapprehended the object of the collection, and admitted a copious infusion of words which had no peculiarly 
official significations. More than one, indeed, in Upper India, turned to Shakespear's Hindustani Dictionary, and 
deliberately covered the blank pages of the Glossary with words taken at random from the Lexicon. The practice 
was too glaringly obvious to be doubted ; but it was confessed to me by one of the perpetrators, Mir Shahamat 
Ali, whom I taxed with it when in England. He was an individual eminently qualified to have responded 
to the intentions of the Court as an efficient public officer, a scholar, and a man of ability ; but so little interest 
was felt in India in the subject, such was the unwillingness to devote any time or trouble to the task, that 
even he evaded its performance. The same feelings pervaded the service in Bengal. At Madras, matters 


were not much better. The returns were collected by the Persian and Telugu translator to the Government, 
Mr. C. P. Brown, and embodied in one compilation. The character which he gives of those returns shews 
that they were equally meagre and insufficient as those of Bengal. He has since printed them, enlarged with 
additions of his own, under the denomination of&Zillah Dictionary, the utility of which is somewhat impaired by 
the erroneous explanations derived from the documents with which he had been furnished. From his aggregate 
collection in manuscript, some useful terms, however, have been obtained, although their accuracy has been 
rendered occasionally questionable by the observations of the Board of Revenue on the printed form which was 
not received in time to be made much use of. From Madras, also, came two serviceable lists supplied by the 
Residents at Mysore and Hyderabad, Generals Cubbon and Fraser. From Bombay, as already observed, not a 
single list has been returned. The fate which has attended a measure so judiciously conceived, and so well 
calculated to have brought together a large body of valuable information of the most authentic character, is 
far from creditable to the public zeal and philological proficiency of the East-India Company's Civil Service. 

One honourable exception must, however, be acknowledged. " Observing with regret that the call for 
information had not been responded to, except to a very limited extent, by any of the officers under the 
control of the Board of Revenue of the North-western Provinces," of which he was then a member, the late 
Sir Henry Elliot whose early death has deprived the Bengal Civil Service of a most zealous and accomplished 
Oriental scholar, and an enlightened and efficient public officer undertook to supply the deficiency, and to 
put together the information he had collected respecting the tribes, the customs, and the fiscal and agricultural 
terms current in Upper India. The collection was printed under the modest designation of a Supplement to 
the Glossary, and contains a number of local terms of the most useful and authentic description, arranged 
alphabetically according to the order of the English alphabet, but accompanied by the native characters, both 
Arabic and Sanksrit, and expressed according to the modified system of spelling devised by Dr. Gilchrist, as 
well as that of Sir William Jones. The greater portion of the contents of this collection are embodied in the 
present, but some, especially the articles relating to the different Hindu clans and tribes, have been 
necessarily abbreviated or omitted, as assuming a higher character than that of the mere items of a Glossary, 
being, on fact, memoirs subservient to the History of India. The north-west provinces of Hindustan limit the 
extent of the compilation of course to Hindi and Urdu terms, and unfortunately, also, the compilation stops 
with the letter J. As far, however, as the Supplement goes, it is a contribution to the compilation contemplated 
by the Court, of which the value and merit cannot be too highly estimated. 

The first returns of the blank Glossaries from India having proved that little aid was to be expected from 
that quarter, it became necessary to look round for other sources of information ; and in the first instance, at 
least, to make use of such as were in print. Of this class were Gladwin's Dictionary of Mohammadan Law 
and Revenue Terms, Rousseau's Vocabulary of Persian Words in common use in India, and the Indian 
Vocabulary of Lieutenant Robertson. For the south of India there were the technical terms attached to Morris's 
Telugu Selections, Brown's Gentoo Vocabulary, and Robertson's Glossary in Tamil and English of words used 
chiefly in the business of the Courts. There were also, for general reference, the Indices of the Regulations, 
whether attached to them separately, or as collectively formed by Dale, Fenwick, and Small, the Glossary 
of the Fifth Report, and, above all, the Dictionaries of all the principal languages, in which a great number 
of technical terms are necessarily comprised, although the explanations are not always as full and particular 
as could be wished. The most comprehensive of them in this respect are Major Molesworth's Marathi Dictionary, 
Reeves's Karnata Dictionary, and Mohammad Kasim's Dictionary of Guzarathi. The Bengali Dictionaries of 
Carey and Houghton are singularly defective in technical and colloquial words. Steele's Summary of the law 
and custom of Hindu castes in the Presidency of Bombay affords a mass of very valuable information respecting 
the west of India, although sadly disfigured by an uncouth and unsystematic representation of the original words. 
These were, in the first instance, available : manuscript materials were at first less abundant, and the only 
collections in the India House were a Glossary of Marathi terms of some extent and authenticity, compiled 
for the use of the Bombay Government, and a collection of Malayalim words compiled by the late Mr. Graeme. 
The stock of manuscript materials was, however, speedily and importantly augmented. 

A collection of Indian technical terms had been for some time in progress, made by my friend Richard 
Clarke, Esq., whose connexion with the Privy Council in the matter of Indian appeals had impressed him 
with the necessity of a general compilation of this description, and whose high position when in India as a 
judicial servant of the Madras Government, and whose attainments as a Tamil scholar, fully qualified him to 


supply the want. He had accordingly been diligently engaged in the collection and arrangement of materials 
for such a work, and had accumulated a large quantity of the most useful words selected from the Regulations, 
from the Reports of the Committees of Parliament at different dates, from the Selections from the Records, 
from the early Reports of cases decided in the Sadr Adalat of Calcutta, from Harington's Analysis of the 
Regulations, Ellis's Mirasi Tenures, Malcolm's Central India, Buchanan's Travels and Eastern India, and 
various other standard authorities. He had also formed lists of Mohammadan law terms, extracted from the 
Hidaya, Macnaghten's Mohammadan Law, and Baillie's Digest, and of Hindu law terms from Colebrooke's 
Digest and Law of Inheritance, Macnaghten's Hindu Law, and my Sanskrit Dictionary. There were also 
MS. collections of words in the languages of the south of India, accompanied, in some instances, by the native 
characters. These materials had been classed and arranged alphabetically, and constituted an aggregate of about 
six or seven thousand terms. They were written according to the system of Sir William Jones, but not 
accompanied by the native characters. The whole of these materials were most liberally placed at my disposal 
by Mr. Clarke, when he learned that I was occupied in a similar task ; and the greater portion of them, all those 
which came within the plan of the present compilation, have been incorporated with it, after verifying them by 
reference to the authorities whence they were taken, and supplying, wherever practicable, the original native letters. 

Copious as were the materials furnished by these different sources, it was very soon evident that the supply 
was far from exhausted, and that a great number of words employed in official documents still remained to be 
collected and explained. Public documents respecting the judicial and revenue and other departments of the 
administration of India have of late years been communicated to the public through the press with a liberality 
which, although no doubt in many respects of great public utility, might perhaps be now curtailed with 
advantage, as the voluminous extent of the publications may appal some who would wish to consult them, 
and deter them from availing themselves of the information. Thus we have in print Monthly Reports of Cases 
decided in the Sadr Courts of Appeal at Calcutta, Agra, Madras, and Bombay ; Monthly Reports of the 
Cases decided in the Zila and subordinate Courts of Bengal, the North-west Provinces, and Madras, which have 
come latterly to average about 500 pages each, or 6000 pages per annum, or, altogether, 1 8,000 octavo pages 
annually. Besides these, the Settlement Reports of the Revenue Officers of the North-west Provinces have been 
printed, and, at all the Presidencies, Extracts from the Records for many years past have been published, or 
are in course of publication. All these documents abound more or less with native terms, which, if not in all 
instances strictly technical, are treated as officially current, and are therefore in need of interpretation. All these 
have been gone over for several years past, from 1 846 to ] 853, and such words as were not previously included 
have been added to the compilation. 

Still, these, however ample, are not the only authorities which it has been thought advisable to refer to. 
Various other public documents are in print, calculated to supply additional materials, such as the Circular 
Orders of the Sadr Dhvani Adalat ; Instructions to Settlement Officers emanating from the Government of 
the North-west Provinces ; the particulars of the Settlement Misl, or Collection of Official Forms ; and other 
similar Documents. Others, originating with private intelligence, have been also found of service, such as 
Smyth's Bengal Zamindari Accounts ; the clever Tract in Urdu and Hindi, termed Khet-karm, or Field 
Business ; the amusing and instructive " Revelations of an Orderly ;" and a host of contributions to the 
Asiatic Researches, the Transactions of the Bombay Literary Society, the Transactions and Journal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, and the Journals of the Asiatic Society and Agricultural Society of Bengal, of the 
Literary Society of Madras, and of the Branch Asiatic Society of Bombay. The great extent of these several 
authorities renders it impossible to have bestowed upon them more than a cursory examination, and there are, 
no doubt, still abundant materials to be gathered from them ; but they have been consulted with more or less 
care, and from these and other works incidentally referred to, the collection has been carried far beyond the 
limit which was anticipated when the task was undertaken. The Index of the Glossary exhibits an aggregate 
of more than 26,000 words ; and although many of them are mere varieties of spelling, yet the far greater 
proportion are leading terms, in their correct orthography, agreeably to the system which has been followed in 
representing Indian words by the letters of the Roman alphabet. 

The only trustworthy representation of an Indian word is its native costume : it can never be thoroughly 
nationalised in any other : but as it has to take a place in English documents, and is addressed to those to whom 
it would otherwise be illegible, it is the especial object of the present compilation to give it as faithful an 
equivalent as the difference in the values of letters and the peculiarities of national enunciation will permit, 


attaching to it at the same time, as a check upon the copy, the original delineation of the word in the letters of 
its own alphabet, wherever verifiable, for the use of those who are qualified to make the comparison. To be 
able to appreciate, however, the intention of the copy, and to make use of it with advantage, it is necessary 
that the principles upon which it has been developed should be properly understood. 

The extreme and contradictory variety which prevails in the spelling of Oriental words has been often 
made the subject of remark, and not unfrequently of censure. The latter may not be always undeserved ; yet 
those who condemn are not always qualified to judge, and they often exhibit in themselves a most 
perverse determination not to be set right. Above a century ago the most unexceptionable authorities 
established by their example how Mohammed should be spelled, or nearly so, but to so little purpose 
that it still is most common to write it Mahommed, and even Mahomet is still far from unfrequent. As 
long as this disregard of exactitude is so universal it little imports what animadversions may be passed upon 
the want of it by incompetent judges ; but those who should know better, those who are acquainted with the 
original languages, are inexcusable when they write the native words without reference to their proper form, 
and without any consistent or systematic mode of expressing them, each individual writing it as he hears, or 
thinks he hears it articulated, and without paying any attention to its original alphabetical structure. It is 
undoubtedly true that many of those who are in the habit of hearing and uttering native words in the course 
of official duty are unfamiliar with their written forms, and will not take the trouble to acquire a knowledge 
of their alphabet. Even, however, when acquainted with the characters, they will not be at the pains 
of acquiring a systematic plan of representing them, but write them according to the fancy of the moment, 
and with a total indifference to consistency which produces the most needless and incompatible misrepre- 
sentations of one and the same word, to an extent that would scarcely be thought possible if it were not 
substantiated by daily experience, even in the most ordinary and simple words. It would, for instance, be 
thought impossible to represent Lakhiraj (from la, " without," and khiraj, " tax,") by any other letters, and 
the disciples of the two chief propounders of schemes of Oriental orthography, Sir William Jones and Dr. 
Gilchrist, would unhesitatingly concur in the representation ; yet notwithstanding the concurrence of the two 
systems, and the simplicity of the original word, we meet with Lakhiraj under the monstrous disguises of 
Lakerage, Lackeradge, Lackirnz, Lackeragp, Laqueernuz, and Leeakeerazee. It is high time that such 
monstrosities should no longer be perpetrated or tolerated, and that the only remedy of which it admits should 
be applied the authoritative enforcement of a uniform system for the representation of the original letters by 
those of the English alphabet. For this purpose a system must be devised, and then it must be learned. The 
cause of the confusion is, chiefly, neglect of the latter. We have systems, good enough in their respective ways, 
but few or none will take the trouble to study and apply them. 

The representation of Oriental words by Roman characters has not now for the first time to be considered : 
the question was most ably discussed nearly seventy years ago by Sir William Jones, and was placed upon its 
right footing in his Memoir, which judiciously prefaces the Researches of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, and 
commences the first volume, printed in 1788. There are but two principles involved in the adaptation 
of one alphabet to another: 1. an analogous classification of the letters themselves, according to their 
original arrangement ; or, 2. the representation of their sounds in equivalents of similar enunciation ; in 
other words, the one principle is analogy, the other, pronunciation. Sir William Jones adopts the former as 
the more simple, universal, consistent, and scientific, and as exempt from the anomalies and contradictions 
which the English alphabet presents, in which, as he ingeniously pointed out, every vowel and a diphthong 
may be used to articulate one and the same sound, as in the sentence " a mother bird flutters over her 
young," in which every vowel of the alphabet and the combination ou has the sound of u in but. He also 
instances, in the quotation from Maleherbe, the absurd results that would follow an attempt to transcribe the 
original French passage according to even its French pronunciation, an absurdity which we commonly, 
though not invariably, avoid in ordinary life by writing foreign names, not according to their pronunciation, 
but their original spelling. No one would think of writing Paris " Paree," Rousseau " Roosso ;" nor, except in a 
conundrum, Toulon and Toulouse, "Too long" and "Too loose :" and it would be a sorry jest that should convert 
Grisi into "Greasy." We do not, therefore, follow sound alone in the Anglicising of European foreign 
words ; and the principle is, if possible, still less applicable to the languages of the East. 

Not very long, however, after the system of Sir William Jones had been adopted by the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal, the principle of pronunciation was taken up by Dr. Gilchrist, with relation especially to the 


Hindustani language as written in the Arabic and Persian alphabet ; and with great ingenuity he devised a 
scheme for expressing the letters of one alphabet by the other, according to their prevailing sounds. This 
plan he advocated with an earnestness which savoured something of extravagance ; but his scheme, as finally 
developed as his Hindee-Roman Orthoepical Ultimatum, was, with one or two exceptions, exceedingly well 
adapted to its object, that of expressing with uniformity and consistency the Oriental characters in English 
letters, in such a manner that English readers, unacquainted with the former, would be enabled to articulate 
the words with a very near approach to their correct pronunciation. Here, then, is all that is wanted two 
ingenious systems, one based on analogy, one on pronunciation ; and it is only requisite that a person 
proposing to write Oriental words in Roman letters should make himself familiar with one or the other. It 
has been more congenial, however, to the natural indolence and self-sufficiency of writers on Indian subjects 
to study neither, but to blunder on without any previous preparation, to put down words at random, and 
mystify the public with all sorts of incongruous creations. 

Although fully adequate to the determination of the principles on which the mutual adjustment of the 
Oriental and Roman alphabets ought to be grounded, yet some of the details of the two systemshave been thought 
to admit of improvement, and different modifications of both have been from time to time proposed. The system 
of Sir William Jones was scrupulously adhered to by Mr. Colebrooke, and prevails in the Asiatic Researches, 
and in the Journals of the Asiatic Society of Bengal and of the Royal Asiatic Society; it was used, somewhat 
modified, by Sir Charles Wilkins, in his edition of Richardson's Persian Dictionary, and in Shakespear's 
Hindustani Dictionary ; nearly unaltered in Rottler's Tamil, Campbell's Telugu, and Bailey's Malayalam 
Dictionaries ; and, in a mixed form, in Reeves's Karnata Dictionary. Major Molesworth, in his Marathi 
Dictionary, follows generally Dr. Gilchrist's system. The public authorities in Bengal also usually observe a 
modification of Gilchrist's spelling, when they follow any system at all ; but there is little uniformity in this 
respect In 1834, a vigorous effort was made in Bengal to establish what was termed the Romanizing system, 
or the substitution of the Roman letters for the characters of the country, in all printed books, and the 
project is still in operation to a limited extent Competent scholars from different Missions, Dr. Duff, 
and Messrs. Pearce, Yates, and Thomas ; and distinguished Members of the Company's Service, Mr. H. T. 
Prinsep, the late Mr. J. Prinsep, Mr. John Tytler, and Mr., now Sir Charles Trevelyan, took part in the 
discussion, and their several communications were collected and printed at Serampore. The different modes 
of writing the Oriental words in Roman letters were then fully and fairly considered, and a system nearly 
identical with that of Sir William Jones was adopted. Again, in 1845, an intelligent and ingenious 
treatise on the mode of writing Oriental words, having especial reference to the present Glossary, by Mr. 
Crow, Deputy Collector, was published in Calcutta, who was wrong only in supposing that the crude 
spelling of the Draft Glossary was final. Still more recently, the subject has been taken up by the 
Missionaries of England and America, and some eminent German Oriental scholars and philologers ; and 
several conferences were held, under the auspices of Chevalier Bunsen, for the purpose of fixing a standard in 
Roman characters for the expression of foreign forms of speech, whether possessed of alphabets or without 
them. Proposals for a Missionary alphabet founded on these discussions, have been published by my friend 
Maximilian Muller, Professor of Modern Languages in the University of Oxford. There is no lack, therefore, 
of careful and competent investigation of the subject ; and although uniformity of practice has not been, and 
probably will not be, the result, yet an approximation has been made to it, and the principle of analogy, 
where alphabets exist, is recognised as preferable to that of pronunciation. Where the language is unwritten, 
sound must be more or less the guide ; but with such forms of speech we have no concern, all the languages of 
the civilised races of India being provided with alphabets. 

In the following pages the principle of analogy has been preferred, and the system of Sir William 
Jones has been pursued, with some modifications of detail, which will be particularised in the remarks on the 
table of equivalents, which will presently be given. Their object will be rendered more obvious by prefacing a 
few general rules for the conversion of one set of characters into another, and the observations which they 
suggest The rules are in general harmony with those acknowledged as the basis of the Missionary 
alphabet The observations have also reference to the propositions for its development. 

I. The same letter should be invariably used to represent the same letter or the same sound: if a be 
chosen as the representative of the short vowel, it should never be allowed to alternate with e or u, o or ?. 

II. The same letter should never be used to express two different letters or sounds. 

viii PREFACE. 

On this account I object to the proposal to represent both k and ch by k, although etymologically there may 
be an affinity between them, as pointed out half a century ago by Dr. Gilchrist, in his recognition of the identity 
of kirk and church. Etymology, however, is admitted to be a somewhat unsafe guide ; and I would restrict 
k to its guttural duties, on the same principle as, inconsistent with this rule, I conceive it objectionable to givea 
double office to y, although it has such a duality in English, as in gin and ynn. It is proposed, indeed, to 
distinguish both the k and the y by printing them in italics when palatals, but the distinction is insufficient, 
as it is one of form, not of value, and is both uncouth and likely to be overlooked. My friend M tiller's "Gagatai 
/ifingis khan " will be much more consistently and correctly written " Jagatai Chingis khan," i. e. ch and 
k each having but one power. 

III. Simple letters should, as far as possible, be used for simple letters. 

On this ground, objections may be taken to the use of ch ; but although written as two letters, it has in 
English the power of but one: and although the nations of the Continent express it by combinations of a rather 
uncouth appearance, yet, as symbols have to be devised for sounds which are foreign to an individual 
alphabet, there is no good reason why one should not borrow of another. Ch, as a novelty, is not more novel 
than k as ch ; and the one has an existence, which the other has not. On this, and on the use of aspirates as 
simple letters, we shall have further occasion to animadvert. 

It is sufficiently obvious, that if an alphabet of twenty-four letters is to express one of fifty or more, some 
contrivance must be had recourse to, to extend the elasticity of the former. If the sounds are wholly and 
radically strange, new symbols must be invented ; but if, as is most usual, they are only qualifications of 
sounds, of which, in the unmodified form, symbols exist, the latter may be adapted to these expressions 
conformably to the following: 

IV. Diacritical signs, lines, accents, or dots, are to be attached to the Roman letters, in order to enable 
them to represent modifications of the symbols or sounds which they themselves express. 

The choice of these diacritical or distinguishing marks is matter of taste, or, more correctly speaking, of 
convenience. Sir William Jones objected to the ordinary modes of characterising long and short vowels as properly 
belonging to prosodial distinctions ; and as the use of accents was familiar to some of the European languages, he 
preferred their employment, and distinguished the long vowels by the acute accent in the middle of words, and 
by the grave accent in the last syllable : he also characterised the cerebral consonants by the accent. Dr. 
Gilchrist's representation of the vowels proceeded on a different plan altogether, and he expressed them by 
special equivalents. In his earliest scheme he distinguished peculiar consonants by small circles above them, as 
i, d, &c. ; but in his final alphabet he substituted dots underneath t, d, s, z, z, and the like. Mr. Shakespear, 
in his Hindustani Dictionary, uses both, lines above or below, and dots underneath, as a, t, kh, s, s, &c. ; and 
Mr. Crow proposes, in various instances, a line, or a line and dot, below the letter, as a, i, k, k. It seems 
inexpedient, however, to diversify the diacritical marks beyond the distinction of vowels and consonants, and 
the acute accent may be reserved for the long vowel, and dots underneath for the peculiar consonants : the 
latter have the advantage of being typographically more convenient, of being unobtrusive to the eye, and of 
being easily multiplied with any number of modifications of the original sound, as will be hereafter shewn. 

V. The vowels are to have the powers which they enjoy in most languages except English, and especially 
in Italian ; and, as in Latin, quantity is not to be represented by a difference in the letter, the long and short 
vowel being held to be one and the same letter, the former being distinguished by the acute accent in 
whatever part of the word it may occur, as a, a, i, i, u, u. 

It is in tliis respect that Dr. Gilchrist's system differs radically from that of Sir William Jones, and 
violates the rule with which we set out, as well as the preceding, in representing one vowel, varying only in 
the accident of quantity, by two or more, as the short a by u, the long by a, the short i by i, the long 
by ee, the short M by a new character, which he proposed to be w, and the long it by oo. There is no doubt 
that these equivalents represent to an English eye and ear the sounds of the original vowels more readily than 
the unaccented a or the accented i and u ; but they do not represent the original letters, and destroy all 
alphabetical identity. A vowel is the same letter, whether it be long or short, and in most languages, except 
our own, is so written. To represent the long vowel by one symbol and the short by another is to create a 
distinction where none exists, and to disjoin words which are closely connected. To change the short a to u, 
and leave a to represent the long, divides words which are essentially identical, and places one at the head 
and the other at the tail of a dictionary. Dabee, for instance, and dubea, are radically the same word : the 


latter occurs in Sir Henry Elliot's Supplement at an interval of forty pages from the former ; in the present 
compilation, as Ddbi and Dabia, they come as they should do together. However accommodating, therefore, 
to national peculiarities, the Gilchrist vowel system will never be universally adopted ; and accordingly it 
does not form an element in any of the schemes proposed for the Missionary alphabet. We shall have 
further occasion to advert to this part of the subject. 

VI. Consonants of the same elementary sound, modified only by pronunciation, but expressed by different 
symbols, are to be expressed by one and the same symbol, distinguishing it as the equivalent of the original 
sign by dots underneath the letter, multiplying them according to the multiplied variety of the original 

The multiplied modifications of sounds may be expressed by separate signs in the same alphabet, or they 
may occur in different alphabets with their respective representations. Thus we have five or six nasals in the 
Hindu alphabets, and five modifications of z in the Semitic alphabets, each of which it is necessary to 
represent separately, both with regard to the appropriation of the word to the language to which it belongs, and 
to discriminate between words of very different significations, although very nearly similar forms. Thus, in 
Arabic, kul means " all ;" in Karnata, kul is a payer of government revenue: they are not the same word, how- 
ever, even in form : the final / of the Karnata word being peculiar to its alphabet in figure, and slightly, perhaps, 
in pronunciation : it is therefore distinguished from the ordinary I which the same alphabet also possesses by a 
dot underneath. Put, in Hindi, is " a leaf;" Pat, in Marathi, is " a plank :" the difference is in the t, which, 
in the latter, is the cerebral, in the former, the dental letter: the cerebral then is to be distinguished by the 
dot. Tar, Persian, is "a wire ;" Tar, Hindi, " a palm-tree :" the hard r indicated by the dot marks an 
essential difference. In the mouth of a native there is no doubt a different enunication of these apparently 
identical words, but the distinction is not easily caught by the European ear ; and as the general 
articulation is the same, it does not require to be represented by any other than a modified symbol. In 
proportion as these varieties increase, the diacritical dots may be multiplied to any required extent without 
becoming obtrusive or uncouth, as would be the case with accents ; n, for instance, is typographically less 
offensive than n. In some cases the marks may be dispensed with, as in that of the nasals, the value of which 
is commonly determined by the following letter, and n before k or g would be necessarily the guttural nasal, 
and n before ch and.;' the palatal letter ; and, except for the sake of systematic consistency, would not need 
to be distinguished as n, 11. It has been proposed in the scheme for the Missionary alphabet to represent 
peculiar consonantal symbols by italics, or the cerebrals of the Nagari alphabet for instance, t, d, by t, d ; but, 
besides that the presence of an oblique italic letter amongst the upright broad-faced Roman letters were 
offensive to the eye, the contrivaiice would be able to represent only a single modification. It could not, in 
the case of t be extended to the Arabic to Qe), and it could not be possible to repeat an italic z three times over to 
represent the Semitic letter 20 (k), although that may be easily typographed as s. The argument in favour of 
the italic letter is, that all founts are already provided with them, and not with dotted letters : the latter can, 
however, be provided with equal facih'ty, if required. 

VII. The aspirates of the original letters must be represented in European alphabets by a double 
letter, or the proper equivalents with the addition of h, as kh, gh, &c., considering the composite as representing 
a single sound. 

We have here some slight difficulty as regards the English alphabet in the forms and powers of ch, t/i, 
sh : these, to be consistent, should be treated as aspirates, which they are not ; and they therefore constitute 
exceptions to the rule, that a single consonant with h added is to be regarded as a single aspirated letter. In 
order to avoid the dilemma, Sir William Jones proposed to distinguish the aspirates by an apostrophe, 
separating the aspiration above, as in aswatfha ; Dr. Gilchrist, by a comma below, as b,h, k,h, &c. ; but these 
distinctions are inconvenient and scarcely necessary. There can be no misconception as to ch and sh, 
which in English and in Russian, as well as in the Indian alphabets, are simple sounds. Th with the sound 
of theta is not of frequent occurrence, and, if it be thought expedient, may be distinguished by a diacritical 
mark as a line underneath it, th, or even the Greek letter might be borrowed, as it would harmonise well 
enough with the Latin characters. So, if it be considered indispensable that a single symbol should be always 
employed for a single unaspirated sound, the Russian ch (H) and sh (m) might be pressed into the service. 

VII. When it is necessary, as it is in the monosyllabic languages, and in some of those of barbarous 
nations, to express intonations, these may be designated by conventional marks or figures placed above or 



below the letters, as has been proposed in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. IV. No. 2, by 
the Hon. C. W. Bradley, late Consul at Ainoy ; but we have no concern with these at present in the languages 
of the people subject to the government of British India. 

In conformity to the tenor of the rules thus laid down, I have adopted for the representation of the 
Oriental words that occur in the subsequent pages the system of equivalents described in tho following Table, in 
which it will be observed that the characters of the English alphabet have been enabled to represent letters, in 
nine alphabets of thirteen Indian languages, without the introduction of a single new character. I may not be 
found invariably to have adhered to the scheme as it appears in the Table, partly from my not having definitively 
determined all the equivalents when the compilation was commenced, partly from occasional inattention or 
"forgetfulness, and partly for special considerations strongly recommending a departure from uniformity. 
These deviations are, however, only occasional, and the Table may be accepted as embodying the plan which 
I have conclusively adopted, and which I think will be found to provide for the representation of all the 
alphabetical- symbols hitherto known in India. The progress of events may bring other alphabets within the 
range of similar representation, and to them the principles of the scheme will admit, it may be expected, of 
its adaptation. 











A a 





q. . . 

e> " . 

es ^ . 

(, . . 


A a 

\ T 

V T . 

a^l [ 

'srt 1 . 

qi 1 

C3 - . 

es -a . 

g!, rr. 


A a 


Ai ai 


* * . 

^t ^ . 

d 1 . 

-? ^ . 


rvN ^ 
t-, ^ ' 

51O ^^, _ o> 
Co OOJ 6 

6)fl<5> 6)6) 

^5N **. 

. *^ 


Au au 

J J 

=s * 

nl I. 

C T 

J) G ^ 


" ^> 

6^ (3 6TT 

6iO 6)<3 

B b 

> . 





LJ . . . 


Bh bh 


H . - . 

<M. . . 


q 1 . . 

Q.. . . 

V '. '. '. 

^5 ... 


Ch eh 


^ . . . 

H . . . 

F . . . 

o . . . 

. . . 

a^ . . . 

(3- ... 


Chh chh 






ap . 


D d 


X*. . . i 


Tf . . . 


6 . . . 

T^ * * 

& . . . 



Dh dh 

. . 


H ' 






D d 

5 ... 

3 ' 

s . . . 



f ... 



Dh dh 

v . . 

T . . . 

El. . ' 

& . . 

$ ' 


E e 


S? * 

JT "S 

aw "^ 

4 r . 

-9 G 

^ "^ . 

N. ^1 

6T . 

t^S) 6) 

E e 

oi " . 

^ ? 

6J (o . 

F f 

t__s j 

G g 

i_f f 

T . . . 

^l . 



x ... 

x ... 

e. . . . 


Gh gh 

4' ... 

1J ... 

H . . . 

*! . . . 

q. . . 

$0 . . 

Q . . 


Gh gh 

1 * 


H h 

f 3. 

f . . . 

\f . . . 

f . . . 


&>. . . 

O O 

H h 

&> 5 

H h 







I i 

/ * 

i f ' 

tf 1. 

t f. 

Q ' . 

a A . 

a D . 

g) 1. 

69 1 

( i 


*-" ** 

f t. 

^ n. 

Si 1 . 

& 6 . 

& a e. 

fT- . 

o6io n 

J J 

t =? 

w . . . 

/ . . . 

r . . . 

e . . . 

& . . . 

&* ... 


Jh jh 

*R. . . . 

A . 

^ ... 

5 ... 

OCD . . 

&P . . 


K k 

^ < 

SK . . . 

Vt . . 

^ . 

Q. . . 

S' . . . 

8 . . . 

a ... 


K k 















Kh kh 

, ^ 

* . 

vt. . . 

. . . 

SI. . . 


so. . . 




L 1 

J 5 

& . . . 

<H . . . 

?f . . . 

R. . . 


e> . . . 

60 ... 


L 1 

35 ... 

$ . . . 

sr . . . 

err . . 


L i 

ip. . . 





51 ... 



I n 



C * * 


N n 




ff. . . 

fO . . . 

o_. . . 

P3. . . 





N n 

O O 

N n 

US . . . 

Ul . 


ei . . . 

3 ... 

o . . . 

6OTT . . 


N n 

<3OT. . . 

N n 

& , . . 

vg . . . 

B. . '. 

25 ... 

23 ... 

(6T) . . 



N n 

T . . . 

I* ... 




ni_ . . 


6 o 

j\ _, 

*ft "* . 

M. "t 

^s rt 


2o ^ 

2o ^9 

^ G-rr 

B 6>-0 

6 6 


cO ^O^ 

6? <S-rr 

P p 

(_, j 

TJ . . . 

"H . . 

t . . . 

a. . . 

S3 ... 

> . . . 

u . . . 

O \ 

Ph ph 


Hi -.. 


^ . . . 

cr. . . 

^> . . . 

qJ. . . 


R r 


3 , 

7T . . . 

o . 

^ O' 

, i 



R r 


^ . 


as. . . 


nj. . . 

a 3 

R r 

Ri ri 

^ < 


Q>. . . 

eooD ^ 

d 30 e) 

O o' 

Ri ri 

^ fc . 

1M <. 

C^ . . 

eoxj-" g- 

jO^9 ^ 

^ CB- 

S s 

(j * 



T . . . 

a. . . 

^> . . . 

<$ . . . 

a- ... 


S s 

51 . 

ft 1 

"t . . . 

o ... 




S s 

^ ^ 


S 9 


t * J } 


Sh sh 



Tl . . . 

q . . 

1 ... 

a. . . 

<& . . . 

* . . . 


T t 

O "J 

W . . . 

<t . . . 

v . . . 

o . . . 



B, . . . 


Th th 











* * * 


T t 

z . . , 


t . . . 

* . . . 

W . . . 

W . . . 

1_ . . . 


Th th 


s ... 

i . . . 

* ... 

o- . 

Jf . . . 


T t 

1, Is 

U u 

J J 

T ^ . 


^ -, 

Q. . . 

d o 

tru o 

6)_ Jft\ 

a 3 = 

U u 


^ . . . 

% ^ 

^. . . 

C3* ^~ 

tA^) ^^ 

9 STT JftJT 


V v ) 
W w j 


w. . . 

H. - - 

56 . . . 

S. . . 

QJ . . . 


X ksh 

55J . . . 

^ . . . 

. . . 


CSX . 

Y v 


Q. . . 

o]5b & 


LLJ ... 


i y 



Z / 


Zh zh 


Z z 

i . . 

z ? 

u > 

Z z 

b fe. 









A a represents the short A of the Indian alphabets ; it is found in English plentifully as an initial, as in 
" adore, amend, above." It occurs also as a medial in " woman," and as initial and final in "America," in all which 
it has the dull sound of the common English u in "bud, but." It is the equivalent proposed by Sir William 
Jones, although he allows its alternating with E, a licence incompatible with our Rule I. The A has had the 
concurrence of Sir Charles Trevelyan, of the Calcutta Missionaries, Mr. Shakespear, Mr. Crow, and has 
been most usually adopted in the Transactions and Journals of the several Asiatic Societies. The proposed 
Missionary alphabet suggests for the short vowel oe, e, or o ; but these are not necessary, and would be 
inconsistent with Rule I. The same objection applies to Dr. Gilchrist's representation of a short, by u, 
however more congenial that may be to the practice of our own language, and although the a as repre- 
senting the short vowel, constitutes a stumbling block in the way of English articulation, which, it must be 
admitted, it is almost impossible to overcome. It is very difficult, almost impossible, to induce an English 
reader to pronounce Man as Mun, Pan as Pun, Sab, Sub, Thag, Thug, and the like ; but the difficulty may be 
surmounted with a little perseverance, and the spelling must be adhered to if consistency is to be observed. In 
conformity, however, to the prevailing prejudice, I have frequently inserted, in leading Hindustani words 
especially, the Gilchrist reading, as in Man, Mun, Thai, Thul, as parallel with the more correct form. Since, 
in the Index the letter U, either as an initial or medial, occurs twice over, the words that first come being 
identical with those having an initial or medial A, those that succeed having the proper vowel or Italian U, 
they are separated by a short line, thus, Bhuda, Bhudahur, equivalent to Bhada, Bhadahar, and the like, 
precede and are distinct from Bhu, Bhuband , and Bubool, Buboor, precede and are distinct from Bu, Bud, 
Bubu, and the like. Leading words commencing with Uns A, or as the vowel proper, are also separately classed. 

The short A of the other Indian alphabets is pronounced commonly in Bengali as O, but it is not so 
written, the Bengali being essentially the same as the Nagari alphabet, and the value thus given to the vowel 
is merely provincial, and, in some degree, a vulgarism. I have not, therefore, altered the spelling, as the 
object of all the above equivalents is not the sound but the symbol, the letter as it stands in its own alphabet, 
and not as it may happen to be enunciated. 

A a is our letter in " far, car," expanded sometimes, in the pronunciation of Arabic and Persian words into 
a broader sound, as in " ball, fall, water." It is admitted by all the systems as representing the long vowel. In 
the table it is distinguished, after Sir William Jones, by the acute accent Dr. Gilchrist uses it unaccented, 
as he does not need to distinguish it from the short A ; Mr. Shakespear marks it by the prosodial mark, a 
line above the letter ; Mr. Crow would designate it by a similar line underneath ; but there does not seem to 
be any reasonable objection to the accent. 

The Arabic letter c has always constituted a difficulty, owing not only to its peculiar articulation, but to 
its combining with the different vowel-sounds of a, i and u. Hence Meninski proposed to retain it unaltered, in 
which he has been followed by Richardson, Sir Charles Wilkins, and Mr. Johnson, and, in an abbreviated form, 
by Mr. Shakespear. SirWilliam Jones adopted this modification in his Grammar, but proposed in his Memoir to 
distinguish it by a circumflex, as a, i, u, which plan has been here adopted ; the appearance of the character itself 
in the midst of English letters being anomalous, and, to persons not acquainted with the Arabic alphabet, 
unintelligible, as for Duilat, Ducdt, or for Ahd, c.ahd, for Rab&, Rabc., for Khilat, Khilat : Sir Charles 
Trevelyan agrees with Dr. Gilchrist in expressing it by a dot under the vowels . Mr. Crow would employ 
two dots ; but as the letter is a peculiar one, it is perhaps best distinguished by a peculiar diacritical mark 
of its own. Its representation by 'h in the proposed Missionary alphabet would be wholly inadequate to 
its verification, as in Amlah, tlm, t)mr, and the like. 

The diphthong Ai occurs in the word " aisle." For Au we have only, in English, the representative sound of 
OM, as in " hour," but the compound is a + u, not o + u ; and the above therefore follows Sir William 
Jones's plan, which is generally concurred in. Dr. Gilchrist proposed to express them by ue and uo, but few 
even of his disciples have followed him. Mr. Elliot generally writes them ei and ou, as in Beis for Bais, 
Gour for Gaur. 

B is uniformly rendered, as in " beat, bad." The aspirate Eh, as Gilchrist observes, may be represented in 
" abhor" dropping the initial ; but it may be doubted if we have any exact equivalents in English for these 

PREFACE. xiii 

aspirated letters other than by the addition of the h, which, with the unaspirated letter, is to be regarded, as it 
is in the Oriental alphabets, a simple sound. 

The scantiness of the Tamil alphabet, comprising but eighteen consonants, has compelled the 
assignment of multiplied powers to certain of the letters, to enable them to express the Sanskrit words with 
which the language is copiously infused : hence the equivalent of B u is also that of Bh, and is more 
especially the representative of P and Ph : the differences of value depend, in this case and in the analogous 
instances of K and T, upon the position of the letter. As an initial, the u represents P, and so it does when 
double in the middle of the word ; but when single as a medial it represents either B or Bh. Thus, Mahdbharata 
is written in Tamil letters Makaparata, but it is pronounced by native scholars correctly according to its 
Nagari valuation. Some difficulty occasionally occurs with regard to the reduplication of these letters as 
medials. According to Beschi, the reduplication has only the effect of preserving for the letter its proper 
sound, as pagaippan is nothing more than pagaipun. Rhenius, however, says that both are to be pronounced 
hard, as in iruppu, not as Beschi would make it, merely irupu. The preservation or rejection of the duplicate 
can only be determined by practice, the only essential point being the retainment of what may be considered 
the especial value of P, K, and T, as a medial when repeated. 

C, except in the combination Ch, does not occur in the above scheme. Sir William Jones employed it 
to represent the K of the Nagari alphabet, retaining the K for the harsher Arabic guttural ; but in that case 
we employ two letters to represent but one, for the Arabic is only a modification of the guttural, not a distinct 
power. C, in English also, is an inconsistent letter, having, in fact, no power of its own but that of K before 
a and o, and of S before e and i: its use is therefore apt to mislead. It took me some time to read Sir 
William Jones's Cocila, not as Kosila, but Kokila, as it should be : so in a word in common use, Circar, we 
have one letter for two sounds, and two sounds for one letter, a breach of all system. C is therefore 
altogether discarded, except in the form of Ch, which, although written with two letters, is as much a simple 
sound in English as it is in Sanskrit Mr. Crow proposes to represent it by C, but all other English orientalists 
retain the combination. The sound is peculiar in some degree to English and Russian, although the Italians 
have it in ce and do ; and its representation as tch or tsch in French and German is no doubt somewhat 
uncouth. For this reason, as well as to distinguish it from the guttural c/i, as in macht, nicht, the German 
orientalists have latterly represented it by K with an asterisk, as K', and in the proposed Missionary alphabet 
the italic K is suggested. To this I have already objected, as employing one letter to represent two different 
letters, and therefore a violation of an important principle. There seems no reason for the non-adoption of 
the English form : in either case the equivalent is conventional : K' or K, with the sound of Ch, is quite as much 
an innovation as would be the graft of Ch itself on the German alphabet The power it possesses must be 
explained and agreed upon in either case equally, and its being confounded with the guttural ch might be 
obviated by a diacritical point or ch. If, however, a single symbol that could not be mistaken for any thing 
else were thought indispensable, it would be preferable to borrow the Russian M. For English uses, however, it 
will be far the most convenient to preserve the combination. The aspirate of Ch or Chh is to be considered as 
a single sound. 

Here, again, we have a case of the assignment of more than one power to one symbol in the Tamil 
alphabet, and Ch can only be expressed by & , which has to do duty also for /, for S, and for Sh. It has the 
power of Ch when double, as a medial following certain letters or /_, or when single following t, as in 
kaniyatchi. In Telugu, Ch before certain vowels has the sound of Ts, as / has that of Dz, but these are 
dialectical peculiarities, and do not alter the identity of the letter. 

D and Dh, as dentals, require no comment: they are the same in all systems. But we have 
another D and Dh which are cerebrals, and are pronounced harder than the dentals, the d especially often 
becoming in pronunciation like a rough r, as ghoda is pronounced yhora. The letters, however, are the same. 
We have only to deal with modifications of sound, and these may be distinguished in all the consonants by a 
dot or dots underneath. Sir William Jones distinguished them by accents ; but besides the advantage of con- 
fining the accent to the vowels, the form of the d renders an accent over it, as 'd, typographically inconvenient. 
Dr. Gilchrist's final use of the dot, concurred in by Mr. Shakespear and Sir C. Trevelyan, has been adopted. 

The representation of D in the English alphabet by the same letter in the Oriental alphabets has one 
exception, and we have nothing for it in Tamil, as observed above, but T, which has the power of T, Th, D, 
or Dh, according to its position : it is T as an initial, or as a medial when double ; it is Th or D when medial 
and single. 


E has the power of the vowel in French or Italian rather than in English, but we have it in the word 
" there." In Sanskrit, it is always a long vowel, but in some of the languages of the south of India a more 
prolonged sound is sometimes given to it, and different symbols are employed for it. Sir William Jones and 
Dr. Gilchrist both represent it by one symbol, E: the former accents it, as in Veda ; but I have thought it 
better to retain the accent for the more prolonged sound. The proposed Missionary alphabet suggests the 
italic E for the long letter. 

F occurs with the same power in the Semitic alphabets. In the Indian dialects it has no representative, 
but the aspirated P or Ph takes its place, as Faisala, Phaisala. 

G is the English letter in " go, gun," Gh in " ghost." In the two leading systems Gh is written (fli and g,h, 
but Mr. Shakespear and ' Sir Charles Trevelyan are satisfied with gh. The harsh Arabic guttural is a mere 
modification of the same sound, and is therefore indicated by Gh. Jones and Gilchrist rendered it simply by 
yk. Shakespear underlines it qh. 

For reasons already urged the inconsistency of representing two different symbols by one, although in 
this case sanctioned by the practice of our own alphabet I must object to the use of G with the power of J, as 
in " gin, general," as adopted by the German orientalists in the form of G', or as in the proposed Missionary 
alphabet in that of the italic letter G. 

H occurs in various modifications in the Oriental alphabets, but they are mere modifications of the simple 
breathing, and may therefore be easily discriminated by dots : the two that are derived from the Arabic 
alphabet are not very nicely distinguished in Indian pronunciation. One may be something harsher than the 
other, and so far agrees with the strong Sanskrit aspirate, whilst the softer breathing of the Nagari alphabet, 
the Visarga, or sign of the nominative case, may be regarded as peculiar. Sir William Jones distinguishes the 
harsher forms by an accent, as AKmed. Gilchrist and Shakespear distinguish it by a dot underneath it. I 
have transferred the dot to the softer Arabic aspirate, as otherwise it would have been applied to two letters 
instead of one, which would be typographically less convenient I am afraid, however, I have not always 
observed or rightly applied the diacritical mark, having for some time hesitated as to its preferable 
application. The representation of the unmodified flatus by an apostrophe, in the proposed Missionary alphabet, 
as vehement for "vehement," is too uncongenial to European habits to be readily concurred in. 

I short is as familiar to English as to the Continental languages, as in " kin, king." / long is less 
familiar, but we have it in " police, pique, ravine." The accent is according to Sir William Jones. Gilchrist, 
as observed above, represents it by ee, which is objectionable on principle. 

/in English, as in "just, join," corresponds exactly with the same letter in the Oriental alphabets. Foreign 
alphabets have it not, and, as has been observed, German writers propose to render it by G' or by the italic G ; 
but this has been already objected to, as using one letter to represent two sounds ; and, as of Ch, it may be 
said there seems no good reason why so convenient a symbol should not be borrowed from the English 
alphabet The objection as relates to German is its present power in that language of Y ; but as G' for J is 
equally strange to that alphabet, there is no ground for preferring one conventional sign to another, especially 
when the one is a fact as regards English, the other a fiction as regards both English and German. The 
aspirate Jh will follow the general analogy. 

K is generally employed with its simple guttural power, as in "keep, king." The strong choking guttural 
of the Arabic alphabet is only a modified sound, which may be expressed by a dot underneath, as K. Sir William 
Jones, as above stated, reserved the K for the Arabic letter, and employed C for the simpler guttural. Gilchrist 
employed for the former, Q, without its usual qualification Qu, as in Qazi, in which he is followed by Sir 
C. Trevelyan. Shakespear marks it, as here proposed, by a dot underneath, which seems the simplest and 
most consistent mode of distinguishing it. To the use of K' or the italic K as the representative of Ch, I have 
already objected. The aspirate Kh is analogous to the preceding aspirates, and is to be regarded as a simple 
sound. There is also a minor aspiration as a final in Hindustani, arising from the omission of the following 
short vowel in the original, as Bhvkh for Bhukha. This may be distinguished by a dot under the h, as h Bhukh; 
but it is not perhaps material. Mr. Shakespear distinguishes it by a double dotunder the h, as kh. 

L, as in " Lord," needs no remark ; but there are two other modifications of this semivowel which require 
to be distinguished. One of them, the L of the Vedas, is used in Marathi, and in several of the languages 
of the south, being a rather harsher sound : this I have denoted as L. The other is peculiar to Tamil. 
Beschi says it is an L " quod crassiori sono reflexa omnino ad interiorem palati partem lingua pronunciatur. 
Anderson calls it a cerebral r when medial, a cerebral I when final. Rhenius directs it to be pronounced 


as Ir ; but the late Mr. Ellis represented it by eh, and he is followed by Mr. Clarke. As, however, 
there is sufficient authority for its being a modification of L, I have preferred adhering to that letter, 
marking it by two dots, as I. The enunciation is singularly obscure, and cannot be precisely represented 
by any written characters. 

M, as in " mouth, mother," is the same labial in the Oriental languages as in English. In Hindustani it 
is often represented before a labial by n, as in Bambu, sometimes written Banbu. 

N offers a greater variety of symbols. There are four in the Nagari alphabet, all which exist in English, 
although not distinguished by separate letters, the distinction not being in the letter itself so much as in the 
influence exercised upon it by the letter that follows it, as a guttural, palatal, cerebral, or dental, as in the 
words " sink, change, ant, end," as I have shewn in my Sanskrit Grammar, p. 5. Hence it is, perhaps, 
scarcely necessary to provide the symbols severally with diacritical points, but they are added for the sake 
of consistency, as n, n, n, n. There is another n which is peculiar to the Tamil alphabet, although little 
different from the dental nasal in sound : this I have marked as n. Again, in Hindustani, and still more in 
Guzerathi and Marathi, there is a nasal, usually a final, though sometimes a medial, which is scarcely sounded, 
although it gives, a sort of nasality to a preceding vowel, like the in the French bon, soins: this it is proposed 
to denote by a small circle below the letter . These marks, however, have not been very rigorously retained 
in the following pages. 

0, like E, is in Sanskrit always long, but in the southern dialects there is a still more prolated quantity 
of it, which has been therefore marked by the accent Perhaps it were more correct to treat the former 
letter as a short e or short o; but they are scarcely as short as our e and o in " bed " or "gone." They hold 
more of a middle place, and are as often as not of Sanskrit derivation. 

P requires no remark : it is the English letter in " parent, pair." Ph is to be treated as a simple aspirate, 
as in " up-hill," not as an F, although, as there is no equivalent for it in the Indian languages, Ph is always 
used for such Arabic words as begin with F, as Fakir, Phakir The use of the Tamil P (u) to 
represent ph as well as I and bh has already been pointed out. 

Q is discarded from our system. Its employment for the Arabic K, as proposed by Dr. Gilchrist, has 
been noticed. 

R offers various modifications. The usual semivowel has the sound of the letter in our "round, ruin." 
We have next a rougher r, and its aspirate rh, which, in Hindustani, alternate with the cerebral letters d, dh. 
Gilchrist, considering it as a nominal deviation from d, did not think it necessary to assign it a separate 
symbol ; but Mr. Shakespear discriminates it as here done, by a dot underneath. The alphabets of the south, 
Telugu, Karmita, and Tamil, have a second and harsher r, which is similarly distinguished as r. As, however, 
it is not, like the Hindustani letter, an alternation of d; and as it offers some peculiar changes, it would have 
been better to have given it its peculiar mark, and written it with two dots, or r. In that case the third 
r of the Malavalam alphabet should be distinguished by three dots, not by two, as has been done in the 
following pages. The r of the Tamil and the r of the Malayalam are also, in some respects, identical, as, 
when doubled, they have the power of a double tt , thus Arri becomes Atti, in which form it appears in 
the Glossary, this being one of the cases in which a departure from systematic uniformity could scarcely be 

In connexion with 72 we have further to provide for the vowel-sounds of Sanskrit ri and ri, modified in 
the southern dialects as ru and ru. A dot under the r, as proposed by Dr. Gilchrist, is a sufficient 
distinction, ri, ri, ru, ru. 

The modifications of the sibilant, as occurring in the same, or in different alphabets, require diacritical 
designations. The simple sibilant of the European and Indian alphabets, whether of Arabic or Sanskrit 
origin, is expressed by S, as in " sun, sound." The palatal S of the Nagari alphabet has no exact equivalent 
in English, but may be indicated by s, as by Shakespear : it is the s of Sir William Jones. In the dialects 
it is commonly pronounced, in words of Sanskrit origin, as sh somewhat softened, and it is so represented 
by Molesworth, Stevenson, Reeve, and others. The main objection to this is its being confounded with the 
more genuine representation of sh in the Sanskrit cerebral, and in our " shore, shun ;" and it is not exactly sh, 
although a thickened sound of the s. However, in conformity to a practice so general, I have given, in 
many instances of leading words, both forms, as s and sh. The Arabic alphabet has another form of *, 
that called sad or swdd, which, in India at least, is a simple sibilant, although among the Arabs it may have 
a modified sound; by Erpenius it is called Dad, and by De Sacy, Shad, making it a dental, but this is 


not observed in India : to distinguish it from the Persian sin and Sanskrit s and s, two dots are subjoined, 
as *. A third modification of S, agreeably to Indian pronunciation, occurs in what is more properly 
the English lisping sound of th, as " thin, then ;" so that thulth becomes in India undistinguishable 
from suls. In order to denote the difference it is written in the scheme with three dots below, as s. In 
the Niskh alphabet it is termed thai muthalatha, or the trebly doted th, the dots being above, as i^>. 
The sh of the Nagari alphabet finds aji exact representation in the English sh, which is not to be considered 
as an aspirate. It is a continental difficulty; but there seems no great reason why it should not be 
borrowed from the English alphabet, unless the Russian form be preferred, which has the advantage of being 
a single symbol. 

T, the simple dental, has the same power in both families of languages as in English " tune, time." It 
occurs also as the cerebral letter in the English " ten, trumpet," and the Italian tutto. Its representation of d 
in Tamil has been explained above. In some of the dialects of the west and south, the dental Tis pronounced 
almost like the English th in " thin ;" but this is provincial, and the alphabetical character is merely T. Th and 
Th, dental or cerebral, are to be regarded as simple aspirates, and never as the English Th in " think." If ever 
necessary to represent this sound, it might be done by placing the dot under h, as Th, or by the use of the 
Greek Theta. The Arabic to (L) has, in that language, its peculiar articulation, but it is still only a modified 
T, and in India no difference is made. It is sufficient to distinguish it by a double dot as T, as is done by 
Mr. Shakespear. 

Although, as a principle, the representation of pronunciation is not attempted in the present scheme, yet 
occasional departure from the rule is not always to be avoided, as has been instanced in the case of the double 
r of the Tamil and Malayalam becoming double tt. So, in the latter language, the cerebral t, although 
correctly written, is with a singular perversity, so constantly pronounced as a cerebral d, and that in words 
of constant recurrence, that to have adhered to the proper form would have tended to produce greater 
perplexity than a breach of the rule ; thus kurli, and its derivatives kudian, &c., are properly written kuti, 
and nud is written nat ; but they would not be recognisable under the correct spelling, and in these cases 
d has been substituted for t. 

The vowels U and U have the Italian sounds proposed by Sir William Jones, and concurred in by Sir 
Charles Trevelyan, Mr. Shakespear, and the majority of authorities : we have the sounds as well as symbols in 
" full" and "rule." Shakespear marks the long vowel by the prosodial mark u ; Mr. Crow by the same under the 
letter u. Dr. Gilchrist adopts oo for the long u, and suggested a new combination, m, for the short. His 
disciples, however, have abandoned this form, and are content to write both the vowels in the same manner, 
as in the English words, " foot, fool." The proposed Missionary alphabet distinguishes the long vowel by the 
italic letter u 

V has the same sound in Sanskrit as in English ; but in Bengali and Uriya it is always changed to B, in 
symbol as well as in sound ; as buri for vdri, barsha for varsha. The same change is not unfrequent in Hindi, 
as baras for varsha, sambat for samvat, whilst, in Guzarathi, if we may trust the Dictionary, there is a curious 
propensity to reverse this arrangement, and write v for b, as vighu for bighd, vimo for blmd. In all the 
dialects, also, there is a perpetual tendency to approximate the sound of v to that of w, or to substitute the 
latter altogether. Even in Tamil, in which the pure pronunciation of v is preserved according to 
Anderson and Rhenius, the change is not uncommon, and vdram is most frequently written wdram. 
According to Mirza Ibrahim, the wau of Persian should be pronounced van, yet in Hindustani words derived 
from Arabic and Persian it is quite as often w as v, as wakil, vakil, wazir, vazir. In Marathi, according to 
Stevenson, we have both sounds, but for the same letter, ^, the one exactly w, the other more like v, especially 
when before i, i, and e, and combined with ri or r. In Malayalam, Spring says it is v, and only w in 
composition, as Swarga. Peel and Bailey make it w ; but the fact is that which is intimated by Mr. Clarkson, 
in his Guzarathi Grammar, the uneducated approximate the sound to w, the educated to v. The use of w for 
v is, in fact, a sort of Indian Cockneyism, but as it is very prevalent, I have admitted the w to be the 
representative in various words of the Sanskrit v. As a final letter, v in the dialects often assumes the power 
of u, as in Guz. pav is pronounced pan. 

It has been sometimes the practice to represent the Sanskrit ksh by the letter x, and there is no great 
objection to the equivalent ; but ksh is an acknowedged compound of k and sh, and its representation, 
therefore, by a single letter would be unsystematic, neither is it necessary ; and I have therefore, in the 
Glossary, always retained the compound form. 


xv 11 

The semivowel finds unequivocal representatives in both classes of alphabets, as in " yoke, young." In 
Bengali, when uncompounded, its power is that of j, a curious contrast to the German, which gives toj the 
power of y. The proposed Missionary alphabet retains y. 

It is quite a characteristic distinction between the Sanskritic and Semitic dialects of India, that the former 
are utterly destitute of the symbol and the sound of Z, whilst in the latter we have no fewer than five 
modifications. In the original Arabic these letters have individual powers, but with the exception of zh, 
the sound which were best represented by the French _;' in "jour," no difference of pronunciation is 
made in India. As it is, nevertheless, necessary to preserve the distinctions of the form, for the sake of 
identifying the Roman with the Arabic orthography, this is effected by the same method that is followed 
in the case of other multiplied modifications by the number of dots, and the several symbols occur, as z, z, z,z ; 
zh requires no mark, but it is to be regarded as representing a single letter. 

By these simple arrangements, then, which do not pretend to the merit of originality, but are derived from 
the practice of those Orientalists who have devoted the most careful consideration to the subject, the 
various characters of nine alphabets current in India, amounting to sixty-four, have been, without any 
difficulty, represented by the twenty-four letters of the English or Roman alphabet It is no part of the 
present inquiry to extend the application of the scheme more widely, but the principle could no doubt 
admit of its extension to all the modifications of those sounds which the similar conformation of the organs 
of speech in all the races of man establishes in all spoken and written languages. There may be occasional 
novelties, but the greater portion of articulate sounds must be the same in all languages, and their modifications 
do not change their identity. The Tamil / or Ir is still an /, and the Arabic kdf is a k ; and they may, 
therefore be expressed by those letters, indicating their modified enunciation and use by diacritical signs. Of 
course, for the purpose of expressing such signs, special characters must be added to the types now employed 
in English alone ; but the use once established, there would be no more difficulty in furnishing the Roman 
type intended for printing any foreign tongue, than the're is now in equipping a fount with itah'c letters 
and the marks of punctuation. 

This supposes a systematic plan for the representation of foreign tongues and Roman letters, but 
without insisting upon a very rigorous observance of the laws of such a system, it is obvious that it 
is very possible to introduce a scheme of equivalents which will advantageously displace the arbitrary, 
unphilosophical, and conflicting modes of writing Oriental terms, by which most publications regarding British 
India have hitherto been disfigured. 

Any representation of the words of a language by other than its own characters will, however, be 
more or less unsatisfactory, and will fail to inspire implicit reliance, unless checked by a comparison 
with the original letters. I have therefore endeavoured to ascertain the original forms of the words in 
their respective characters, and place them in contiguity with their English representatives. As the 
Oriental characters are not given in the official documents, their verification has been effected only by 
a laborious search through Dictionaries and original authorities. In a very few cases I have been unable 
to verify the original spelling, and in that case, if the authority was questionable, have omitted the word : 
when, however, there was reason to believe it genuine, I have inserted the term with a mark of 
interrogation, as " Mao-Mawasa (?) H." In some cases, the doubt has extended to the language, as in the 
case of " Hari, Haria," where the interrogation takes the place of the initial representing the language. In 
the case of the slang of the Thags, the words are taken from Colonel Sleeman's Vocabularies, which 
do not contain the native characters, and rest entirely upon his authority, the English spelling which, in 
his lists, follows the system of Dr. Gilchrist, having been adapted to that used in the Glossary. The 
names of the servile tribes, as given in the various public reports on the subject, are also unaccompanied 
by native characters ; and, in general, sad havoc has been made with their orthography. In some cases 
they have been traced to their originals, and the names of others have been verified, by which, also, a 
source of much misapprehension, occasioned by looseness of language, has been corrected ; as where it is 
said, in the Bengal Reports, that the slaves are termed kaits, kumars, chasas, kaibartts, and the like. 
They are no such thing : these are the names of castes who, for the greater part, are free and independent, 
but who furnish domestic or prandial slaves, their children being sometimes sold to slavery, or they 
become bond slaves themselves. There are, no doubt, slaves of these castes, but not by virtue of the caste, 
which is not necessarily servile. 

xviii PREFACE. 

The original alphabets amount to nine, the Arabic or Niskh character being applicable to Arabic, 
Persian, and Hindustani, and the Devanagari to Sanskrit, Hindi, and Marathi ; the others have 
their respective individual alphabets. The preparation of so many unusual characters has been a matter 
of much cost, time, and trouble ; but it is due to Mr. Watts, the printer of the Glossary, to acknowledge 
the invariable readiness with which he has supplied the requisite founts, constituting, with other Oriental 
types in his possession, a richness of Oriental typography which no other press in this country can boast, 
and wliich is rivalled only by the Imperial Press of Vienna. 

Composition in such diversified and uncommon characters has unavoidably led to some inaccuracies, to 
the correction of which I have not been myself always sufficiently attentive. My friend, Professor Johnson, 
has supplied me with some errata, chiefly in Arabic and Persian, and it is probable that other Oriental scholars 
will discover more. In Tamil I have had the benefit, for the most part, of the revision of Mr. Clarke. But 
when all the circumstances are considered, the comparative infrequency of Oriental printing in this country, 
and the impossibility of obtaining qualified assistance in the correction of the press, it will not be thought, 
perhaps, that the errors are very serious, or exceed a limit that might reasonably be expected. 

Some mistakes will, no doubt, be observable, which may be ascribed to an imperfect knowledge of the 
several languages from which the tenns are taken, amounting to thirteen Sanskrit, Hindi, Bengali, Uriya, 
Marathi, Guzarathi, Tamil, Telugu, Karnata, Malayalam, Arabic, Persian, and Hindustani, besides a few 
from other dialects. Of course I do not pretend to be conversant with all these tongues. Of some of them 
I may have acquired more or less knowledge, but of the greater number I have little more than the letters 
and the most elementary rudiments, sufficient to enable me to consult a grammar and a dictionary. The 
interpretation of the terms collected, however, it must be remembered, does not usually rest upon my 
responsibility. Their application, and, in some instances, their explanation also, lies with the authors of the 
documents whence they have been extracted ; and there is evidence that the words are not always consistently 
used or accurately defined. In general, however, the sense of the words may be made out from the context, 
and their use is not so much characterised by the want of correctness as by insufficiency of detail and 
absence of precision. Errors of explanation, however, do occur, as in one report, where Be-ddnistayi is 
explained " knowingly," when it implies exactly the reverse : it is possibly, however, a typographical error for 
ba-dunistagi, which would have the meaning of " with knowledge." Difference of interpretation, however, 
may occur, without any mistakes being committed, as the word possibly bears a different sense in different 
places. Ahar, for instance, usually implies a small pond, but in some places it means a continuous 
embankment. Chatwar is explained in one place " the land between the houses of a village and its arable 
land," and in another, " the homestead or ground adjacent to a house." Perhaps this is rather want of 
exactitude than a different meaning. In a recent document, Foras is explained " waste land adjacent to 
cultivated land, and granted td the cultivators of the latter at a quit rent:" this is not wrong; but a 
subsequently printed report on the Foras lands of Bombay shews that it is not sufficiently comprehensive, the 
Foras lands forming an extensive part of the Island of Bombay reclaimed from the sea, which the inhabitants 
were encouraged to bring into cultivation by a low rate of rent These are imperfections wliich the multiplication 
of authentic documents will gradually amend. 

Even variations of spelling are not always to be regarded as originating in error : they may be local, 
arising from dialectic peculiarities, and the inability of one alphabet to express the letters of another. Jamin 
for Zamin, Jam'tnddr, or even Jamlddr, for Zamind&r, are not wrong: they are the necessary forms which the 
Arabic words must take in the Hindi, Bengali, and other Hindu characters, &c. ; Taiilluka necessarily becomes 
Taluk in its Hindu version ; and Mdphi and Manila represent what are originally Mwlafi andMuuumlat. 

In the arrangement of the contents of the Glossary I have thought it advisable to bring compound and 
derivative forms under their general parent, as likely to give a more definite notion of their purport. This 
classification has recommended the occasional introduction of words that may be regarded as not at all technical. 
Ab, " water," for example, is an ordinary Dictionary term, but I have inserted it at the head of its compounds, 
such as Abddr, Abi, Abistunl, which have a special or technical application, the force of which will be better 
appreciated when the meaning of Ab is referred to. I have, however, been chary of this extension, and many 
such general words will not be met with. 

As a consequence of arranging compounds and derivatives under their respective primitives and radicals, 
a strictly alphabetical order has been departed from, and this has imposed the necessity of adding an 



Alphabetical Index. Such an , addition was also indispensable, for another reason, constituting the main 
usefulness of the compilation. The forms under which native words occur in public documents are much 
more frequently wrong than right corrupt and blundering misrepresentations of the original. Yet it is of 
them especially that the uninitiated reader requires to know the signification ; and in order to provide him 
with this assistance, whatever corruptions have been met with have been inserted. There are probably still 
more to be found, for it is impossible to affix limits to carelessness and ignorance ; but most of those which 
are most frequent have been, it is believed, included. In order to avoid repetition, as well as to shew what 
the words ought to be, the corruptions are grouped round the correct form; as, Kabuliyat, corruptly 
Cabooleat, Kabooleat, Cubalyt, Quobooleut, Coobooleal, Kubooleeat, Kaboolet, Cuboolyat ; and the reader 
meeting with either of these has to turn to Kabuliyat only, for its signification ; but of course, without a 
previous knowledge of the correct form, he will be unable to recur to it, and the Glossary would be an 
instrument of which he could only imperfectly avail himself. This difficulty is obviated by the Index, which 
is invariably alphabetical, and in which, it is hoped, will be found whatever term may be desiderated, 
whether correct or corrupt. The references to page and column will not be attended with any material 
embarrassment : that which is made to the line of each column may be less readily effected from the omission 
of the figures which should have been inserted at least in fives or tens in the margin ; but the advantage of 
such addition did not occur to me until far advanced in the work ; a little practice, however, will soon 
render this reference also sufficiently easy, especially as every column contains the same number of lines, or 
forty-five. The preparation of this Index, the work of my own hand alone, has been attended with some 
labour and still greater delay, and has retarded the publication. It is, however, at last completed, and will, 
it is hoped, be found of use to the servants of the Company, and to all who, in England or in India, may 
wish to understand the objects and implements of the civil administration of the latter country. 

Although these preliminary observations have perhaps rather exceeded the limits of an Introduction, it 
will probably be expected that some account should be given of the several languages from which the words 
of the following compilation are derived, especially for the benefit of those by whom the diversity of tongues 
that prevails in the territories of British India may be imperfectly appreciated. This unacquaintance with 
the polyglot nature of the current speech of India is not confined to individuals who have had no opportunity of 
personal observation, but may sometimes be evinced by those from whom more accurate information might be 
anticipated. A distinguished public character, for instance, a member of the late Committee of the Commons 
for the affairs of India, and long known to be conversant with its interests, observed to me, when I had 
occasion to mention Malayalam, that it was a language he had never heard of before ; yet it is an ancient and 
cultivated form of speech current through an extensive and well-known tract of country, and the vernacular 
language of numerous suitors in several of the Judicial Courts and Revenue Collectorates under the Madras 

The languages of British India resolve themselves into two classes, although in somewhat unequal 
proportions ; the speech that has grown up from an admixture of the original languages of the Mohammadan 
conquerors with those of the Hindus, Urdu or Hindustani, constituting one class, the other being formed of 
the different dialects of the Hindus. The former may be considered as perhaps more than equal in extent 
to any single form of the latter, but it is loosely spread, and at considerable intervals, over the surface. It is 
concentrated only at the still subsisting Mohammadan courts, as Delhi, Lucknow, Hyderabad. It is 
elsewhere restricted, in a great measure, to the Mohammadans, by whom, in many parts of India, especially 
in Bengal, it is greatly corrupted. It is very commonly in use among the native officers of our courts, 
especially in communication with their European superiors ; and it is extensively, although not always 
accurately, understood by the commercial and trading classes. It is understood, after a fashion, by the 
Sipahis of the Gangetic provinces, but the agricultural population are little, or not at all, acquainted with it, 
even in Upper India. In the South it is, of course, wholly unknown to them, and is very little understood 
by the other classes. When the College of Fort William was first organised, liberal encouragement was 
held out to native Hindustani scholars to become instructors, and many of the early teachers were men of high 
literary distinction among their countrymen. Several of them, under the guidance of Dr. Gilchrist, composed 
useful books, which were printed, and are still in use. Well-known Grammars and Dictionaries have also been 
compiled by different European scholars, and ample materials, therefore, are provided for facilitating the acquire- 
ment of the language. The Bengal civilian is required to master it as one condition of his employment in the 


Lower Provinces ; for although Bengali be the language of the people in most of the districts, yet, besides the 
use of the Hindustani in the Sadr Courts and in Calcutta, it prevails, in greater or lesser approximation to 
Hindi in the Zilas of Bahar, Purnea, Tirhut, Saran, Bhagalpur, and Shahabad, and is therefore indispensable 
even in the Presidency of Bengal. 

Under the Mohammadan Government the language of judicial and revenue proceedings was Persian, 
borrowing lavishly from Arabic, in which the principal legal authorities are written ; and until witliin a 
comparatively recent period, the English Courts followed the example of their Mohammadan predecessors, 
and all the proceedings were recorded in Persian. Although this is no longer the case, yet the employment 
of that language, and of terms derived through it from Arabic for centuries, could not fail to influence the 
spoken languages of the country ; and Hindustani comprises a large proportion, perhaps a tlurd, of Arabic 
and Persian words. They are not wanting in Hindi ; and even the purer Hindu dialects of the South, 
Tamil and Telugu, are copiously interlarded with technical terms borrowed from this source, and more or less 
modified to suit the vernacular pronunciation. 

As, besides the extensive use of official terms of Persian and Arabic origin, the latter is the language of the 
authorities of Mohammadan law, it has of course been necessary to comprehend it as well as Persian in a 
vocabulary of the judicial and fiscal nomenclature of India, as far as it owes its origin to them. A full and 
authentic description of the principal authorities on Mohammadan law, accessible in India by Mohammadans 
and Europeans, is to be found in the Introduction to Morley's Analytical Digest. 

Although the Sanskrit has not supplied the administration of India with technicalities to the same extent 
as Arabic, yet, being the language of the laws of the Hindus, it furnishes, in its unadulterated form, a copious 
vocabulary of words relating to caste, to contracts, to inheritance, to marriage, and to a variety of the 
incidents of Hindu life ; and it still more abundantly pervades the different Indian dialects, supplying them 
with the ordinary designations of trades and occupations, the terms of agriculture, the names of plants and 
animals, the affinities of relationship, and an infinity of words connected with the social circumstances of the 
people in all parts of India which come within the scope of the present compilation. Combined with Arabic, 
therefore, it forms the great groundwork of the official language of law, of revenue, and of manners 
and customs throughout British India. The absence of a competent knowledge of it is painfully displayed 
in most of the official documents, although the works of Colebrooke, Ellis, Sutherland, and Macnaghten, 
besides sufficient elementary works, render a conversancy with its technology at least of comparatively easy 
attainment. A like copious and learned account of Sanskrit authorities on Hindu law as that of the 
authorities of Mohammadan law is given in the same valuable work. 

As the most direct offset from Sanskrit, we may begin, amongst the vernacular tongues, with the Hindi, 
although the term is rather indefinite, being scarcely applicable to any single modification of the language spoken 
by the thirty millions of the Hindus of Hindustan. Each province may be said to have its own form of Hindi ; 
and in Bahar, Bhojpur, Benares, Bindraban, Delhi, various shades of it are known under the appellations of 
Magadhi, the dialect of Magadha or South Behar ; Maithili, that of North Bahar or Purnea and Tirhut ; 
Bhojpuri, that of Bhojpur ; Purbi, Eastern, Braj Bhakha, or the speech of Braj, and others. 

There is, however, a sufficient concordance to render any one form of comparatively easy acquirement 
to one who, in addition to a competent knowledge of Hindustani, possesses a stock of Sanskrit vocables ; for 
the grammar of Hindi is, in the main, the same as that of Hindustani, whilst nine-tenths of its words are 
Sanskrit There is, however, a great want of the necessary helps to its acquirement. The peculiarities of 
the Hindi dialects have never been investigated, and we have a grammar of only one of them, the Braj, 
which is somewhat meagre. There is nothing that deserves the name of a Dictionary. The books usually 
read, the Baital Pachisi and Sinhasan Battisi, are little else than Hindustani disguised in Nagari letters ; and 
the Preinsagar is the only work that is an authority of any value. There is, however, a Hindi Literature 
of some extent, from which serviceable extracts might be made, particularly from the Ramayana of Tulsi 
Das, and the Mahabharata of Gokulnath, both of which have been printed, although little known in Europe. 
From these and other available sources, and from personal investigation, it would be very possible to analyse 
the specialties of each provincial dialect of Hindi, and thus render an important service to the philology of 
Gangetic India. 

The next immediate offset from the Sanskrit is the language of those provinces of the Bengal Presidency 
in which Bengali is current. The Presidency, as already observed, includes districts to which that language 

PREFACE. xx i 

is foreign, and in those in which it prevails, there are, no doubt, important local modifications. The Bengali of 
Midnapur is probably somewhat different from that of Chittagong ; I say probably, for, if possible, we know 
less of the dialects of Bengali than of Hindi. Little was known of the language when the College of Fort 
William was founded. According to my late friend, Ram Komol Sen, in the Introduction to his English 
and Bengali Dictionary, there were no adequate means of knowing much about it from the almost total 
absence of any literature. With the College came into existence the books at present in use : they were 
necessarily the work of Pandits, and they were consequently little else than Sanskrit compositions with a 
Bengali grammatical structure. Of late years, elementary as well as other works have rapidly multiplied ; 
and a list compiled by the Rev. Mr. Long shews a series of fifteen hundred publications in Bengali from 
the presses of Calcutta alone. It is doubtful, however, if sufficient use is made of this opportunity of selection, 
and the publications in question are liable, for the most part, to the original defect : they are not the 
language of the people. This character applies especially to the best dictionaries yet published, those of 
Dr. Carey and Professor Haughton, both learned and laborious works, but works in which one may look in 
vain for a large proportion, perhaps the largest, of the spoken Bengali. Here, again, is an ample field for 
investigation, the successful exploring of which would be not only of philological but administrative 
benefit. A real knowledge of the speech of another thirty millions of people should not be an object of 
indifference to their rulers ; nor should the materials for its acquirement be suffered to remain imperfect, 
even if no loftier aim were entertained than that proficiency in Bengali, which is required as a condition of 
public employment from the junior civilian. 

Conterminous with Bengali on the south-west is the province of Cuttak, in which the Uriya language, 
or that of Orisa, is current. It is framed from the Sanskrit stem, and of near affinity to Bengali ; but it has its 
own alphabet, grammar, and vocabulary. We have a useful grammar and dictionary of Uriya by 
Mr. Sutton, but the latter is scarcely sufficiently comprehensive. Of the languages of the barbarous tribes 
inhabiting the hills and forests of the western portion of the district, the Khonds and Gonds, very little is yet 
known : the population of the province is estimated at four millions and a half. 

Of the direct descendants of Sanskrit, which are current in Central and Western India, Bundelkhand, 
Malwa, and the Rajput States, nothing is known beyond their general connection with the Hindi family : 
no attempt has ever been made, except in the Serampur translations of the Scriptures, to obtain any conversancy 
with them, or convey a knowledge of them to others; yet it is evident, from the quotations made by the 
late Colonel Tod from the great record of Rajputana, the Prithi Rai Raisa, that the dialects have national 
peculiarities, which must be acquired before a free intercourse can be maintained with the people. The same 
may be said of Panjabi, of which, at present, little or nothing is known, except as to its being one of the great 
Sanskrit family. Since, however, the province has been " annexed," we may hope to become acquainted 
with its speech, and elementary works are beginning to make their appearance, although on a limited and 
inadequate scale. A well-digested and comprehensive dictionary should be set about without delay, 
especially as in the Sikh books there are copious materials for such a compilation, not forgetting, however, as 
has been too often the case, the spoken language of the people. 

Proceeding westward and to the south, we come to two important languages, which are those of the 
Courts and Collectorates of the Presidency of Bombay Guzarathi and Marathi, both members of the 
Sanskrit stock. Little has yet been done for the first of these, and for many years we had nothing to apply 
to but the very elementary work of Drummond, the Rudiments of Guzerathi and Marathi, published in 
1808. In 1829 a more copious grammar, by Mr. Forbes, of the Civil Service, was lithographed at Bombay, 
and a second edition was printed in 1845 : since then other useful grammars have been published. We have 
also a dictionary by Mirza Mohammad Kasim, which, although of limited extent, is very serviceable as far 
as it goes. The population of the country is somewhat uncertain, but it is estimated at about three millions. 
The Zila Courts in which the language is chiefly required are those of Ahmadabad, Baroch, and Surat. 

The language of the Marathas is still more important, as spoken by a still more numerous body of 
people, and more diligently cultivated both by natives and Europeans. It has a copious literature of its 
own, and this has been enriched by translations from English works of literature and science, as Duff's 
History and De Morgan's Algebra. The Missionaries have also published a great number of tracts and 
translations. We have several useful grammars and the very best dictionaries of any native tongue in 
Molesworth's Marathi and English Dictionary, an improved edition of which is hi progress, and Molesworth 


xxii PREFACE. 

and Candy's Dictionary, English and Marathi. In these works we have what is so much missed in 
other similar compilations the language of the people as well as the language of the books. Still, however, 
something has to be effected, particularly with respect to the dialects of the Marathi. That spoken in the 
Konkan, for instance, differs so much from that which is current on the east of the Ghats, that the 
Serampur Missionaries translated the New Testament into it as if it had been a distinct form of speech, 
which brought upon them the scarcely deserved severity of the late Colonel Vans Kennedy's criticism. 
Very possibly there are other modifications of which a knowledge would be of service. The population 
by whom, in one or other form, Marathi is spoken, is rated at about eight millions. The Zila Courts 
in which it is principally current are Ahmadnagar, Ratnagiri, Khandesh, Puna, Konkan, and Sholapur. 
At Dharwar it is mixed with Karnata. Formerly, a knowledge of either Marathi or Guzerdthi was 
required as a condition of public service by the Bombay Government, but either was made secondary to 
proficiency in Hindustani ; and as it was the practice to attach the young civilian to the Court of a Judge 
or Collector before his proficiency had been tested, it commonly happened that no test was ever applied, 
especially with regard to a second language, and the latter was left to independent and voluntary exertion : 
of course the acquirement was rare. Very recently, however, more stringent measures have been announced, 
and the Bombay civilian is expected to qualify, in either Marathi or Guzerdthi, in nine months at furthest, 
under penalty of removal from the service : the term allowed is something of the shortest. 

The Presidency of Madras embraces a greater variety of distinct divisions and of languages than that 
of Bombay ; and here we also lose that direct descent of the native languages from the Sanskrit which is so 
unmistakeably evident in the Hindu languages of Central and Northern India. Modern philology traces 
those of the South of India to the Ugrian, Tatar, or Mongolian stock, difficult as it is to comprehend how 
or when the population of the Dakhin immigrated from the steppes of Central Asia. Whatever the 
origin, however, of these languages, they are dependent upon Sanskrit, in a greater or less degree, for their 
literature, and for the language of their religion, their institutions, and their government. Although they are 
all nearly connected, yet there are obviously two main divisions, one comprehending Telugu and Karndta, 
the other Tamil and Malayalam ; and we shall proceed to offer a few notices of them in that order, derived 
especially from the remarks of the late Mr. Ellis, the most accomplished oriental scholar that has done credit 
to the civil service of Madras. 

The Telugu, as stated in Mr. Ellis's memoir, forming part of the Introduction to Campbell's Telugu 
Grammar, is the vernacular language of the Hindus on the coast of Coromandel, extending from the Dutch 
settlement of Pulicat on the south, just above Madras, northwards through the Northern Sarkdrs to Chikakol, 
and spreading westwards from the coast to the frontiers of Maisur on the south, and on the north through 
part of Berar and the territories of the Nizam ; meeting on the north with Uriya, on the west with Marathi 
and Karnata, and on the south with Tamil. It is consequently the language of the Zila Courts and 
Collectorates of Belari, Gantur, Nellur, Rajamahendri, Chikakol, Kadapa and Masulipatam, as well as 
the non-regulation districts of Ganjam and Vizagapatam, and is current, according to estimate, amongst nine 
millions of people. There are good practical grammars of the language by Messrs. Campbell and Brown, of 
the Madras Civil Service ; and to the former we owe a dictionary, Telugu and English, of which the only- 
defect is its want of comprehensiveness. Reversed dictionaries of English and Telugu have been published 
by Messrs Morris and Brown, and the same gentlemen have supplied very useful selections for study. There 
is a considerable body of literature in Telugu, principally consisting of translations from Sanskrit, which 
enters extensively into the body of the language. A knowledge of Telugu is required of the civil servant of 
Madras before he is capable of public employment. 

The Karnata, or, less accurately, the Canarese language, has an alphabet scarcely differing from that in 
which Telugu is written, and the radicals of the two languages are essentially the same : a large proportion of 
the words are also the same, whether indigenous or Sanskrit, modified by slight variations of inflexion and 
peculiarities of pronunciation. There is a literature partly original, but, in a still greater degree, translated 
from Sanskrit ; but no Karnata works had been printed until lately, when encouragement has been given to 
the publication of lithographed copies of some popular compositions. We have, however, long had a 
serviceable grammar and dictionary of Karnata, the former by Mr. M'Kerrell, a Madras civilian, published 
in 1820, and the latter, both Karnata and English, and English and Karnata, in four volumes quarto, by 
Mr. Reeves, of the London Missionary Society. The former follows Captain Wilks in his description of the 

PREFACE. xxiii 

limits through which the language is in use from Bedar, north-west of Haidarabad, passing by Adoni and 
through Nandidrug to the Eastern Ghats, the course of which it follows until it passes by Koimbatur, and, 
running to the north-west, ascends to the sources of the Krishna, whence it returns to Bedar. It is used 
also, but with other dialects, on the sea coast in the interval between the Principality of Kurg and the 
Portuguese territory of Goa, to which tract the designation of Canara is, with questionable propriety, 
restricted. The Zila Courts where it is chiefly employed are those of Honawar, Mangalur, and Dharwar ; 
but it is in use generally throughout Maisur. The population of whom it is the vernacular are estimated at 
about two millions. Encouragement is held out, in the shape of pecuniary rewards to the junior civilians 
of the Madras Presidency, to acquire some knowledge of Karnata in addition to those languages which are 
indispensable, or Tamil and Telugu. 

The Tamil language is one of those of which a knowledge is highly essential in the provinces subject to 
the Presidency of Madras, and it is accordingly one of the two of which the study is now imperative on the 
Madras civilian. It is the language of the country termed, in Sanskrit, Dravira, comprising the provinces of 
the Coromandel coast, from a short distance north of Madras to Cape Komorin, and extending inland to the 
limits of the Karnata language. It comprises, therefore, the Presidency Courts, and those of Arcot, Salem, 
Koimbatur, Kumbhakonam, Trichinapalli, Madura, Tinivelli, and is spoken, it has been estimated, by five 
millions of people. There are two dialects, or, perhaps, rather styles of it Shen and Kodun, or high and 
low Tamil in both of which there is a copious literature, Tamil having been highly cultivated at as early a 
date as the ninth century, when a college, established at Madura for its especial encouragement, was in a 
flourishing condition. Ample means for the acquirement of its structure exists, as the Missionaries of both 
the Roman and Protestant Churches have long ago contributed ably to its illustration. Beschi's grammar of 
the common dialect was published in 1728, and that of the higher Tamil has been translated by Mr. Babington. 
A grammar of the current language, by Ziegenbalg, was printed in 1716. The originals of these were in 
Latin, but more recently an excellent grammar has been published by Rhenius, in English. We have also 
an English Grammar by Mr. Anderson. We are indebted to the Missionaries also for Tamil dictionaries, 
but the first published is printed in an uncouth type and on bad paper, and is now scarce. A much more 
comprehensive dictionary, Tamil and English, was undertaken by the late Dr. Rottler, and has been printed 
in four parts. Unfortunately it was left by the compiler unfinished, and it has been printed in a defective 
state, long lists of Tamil words being inserted without any English interpretation. The portions which are 
translated form much the larger share, and the manner in which what has been done is effected enhances the 
regret that some competent scholars should not have been employed to render the work entire. The language 
is difficult of acquirement, but with these helps it is to be mastered. It is no doubt, in its origin, independent 
of Sanskrit, but, to judge from the dictionary, admits of Sanskrit insertions as freely as any other of the 
southern dialects. It is also peculiar in its dealings with Sanskrit words, so that, without a previous 
knowledge of the latter, it is scarcely possible to recognise them in their Tamil form. It has, as shewn 
above, a scanty alphabet It has no aspirates, and abhors compounds ; and therefore substitutes unaspirated 
letters for the former, and resolves the latter into syllables ; Bharata, therefore, becomes Parada, and 
Grdmam, Riramam ; for S'iva-prakasa we have Siven-pirikasan, and for Tattwam, Tattuvan. It is 
evident that Tamil scholars who are not Sanskrit scholars also must be continually embarrassed by these 
equivocal expressions. 

Radically related to Tamil, but employing a different alphabet modelled on the Devanagari, and differing 
very frequently in its grammatical structure, is the Malayalam or .Malayalma language, which is spoken 
along the southern portion of the Malabar coast from Quilon to Cape Kumari. North of Quilon, as far as to 
Goa, the Tuluva, which is a distinct dialect, although of the same derivation as the Malayalam, is the 
provincial form of speech, though much intermixed with other dialects, especially Karnata ; and, according 
to Mr. Ellis, the Koduga or Kurg language is a modification of Tuluva. The Kurg Raja, however, when 
in England, wrote in the Karnata character, and declared that to be his native tongue. Besides the relation 
of the order of the alphabet, the Malayalam abounds, more perhaps than either of the other dialects of the 
south, in Sanskrit derivations, in a proportion exceeding a half, equal perhaps to three-fifths of the whole 
under the two heads which Mr. Ellis specifies as common to the dialects of Southern India, Tat-samam, pure 
Sanskrit words, or Tad-bhavam, derived from Sanskrit. The Desya, or native words of the country, may 
also be divided into Tamil Tatsamam, or pure Tamil, and Tamil Tadbhavam, derivatives from Tamil. 

xxiv PREFACE. 

There are several serviceable grammars of the language. One was published by Mr. Drummond, of the Bombay 
Medical Service, soon after the province was subject to British authority, or in 1799; but this is 
now superseded by the grammars of Mr. Spring, of the Madras Civil Service, and the Rev. Mr. Peet, of the 
Church Mission Society. There are also good dictionaries, Malayalam and English, and English and 
Malayalam, by the Rev. Mr. Bailey, of the same Society. There is a dearth of printed books, but 
something has been lately done to provide students with the means of study. Malayalam is the language of 
the Zila Court of Kalikat, or Calicut, and it mixes with Karnata in the Courts of Honawar and Mangalur. 
It is spoken by about two millions and a half of people, inclusive of North and South Canara. 

These are the principal languages of British India, but there are others which are of growing importance, 
although not yet forming objects of official requisition. In the north, the Bhot dialects, which spread 
through the Himalaya districts, are of Tibetan origin, and terms from the latter find their way into the 
language of administration. The grammar and dictionary of Csoma Ko'rosi are the only means of becoming 
conversant with the language ; and no English scholar has yet trodden in his steps, although Petersburgh and 
Paris can boast of cultivators of Tibetan. The Panjabi, of course, becomes of primary importance ; and our 
intercourse with our neighbours, the Affghans, renders Pushtu a valuable acquisition ; but nothing has yet 
been effected towards facilitating the acquirement of the latter beyond the very circumscribed grammar 
and vocabularies of Lieutenant Leech, or of the former, except the similar publications of the same intelligent 
officer, and a grammar, vocabulary, and dialogues, by Captain Sterling. On the west, a knowledge of 
the language of Sindh has become essential ; and here, also, the means are yet limited, although they begin to 
be supplied in a grammar and short dictionary by Captain Stack. Of the dialects of the Hill tribes on the 
fust, from Asam to Arakan, all that is yet known is from the comparative vocabularies of the Rev. Mr. Brown 
and of Mr. Hodgson, the object of which is rather comparative than practical. When we get to Arakan we 
come upon the Burma language, a knowledge of which, since the annexation of the provinces along the coast 
from Arakan to Tenaserim, is indispensable to the government of an extensive tract of country and a 
numerous population. There are grammars of the language, sufficient to enable the European to acquire it, 
by the late Missionaries Judson and Hough, and by Captain Latter. There is also a good English and 
Burma dictionary, by Mr. Lane ; but a comprehensive Burma and English dictionary is still a desideratum. 
There is a want, also, of printed books, which might easily be multiplied from the copious stores of Burma 
literature, both historical and Buddhist. 

To give liberal encouragement to the preparation and publication of these and similar works in all 
the languages current in the wide provinces and among the many millions of people subject to its authority 
is the positive duty and the obvious interest of the Government of British India. Much has, no 
doubt, been accomplished ; but it may be questioned if the encouragement that has been given has 
been always judiciously bestowed. The efforts of individuals must always be desultory, and will 
often be ineffective. There wants a systematic course of proceeding, and the selection of competent 
agents ; and it might be worth while to adopt official arrangements for ascertaining what has been done, and 
what remains to be done, towards providing the civil and military servants of the Company with ample and 
adequate means of acquiring a command of all the languages through which they may have to minister 
to the necessities and claims of the different races amongst whom the course of service may call them. In 
the meanwhile the following pages will, it is hoped, contribute to facilitate then' acquirement of the qualifi- 
cations which are indispensably necessary for the due performance of their important functions knowledge 
of the languages, and knowledge of the people, of India. 


LONDON, January 1855. 








80 For 

^ikoTI read ^llt^*^. 



28 For 

oj <3%3 n read ~) ^~ > n - 



31 .. 

Diwani, read Divvani. 


32 .. 

C3%0 read 3^ ft . 



17 .. 

'b read tXcu. 



7 .. 

S5 T> read J ". 

Kiighaz, read Kaghaz. 



34 .. 

possesson, read possession. 



7 .. 




11 .. 

maash, read maash. 



31 .. 

Agwasi, read Agwasi. 




,**> read /.uljt*. 



5 .. 

Mahmud, read Mahmud. 



30 .. 

FtJTh read Ffrfa. 


20 .. 

^'J read^Iii). 



24 .. 

C^^ni read <!6'* < li. 

30 .. 

Jaigir, read Jaigir. 



28 .. 

<x-J read A-y. 



5 . 

-L< ! read ^clw!. 

Tauji, read Taujih. 



7 .. 

AAS>-!^ read J>r-^. 



26 .. 

Baladasti, read Baladasti. 



20 .. 

cO^eaJ read <^X>. 



(JCjuuJJ.) read ,_^V*,t>i!L 




42 .. 

j\f read j Jo. 



10 .. 

^Tlfi> read ^IflJ. 

.. .. 

Guzar, read Guzar. 



42 .. 

Banijaga, read Banijiga. 



31 .. 
45 .. 

JisJ read -liii. 
rO <O read ^ *X 



4 .. 

Bansphor, read Bansphor. 
i*j read -.> . 




28 .. 
3 .. 

<ijLL} read <1JLO. 
Amavaludana, read Amuvaludana. 

10 .. 
12 .. 

^1>, TtTJ read ^ 
TtFl read Tte1. 


15 .. 

Dahale, read Dahale. 



16 .. 

^^ read ^^. 



11 .. 

"N - V 



18 .. 

^TR, ^tR read "5 


6 .. 

Ambarakkadai, read Ambarakkadai. 



43 .. 

Arazi, read Arazi. 



38 .. 

Miimanm, read Muminin. 



-oKc read ,<^'_;' 



19 .. 

O read O. 



3 .. 

"35 read <1>. 



36 .. 

^jP^l read SLOCfl. 



17 .. 

Ttl? read Tttf. 



39 .. 

Dar, read Dar. 



17 .. 

Tfgl read ^^tj). 


42 .. 

Kar read Kar. 



15 .. 

Bhauli, read Bhaoli. 



33 .. 

<artft*TK read <3rtffTt,. 



5 .. 

Bazi, read Bazi. 



3 .. 

r i * 

Arazi, read Araz,i. 




,_juo read ^^o. 



.. .. 

(jof- read j^otl . 



33 .. 

(fFfP read CT*t^. 




37 .. 
31 .. 

(j&f' read (j&j i 
Pala, read Pala. 
Asoea, read Asoca. 



39 .. 

28 .. 

I? read Jtf. 
lUl read Ul). 
In'uii, read Inaam. 



1 .. 

Vana, read Vana. 



5 .. 

T, read Tarn. 


24 .. 

Sinchana, read Sinchana. 



24 .. 

Arazi read Arazi. 


.. .. 

f^l=3T read ftli^f. 

.. .. 

-"OlyC- read ij^l;'. 


101 2 9 

102 1 15 
110 1 37 

110 2 15 

111 2 7 
.. .. 20 

114 1 3 

120 2 44 

129 1 23 


2 35 


Chandla, read Chandlti. 
Chanwal, read Chanwal. 
Chhar, read Chhar. 



fFB>1 read 

Phareolus, read Phaseolus. 
Ka/:i, read Kazi. 

jx read t _ 5 -^ ) - 
Daulu read Da'ulu. 
( j~*s* J read ^^^atiA 1 . 
Dehri, read Dehri. 
Dhalbhol, read Dhalbol. 
Dharat, read Dhara<. 

i read 

read (Jar. 
(ioslii:ishtlj:imi, read Goshthaslitami. 
JUfc read 

Huzur, read Hujtur. 
Gu^iir, read Guzar. 

136 2 15 

138 1 15 

154 2 44 

159 2 21 

168 2 33 

180 1 35 

197 2 37 

205 1 7 

2 6 

207 1 29 .. j=r^ read 

215 1 27 .. Ikrah, read Ikrah. 

xj^l read l^l. 

218 2 12 .. Kanungo, read Kanungo. 

220 1 31 .. Ishhad, read Ishhiid. 
., Ola^**' read jlg>*ii . 

2 4 .. Ishrak, read Ishrak. 
bi^ljwt read J(|/'. 

221 1 10 .. ^>;^ D <P~ read 

.. 27 .. j'UXJ read J'lSa 

.. 34 After lawful, insert sJl^L*! . 

.. .. Istihlah. 

.. 2 39 For ^^ read c^'Jo. 

222 15.. Istihshad read Istishhad. 

.. 1 27 .. Itikaf, read Itikaf. 

u_)'Jul read L_jl&c1. 

29 .. Ramazan, read Ramzan. 








For &l read &. 



.. *->4- read >Ji2c?". 




.. ji\ read i\ct>. 



.. Kaghaz, read Kaghaz. 




.. .$> read jsf . 



.. Tashkhis, read Tashkhis. 




.ywOUE**^ read ^a^s^. 



.. Sadr, read Sadr. 



.. jtW> read j&o- 




nr c V rea( * CT*'"*- 




.. <_j'Jl*- read V"JU~. 




.. "but," read "as it is." 




tfift read *JTh 




AlO read fTCf. 




l^-io read ^Axii. 



Katifa, read Khafifu 




&uifiS read AAAA^. 




<uls- read iXJli-. 




.. _^c& read J>i6. 



.. Jazar, read Jazar. 

i f>- read tJ*>. 

S J ' J 




L^>U**s>- read L_J'V*>*-. 



.. fiidiunl read ftnns'rt. 




.. " second," read "last." 




Dele " probably the same word." 




for *{if\ read *?f*(. 

V3 Cx 




.. .IjiJUJ read .IjJiiw'. 

2 6 

264 2 29 

j read 

Kanz, read Kan/. 
.. J* read j\j>. 

Karar, read Karar. 

267 2 34 .. Kata al tank, read Kata al tank. 

2 19 .. Katakina, read Katkina. 

2 8 .. Kaval, read Kaval. 

1 25 .. Kessiriya, read Kessiriya. 

1 28 .. ''H'STST read ^ItSTa 1 . 

2 30 .. Sadr, read Sadr. 
<iXM read <$*. 

.. Kad, read Bad. 


280 1 


.. read^. 
Guzar, read Guzar. 


2 10 
1 26 

read jLo. 
.. Khain, read Kha'in. 










For ^.jjki- read ,j*l". 



29 For 

}&y> read ^Xiyli . 




Khem, read Kheni. 



5 .. 

Mulk, read Mulk. 




Insert, H. (Ul/). 




^jLc read t^XLe . 




iti * . tj 
For ^ji f read ' = ^j > - 

8 .. 

Mulki, and in the following, read Mulki, 




Krushikudu, read Krushikudu. 


.. *&&& read S^fo&. 

.. .. 

^^sLc read | _ s ^i- 

Krushivaludu, read Krushivaladu. 



37 .. 

(Lp^npOOD read (LpODD JT). 

.. g) a;S0& read S) 9 aSeu&. 



29 .. 

U^ read c ',>.. 



Kjiya, and the same in the following com- 


Mushaa, read Mushaa. 

pounds, read Kriya. 



44 .. 

j-j^ read A^- 




yiy'o read li )j J ' J 




Tarikh, read Tarikh. 




.. ^rai read ^S*. 



2 .. 

i".*X read ^ -oJt . 




.. e30#r6 read ootfss^. 



36 .. 

cyi) read IjcO . 

Anchana, read Anchana. 364 


4 .. 

ujuu.- read Ifr^?- 




.. Kuri, read Kuri. 


13 .. 

ci^yLfl* read L^;!,^ . 




.. Miraj, read Miraj. 




Mazkurat, read Mazkurat. 


.. \j* read v|/M. 



18 .. 

<bjp read AilniJ . 



Lakit, read Lakit. 



36 .. 

Niranambam, read Nirarambam. 

. tt 

O-O^ read Lxft! . 




rflrrrTrjLQULCi read iJcJTTrTUlULO. 




UT;'^ read ^U. 



280, read 386. 




<AToO read ~^<4^. 



9 .. 

^3^3/yfij read 3v,JyCiO. 




Viidu, read Vaiju. 


Patrudu, read Patrudu. 


o^> w w\} read <O~ t> cdJ. 



22 .. 

Pattan, read Pattan. 




$y lf read <XJ|y* . 


27 .. 

Pattani, read Pattani. 



.. <jLfl=r read <)JLfl^r*. 



9 .. 

C*~)6)S*~i~) read n_lS)5^O. 




.. Sadr, read Sadr. 



21 .. 

Pharnivasi, read Pharnivisi. 


jJ-* readjJ^. 



38 .. 

Pod, read Pott. 


.. Ax*i.jj read jlx^iiJo . 



2 .. 

Porombadom, read Poroinkadom. 



L_ ,*v5-Lo read t- ^^.1. . 



8 .. 

Absolute, read absentee. 




cuiijuax read iJ1JuLax. 


21 .. 

/.<ao read Ai o . 




Mansabzat, read Mansabzat. 



17 .. 

o ^l^j read ^^^> 




.. ^j. read jy^*,. 

26 .. 

^ read ^. 




<_J ./^v read i'.^^c. 



12 .. 

e>AI read c^io . 




JjJLo read (Uia< . 



30 .. 

(jOj'k' read j^^' . 




.. jJUJ read Jflw. 



8 .. 

/y read /y> 



.. ^c read PjJ^- 


5 .. 

,_jlfc, read ( _j5"*;. 


.. Mazuli, read Mazuli. 439 


42 .. 

CUiLaJ read ciJ^UaJ. 


Mazun, read Mauziin. 


Nazarat, read Nazarat. 

i. ^ read ,-i;m. At bottom. 

339, read 439. 




^jjj _ \-ijjj _ 
.. c^"^J^ read ,i>T. 444 


37 .. 

iX^ read <UM . 



.. _^c readme. 



6 .. 

Roja, read Roju. 




_ .jj- read ^-'y<. 



18 .. 

i-^J'J read ^J-iJ ' 




(Jvujs'* read (J^^sr*. 



1 .. 

C^i>i|wii read U^iMfwJI. 




.. Mrigarsirsha, read Mrigasirsha 



37 .. 

ki-i^H^l read ^^*jJi. 











For i^r-y'j read (_^yLe. 




For Tagadak, read Tagadduk. 




.. ^&y& read yjyls. 



^J'Juu read ^Jji^eu . 




Samba, read Samba. 




(JjJo read (Jjluo . 




UuJo read Loo. 




^~) i read As-S. 




Sarafrazi, read Sarfarazi. 




.. Tengalay, read Tengalai. 




X.XM read *jio. 




Selection, read Selections. 



.. Sughra, read Sughra. 




.. ^ JOLM*. read ^JJo~~.- . 




.. ~lti>&) read ~&6b&>. 




tfwI'T^ read ZuW. 

.. Sevakudu, read SeVakudu. 




.. <\c. read ij>c. 




/ ^0 read L\C u . 




Hf<J read irfk. 



&>l~>- read <XJli- . 




Vetkanam, read Vettukanam 




SitiHsai, read Silii'isalii. 




tCu'-^ read JUa)\*a. 




Suchaka, read Suchaka. 




joi< AS read ^UMM 4\S . 

Sl^li read *J^I<- 




tJkuAj read |_Wji; . 




5J fa read *rf^. 




Should be _ -lixib (Jj-*^. 




.. ^ftPI read *sifnr4, 




For tUa^U read ^r^rrr ' 




.. S waist, read Swasti. 




.. ^TTTO read ^TR^V. 


S^rilM^^. read 7 r -<nm.. 




Ajlj zrtftA read ^-Jj ,-/'//. 

O*' t ^_ 


^^ITfwiT read ^'JTT'^rt . 




Xj' j read lOlj . 




(_yxih read ^j*\* 




C3 ix) rOO rcsd ^^ f\^rOO 




L- jljjtj read Cl-'JAju . 




<-f}j* rea( ^ >-^j*' 




.. ,ji*uJu read +*>> 




.jjiX* read ^3^*. 




.. u_i-aw read ^oii'. 




le?/^. rea '^ StO^i' 




.. i^j|)* rea< i ^y- 



AB, H. ( | - r jl, contracted from the A. jl Abii} A father. 

Abdi, H. (i_jU) Patrimonial, descending from paternal 

ancestors (land, property). 
AB, H. (P. v_>T, S. ^TT.) Water. 

Abddr, H. (iljol ) A servant whose office it is to prepare 
water for. domestic use, or for drinking. 

Abddr khdna, H. (it;l-^;ljo! ) The room where such water 
is kept in suitable earthen vessels. 

Ab-])dshi, H. (^bj I ) Irrigating fields, watering fields ; 
lit. water-sprinkling. 

Ab-rawdn, H. (^yl) Running water ; metaphor. Fine 

Abi, H. (<_.(! , lit. Relating to water, watered). In the north- 
west provinces it is applied to land watered from ponds, 
tanks, lakes, or water-courses, in distinction to that which 
is watered from wells ; as the supply from the former 
is liable to fail in the hot season, Ab-i land is assessed at a | 
lower rate ; in some cases at less than a half of that watered 
from wells. 

Abistdni, H. (^j'JLuj!) Land artificially irrigated. 

Ab-hhez, H. (jJ^ I ) A soil impregnated with water, moist or 

wet soil. 
ABKAR, H. (;&T) A manufacturer or retailer of spirituous 

liquors ; lit. a maker of (strong) waters. 
AUBKAURY, H. &c. (,_j;ljT), or in Telugu, ABUKARI, 
(e3tX)ST T> 6) Revenue derived from duties levied on the 
manufacture and sale of inebriating liquors, as tan or 
toddy, pachn-ai, arrack, &c., and on intoxicating drugs, 
whether in substance, infusion, or extract, as opium, 
bhang, chiras, &c. It is levied on certain licenced dis- 
tilleries, or in fees for licences granted by the collector to 
retailers. In some parts of the south of India the Abkdri 
included duties on eating-shops, gaming-houses, itinerant 
tumblers, jugglers, and the like. [In the Report of the 
House of Commons, 1832, p. 95, it is said to comprehend 
duties on pepper and betel ; but this is a mis-statement, 


as no such duties are levied; although, in Mysore, the 
areka-nut was sometimes included in the Abkari farm.] 
The principal Regulations in Bengal for the Abkari duties 
are xxvii. 1793, x. 1813, xiii. 1816, and vii. 1824 
Abkdri Ddrogha, H. (iCjjta^rj&T) The head native officer 
appointed to superintend distilleries, spirit-shops, and the like. 
Abkdri Mahal, H. ( Jl=r (_J&J\ ) The department or office 
of Abkdri, the excise. 

ABAB, Mar. (wfR 1 , from A. Abn'db, q.v.) A particular item 
in revenue accounts : the grain falling to the share of the 
Government after deducting the portions of the several sharers. 

ABAD, H. (P. *>b I ). The word is very generally adopted ; 
as Hindi and Mar. (^n^), Beng. (^TW*f), Telugu 
(O20~ C OJ), Populous, cultivated, as a village or tract of 
country; the reverse of Wirdn, (^j/j)) waste, deserted. 
A village or tract which is designated in revenue phrase 
as Abdd is one from which revenue may be levied : in 
military topography it denotes a place where supplies may 
be expected. It occurs also, though less commonly, as 
Abdddn (Jtiljl ). Abdd karna means, to introduce or 
extend cultivation or population, to settle, to people ; 
whence may arise a claim to property through descent from 
the Abdd-kdr, the originator or founder. As the second 


member of a compound Abdd often denotes a city, as 
Akbar-dbdd, the city of Akbar, or Agra, which he made 
his capital ; Aurang-dbdd, the city of Aurang-zeb ; 
Murshid-dbdd, the city of Murshid Kuli Khan, Gover- 
nor of Bengal, by whom it was enlarged and embellished ; 
Slidhjahdn-dbdd, the city of Shdhjahdn, or Delhi ; with 
many others of Mohammedan origin and improvement. 
From the attributives Abdd and Abdddn come the sub- 
stantives Abddi, Abdddni, Populousness, cultivation : in 
Bengali the meanings have been transposed, Abdd 
signifying cultivation, populousness , and Abddi 
cultivated, peopled. 

Abdd-beshi, H. (.-IJJ 3\j\ , from P. beski ^j^-w, Excess). 
First assessment of newly-settled or cultivated land. 




ABARATAM, Tarn. (ajUrjrr^Lo, from S. Aparadha 

Fault, offence, in which sense it also occurs in most dia- 
lects). Fine, amercement, forfeiture. 

ABD, UBD, H. (A. J^c, plur. Abid J>.-^) A slave, two 
descriptions of whom are alone recognised in Mohamme- 
dan law infidels made captives in war, and their descen- 
dants. In practice much greater latitude is allowed, 
although not strictly legal ; and a title to slaves may be 
acquired by purchase, donation, or inheritance. The term 
enters largely into the formation of Mohammedan proper 
names, as Abd-ullah, slave of God; Abd-ali, slave of Ali; 
Abd-ul-muUh, the slave of the Lord (God). It is also 
frequently prefixed in affectation of humility to the official 
signatures of native officers, whether Hindus or Moham- 
medans ; and in law papers it is sometimes prefixed to 
the name of each subscribing witness. 

ABDA, Ben. (^Tttft, S. ^T^, a year). The period during 
which a party who reclaims waste land is allowed to hold 
it rent-free. The rent remitted. The land so held. [The 
term in this sense is confined to Eastern Bengal and Chit- 

AHUHUT, UBDHOOT, H. (S. Avadkuta WTWK) A religious 
mendicant of the Hindus, one who professes to have "shaken 
off" the infirmities of humanity. In Hindustan the Abdhut 
is generally of the Vaishnava sect. In the south it is 
said he is usually a Sairu mendicant. 

ABEDAK, Beng. (S. ^l kl if* dci'daltu) A complainant or 

suitor, a petitioner. 

Abedan, Beng. (S. ~l lt< *T0 A petition, a plaint, an affidavit. 

Abedan patra, or Abedan lipi, (S. ^!c<*i?5! f3i , or fsffa ) 

A written plaint or petition, a representation in writing. 

ABHAR, UBHUH, Mar. (WTt) The collections from a vil- 
lage in the Maratha country. Kacha Abhur, The gross 
collections, without any deduction. 

ABHAYA, UBHUYU, Mar. (S. WR, from ^ neg., and VJ, 

fear), An assurance of safety or immunity. 
Abhayadindima, Mar. (S. ^rvnrfrfe*0 A proclamation by 
beat of drum (dindima) of general security to all who 
submit in the case of a captured town or conquered country. 
Abhaya patra, S. &c. (^Wtprgf) A written document in 
assurance of safety, a safe conduct. 

ABHICHAH, H. (S. ^rfa^TT:) Employment of charms or 
spells for the destruction of an enemy. 

ABHIPATTI, UBHIPUTTEE, Mar. (ilfaMg'l) Any extra cess 
or assessment [under the Peshwa's Government.] 


ABHIR, UBHEER, H. &c. (jJ&\ , S. "Srrftr: , also, with the initial 
long ABHIRA ^Tt^tJ) A shepherd, a cowherd. Accord- 
ing to Menu (B. x. 15) the Abhira is of mixed origin, 
the offspring of a Brahman father, and a mother of the 
Ambashtha, or medical caste ; but the Abliinix were a 
people, a pastoral tribe, settled, about the beginning of the 
Christian era, on or near the lower course of the Indus, 
on a tract known to classical geographers, as the Abiria 
of Ptolemy, lying north of the Sahyadri mountain, and of 
Syrastrene. The Abhirs of Sauraxlitra are mentioned 
in the Mahabhdrata. From their pastoral habits the 
name came to be generally applied to the cowherds of 
Hindustan. In the spoken dialects of upper India the 
word is corrupted to Ahir, Uheer, q. v. In Bengali and 
Marathi it is unchanged, occurring as Abliir. 

ABHIJOO, Beng. (^lFMd*t, S. Abhiyoija nfoifrr.) Plaint, 

complaint, beginning of a suit. 
Abhijofji, Beng. (^lP>5tl / fit, S. 'sfinfrft) A plaintiff; a 


Abhijog-patra, Beng. (^rf^5Sft^f3l, S. ^ifaiffrHTW) A 
petition, or writing of complaint. 

Aitm ruAYAKA-SRADDHA, S. (^T^M^^Ji>4)ld ) Offering to de- 

ceased progenitors, or to the manes collectively, on some 
prosperous event, as the birth of a son, or the like. 
ABHYUPETYA SUSHUSHA, S. OawjMd$l^m) Contracted service, 

a title of Hindu law, treating of disputes between master 
and servant. 

ABIK-UBEEK, H. (A. ^'JoD A runaway slave, in Moham- 
medan law. 

ABIH-UBEER, H. (from A.^JJkc, Saffron), A powder of a 
red or yellow colour, composed of various vegetable 
and mineral ingredients, as turmeric, safllower, saffron, red 
or yellow orpiment, talc, ground to a fine powder, and used 
by the natives to throw over one another and stain their 
faces and clothes with at the vernal festival of the Holi, as 
typical of the buds and blossoms of the season of spring. 

ABWAB, H. (A. >\y>\, plur. of bdb i-j-jb, a door, a section, 
a chapter, a title,) Heads or subjects of taxation, or the 
taxes which were imposed under the Mohammedan Go- 
vernments in addition to the regular assessment on the 
land. Miscellaneous cesses, imposts, and charges, levied 
by Zemindars and public officers. These cesses were 
either abolished or consolidated with the land revenue, and 
are no longer payable to the British Government ; but such 
as existed before the perpetual settlement, and were not spe- 



cially abrogated or not consolidated, are still claimed some- 
times by the Zemindars, (Reg. viii. 1793, xxx. 1803, v. 1812). 
They were variously designated, as, 1. after the princes 
by whom they were ordered, as Abrvdb Kdsirn All Klidn, 
taxes of Kdsim (Cossim) All, Nawab of Bengal ; or, 
2. 'from the pretext on which they were raised, as Abrvdb- 
Faujddri, taxes on the Zemindars, in commutation of fees 
which had been payable to the office of Faujdar, or 
chief military and police magistrate, and Abrvdb Thdna- 
ddri, fees exacted by Shujd Khan from retailers of spiri- 
tuous liquors and other articles in bazars attached to 
police or military stations, and payable to the Kotrvdl; 
Abicdb Kltainsi (from khantga, five, for several), diffe- 
rent taxes levied by the Governor of Dacca when the 
Dimdni was granted to the Company, on pretence of pre- 
senting the proceeds to the Emperor in acknowledgment 
of the grant (Fifth Hep. find Gloss.) ; also Abwdb meh- 
mdni, a cess levied on the inhabitants of a village to defray 
the expenses of the Zemindar on his paying it an occa- 
sional visit ; Abmdb rdhddri, rates charged on the peo- 
ple of a town or district for the repair of the public roads ; 
Abmdb Pdtaki, a cess apparently peculiar to Orissa, lite- 
rally, " taxes on the wicked or fallen," applying the term 
to eight inferior or degraded castes or occupations, namely, 
Tdntix, weavers, Tdmbiilis, venders of betel and pan, 
Guriyas, confectioners, or makers of sweetmeats with Our 
or molasses, Sonars, goldsmiths, and Kaiwartts, Kibdrnfx 
and Goku.t, different tribes of fishermen. 

AcHALix-UcHULiT, H. (S. *)< PC* ri: lit. What has not moved, 
or is immoveable), Real or landed property. 

AcHANDRAROAM,Tam. (^jS'lT^crrrcriEbll), from the S.Wf 
d, as long as, ^5 chandra, the moon, and ^TJjf arka, the 
sun, i.e. as long as the sun and moon endure). In Tan- 
jore and Kanara, any village, of which the lands are per- 
manently apportioned among the hereditary proprietors. 
The term, slightly modified according to dialect, appears 
to be in common currency in the south of the Peninsula 
to denote perpetuity. 

ACHAMANA, S. (VMNMH) Rinsing the mouth, sipping a little 
water and ejecting it before and after meals, and before 
and after various ceremonies, one of the permanent and 
daily practices of the Hindus. 

Achaman'tya, S. (^rpwfta) Water fit for sipping, also 
for offering it to an idol. 

ACHAIJ, H. &c., (,\af\, S. SHNKt Achdra, whence it is intro- 

duced into all the dialects, sometimes slightly modified). In- 
stitute, established and essential observance, as daily ablutions 
and personal purification, daily worship, tonsure, investiture, 
marriage, obsequial rites, or Srdddhas. Performance of 
appropriate duties in different stages of life, &c. It is 
also used in composition with terms limiting its applica- 
tion, as Kuldchdr, family usage ; Dexdchdr, custom of 
the country ; Matdchdr, practice of any particular sect ; 
Nitydchdr, invariable observance ; Suddhdchdr, ceremo- 
nial purity ; Viiddhdchdr, old established custom. 

ACHARJ, AcHARI, AcHARYA, H. &C. (~yU-l, WMlO. from 

the S. Achdrya ^i-^i<4: ) A religious teacher ; properly, 
the Brahman who instructs the religious student of the 
two next castes the Kshatriya and the Vaisya as well 
as the Brahman, in the Vedas. In modern use it is ap- 
plied to any religious instructor, or to any Brahman or 
religious mendicant professing to be qualified to give spiri- 
tual instruction. In the south of India it especially denotes 
the head of a religious society the Mahant of Hindustan, 
or the Panda, or head Priest of a temple. Among the 
Marathas it was given to Brahmans employed by respect- 
able families as cooks. In the Tamil provinces it is 
assumed by carpenters and other artisans. 
ACHCHAKA, Karn. (**fj) Assessment, taxes. One who 
pays taxes. 

Achchavadi, or Achchuadi, Karn. (W^O^O) Assess- 
ment, tax. 

Achchavaliga, Karn. ( es |j^ > V A ) One who pays taxes. 
ACHCHADI, Mai. (< f o^sl) Printing, stamping. 

Achchadikdran, Mai. ( 05*3 ^jsld&ororrb) A printer, a coiner. 

ACHCHALAYATARU, Karn. (Wa^raO&S&D) p o l ice omcerSj 

ACHCHHAN, Mai. (cS*o^nrt>, Tarn. S1\&&<X ) A father; 
used also as a title of respect, and in Malabar applied 
especially to the males of the royal family who have no 
office nor official rank in the state. 

ACHCHARAM, Mai. (ctS^)^jO(Oo) Earnest-money, money ad- 

ACHCHU, Karn. (^If 3 ), Aclicha, Mai. (cS^^j) A mould, 
a type, a form for casting or taking impressions, a print- 
ing-press, the pivot of a hand-mill. 

Achchvgdr, or Achchuli, Karn. (eaJv^S 69^0^) A 
printer, a cotton-printer, a pressman. 

ACHUKATTU, Tel. (e3OGs|Lx>) Land 


divided into beds to admit and retain the water let in for 
irrigation. Lands prepared for the cultivation of rice. 
ACHU-KAVALI, Tel. (e3oo~3~o$0). I n the south of India, 
grants of revenue and perquisites in grain, formerly re- 
ceived by the Poligar for protecting the crops, and engaging 
to make good any depredations on the lands under pro- 
ACHE, Tel. (" w ) The principal harvest, the heavy crop (used 

in Vizagapatam). 

ACHIDAIYAN, Tarn. (aj,<#l<5o"5S>LU6f5T) A barber. 
ACHITA, Kara. (***, Mai. (OS'S) .cull rmo) A weight of ten 
khandakas, or bharas (each being ten tulams) ; a cart-load. 
ACHHRA, Ben. (Tt^Ti) The straw of paddy. 
Ap, AD, Mar. &c. (^Tf , ^TT3), in Hindustan pronounced, and 
usually written, with the hard r, as Ar or Ar (^i_JI) 1- 
(It also occurs in other dialects, modified by the substitu- 
tion of the soft d for the hard d, or by duplication of one 
or other, of which examples will be given.) A syllable 
used as a prefix, implying obstructing, screening, barring ; 
also inferiority, irregularity, or deviation. 
Ad-aUiuhm. Uriya. Disobedience of orders, resistance of 


Ad-yaon, Mar. (VHI4J||iyD A small or inferior village. 
Adgir, Hindi (W5*ffr) A strip of sward encompassing a field. 
Ad-jdt, Mar. (W5TTiT) People of tile inferior or mixed 


Ad-mdrg, Mar. (iHliHirT) A bye-way, a cross-road ; also 
cross or internal traffic, and duty levied on such-traffic. (This 
occurs, incorrectly written, Udh marrva and Urdh margli). 
Admuth, Mar. (VM'jUlS) Sowing seed carefully on hilly or 
broken ground (so as to close the hand or fist (rnuth) 

Ad nav, Mar. (^TTJTT^) Family or sur-name. 
Ad sattd, Mar. (^Tdtlgl) Estimate, rough calculation. See 

Adasatta and Arsatha. 
Adman, Mar. (iDlimu) The space between the top and 

foot of a hill, the slope. 
ADWEPANI, Mar. tajcfMNUl) Water of irrigation derived 

from tanks, &c. ; artificial water, not rain-water. 
Ap, Mar. (^TTS) A well without steps. 

ADA, H. (A. bl) Fulfilment of an agreement, performance 
of a contract, payment of a debt. This is sometimes con- 
founded, but incorrectly, with Ahda, q. v. 
Add-bandi, or bundee, H. ((_jAJu bl) Fixing a term for the 
payment of a debt or the performance of a contract. 


Add harnd, H. (Ij^i bl) To pay a debt, to make an agree- 

Add hona, H. (liyb bl) To be settled, paid or fulfilled, as 

a debt or contract. 

Add-i-mdlguzdri, H. (^jpCJU bl) Payment of revenue. 
ADA, Mar. (WJT) Gain, profit, fund, stock, income. 
ApAGU-Upuooo, Tarn. (a|l_@), Tel. (es&Xo) A pawn, 

a pledge. 
ADA, or ADAI MANAM, Tarn. (.Sl|L_U>rT6TJrLo 1|<5C}1_ 

LofTOCTLo) A mortgage, a simple mortgage, in which the 

mortgager retains possession of the property pledged, pay- 

ing interest on the loan. 
Adaiyolai, Tarn. (aj(3cOL_(SLUrr990) The palm-leaves on 

which a mortgage, deed, or lease, or other engagement, 

is written. 
ADAVU, also ADARVU, Karn.(e>&3>-<^0 A pledge; 

a mortgage, a simple mortgage, in which the mortgager 

retains the property, paying interest on the loan. 
Adavu chitu, Adavu-sdthana y or Adavu-patra, Karn. 

(escSt^J&r^cX), & c .) A mortgage-deed, or bond. 
.l</tiru-litti;l\nrn. (^&^ S 6O) \ mortgagee, one who holds 

a pledge or mortgage. 

ADAHARI, Hindi (^n^TT^) A bullock not broken in for work. 
ADAKAM, Tarn. (=^l_SSLo) An enclosure. 
ADANI, Karn. (C9GTc>C9) Unrewarded or compulsory labour. 
Ailitnijana, Kara. (&75~3><?3ttro) An unpaid labourer, a 

slave, a serf. 
ADANGAL, Tarn. (^l_rLl<5>^)), Mai. (cS^seeifsb) An esti- 

mate, an appraisement, a valuation ; the whole contents, or 

whole quantity of any thing ; a contract ; examining the 

cultivation of village lands. 
ADAR-UDUR, or ADARA-UDURU, Hindi (^T3T) A ditch, 

and the mound of earth thrown up from it, forming the 

boundary of a field. 

ADASATTA-UDUSUTTA, Tel. (WO'iJfej ) Estimate, com- 

putation, an account by estimate. (The d being pronounced 

and written r, the word occurs more usually in Hindu- 
stan as Arsath, q.v.) 

ApAT-UplJT, Mar. (SMjri) Mercantile correspondence, agency, 
brokerage ; charge or fee for commission or brokerage. 
This word also occurs in other dialects differently spelled, 
as Adhat (Odd), or the hard d, dh being pronounced 
like r, Arat, Arhat, or Uyiiut ; or, again, with the soft i 
and the aspiration transposed, as ArtM, or Urthee. 
Adatyd, Vdutyd, or Udutiya ; also, very corruptly, Adtit- 


teeyo, Mar. (WCTTt) A mercantile correspondent, a broker, 
an agent; also Arhatiya and Arthiya. 

ADAT, or ARAT, Beng. (^nl*0 A warehouse, a store occu- 
pied by a wholesale dealer, or a monopolist; a place 
from which all must purchase what they want. 
Adat ddr, Beng. (from P.^lj, who has). A store-keeper, 
a monopolist. 

ADATTA, S. fa, neg. &c. ^T. given, ungiven). In Hindu 
law, illegal, or void and resumable donation. 

ADAVI, or Apivi-KOTTUTA, Tel. ( &5C3<o!> c^CJ, g ^rjf%, 
Atavi, a forest). Clearing away jungle, and bringing 
the land into cultivation. 

ADAVA, or ADAVI-PALKI, Mar. (^Ht^T, 'i<0, athwart, and 
^CTcSelft). The privilege of being carried in a palankin 
sideways ; that is, with the poles across the road, or at a 
right angle with it, a distinction enjoyed by the head of the 
Brahmans of Sriru/ayiri, the spiritual descendants of 
Sankara Achdrya ; latterly also claimed by the head of 
the Linr/ayits, and the subject of litigation in the Com- 
pany's Courts of the Bombay Presidency. 

ADAYA, Tel. Karn. (C3Q(x>3 J from the S. ^I^Hi:) Gain, profit, 


Addya vichJia, Kara. ( e3(33COo)i$J) p ro fit and loss, re- 
ceipt and disbursement ; [the last term is possibly from the 
S. Vyaya 1HI, expenditure.] 

ADDA, Uppu, Kara. (^9) A half; but in this sense more 
correctly arddha, q. v. In composition it also implies 
hindrance, obstruction, going transversely, diverging, &c., 
corresponding in these respects to the Marathi Ad and 
Hindi Ar, but doubling the cerebral d. 

Addadandioe, Kara. (e5QQO&~Aj A palankin carried 

*" <3 

transversely. See Adavd-pdlki. 

Adda kdlure, Karn. ( e5t|~5~c)f j3 ) A subordinate 
channel, -one cut from a main water-course for irri- 

A(lda kasibi, hasibe, hasabu, kasibi, or hambu, Kara. 
^ cl > ^3^, &c-) A trade, a profession not 

hereditary, an employment to which the person was not 
born or bred. 


Adda kattu, or katte, Kara. (^g^-P"" H) A dam for the 
purpose of confining water. 

Adda mdrga, Kara. (e3g^XT3>AE~~) A cross or bye 

Adda mdtu, Kara. (esg^TSOJ) Evasive answer, prevari- 



Adda-ndma, Karn. (esrJcJiO) A family or surname. 

A stone put across the 

The woof or cross threads. 

A transverse furrow in 

Addandlige, Karn. 

mouth of a well. 
Addani, Karn. 
Addasdlu, Karn. 

Adda-sunka, Kara. ( &5OSJOS ) Duty on sheep collected from 

those only who sell them, not from the ryots. 
Adde, Karn. (^gj) A bambu across the shoulder, by which 

two burthens are carried. 
Addekkalu, Karn. (^g |^) A new comer, a settler in a 

ADDA, Tel. ($) Half; more properly Ardha (, from 

C J (...) 

ADDA, Tel. ( es ^) A measure equal to two Mdnikas. 
ADDAVU-DOSILI, Tel. (0<)o <O<9) An allowance of grain 

made to the village barber. 


ADDA, Dekhini, H. (W I , *TI|T). This differs from the Te- 
lugu and Karn. Adda, Adda, as above, in beginning and 
ending with a long, in place of a short vowel. It is some- 
times written with a short initial and final, as Adda, or 
Uddu, Mar. (^fX but never with a dental d; the word 
occurs, with some modifications of meaning, in Tel., Mar., 
Uriya, and perhaps other dialects. A stand, a station or 
place where porters, bearers, or labourers attend to be hired ; 
a place where people assemble, a stall, a booth, a shop, 
a post or dawk station or office ; a company or asso- 
ciation of persons engaged in the same business ; any 
business constantly going on, especially on a large scale ; 
the place where it is transacted, or any place where people 
congregate, whether for business or idleness ; a salt-heap 
(in Ganjam) ; the perch of a bird-cage. 
Addd-ddr, H. (i^ l3 1 ) A palankin bearer, or dawk-runner ; 
a postman, a courier; a shop or stall-keeper. 

ADDANA, Karn. ( C5Cj3 ) A measure equal to about half-a-pint. 

ADDE, Tel. ( Q) Hire, rent. 

Appi, Beng. C^Ttfj) A title or cognomen given to persons 
who are, or whose ancestors were, money weighers and 

DAVA,Karn.(^, es&^ , e>:$Z3c>&, f rom the S.Adhyah- 
sha Wm5f;, an overseer). A village officer, whose duty 
it is to keep the cultivators to their work, and to prevent the 
clandestine removal of any part of the common crop. 

ADDISEYUTA, Tel. (esG^O&xjkj) A contract, by which a 



cultivator pledges the whole or a portion of his crop to 
a banker as security for money borrowed. 
ADEYA, UDEYU, S. (^ neg., and <**}, to be given), What may 

not be legally alienated or given away. 
ADH, ADH!, ADHI, or ADHEE, H. (*i>l , IftJl , ( j*Jl , from 
the S. arddha ^f; , half, or a part), A half. (The word 
occurs in most dialects, modified according to their pecu- 
liarities of enunciation, as in the Adda of Tel. and Karn., 
as above. It is also used extensively in composition, with 
the initial most usually made short, as, 
Adh-batai, or butaee, H. (^^ Xj|) Division of produce 

in equal shares. 
Adhela, Udhela, H. ( lUft jl ) Half a pice, or copper coin so 


Adheli, Udhelee, H. ( ( Jaol) Half a silver rupee, or eight 
anas. A half share. In Sagar, a measure of corn, half a 
chautiya. (InGarwhal) a small fractional measure of land. 
Adlteliya, H. (bJuaJl) Proprietor of a half share. 
Adhidr, H. (^Ufcjl). A man who spends half his time in 
one village, half in another, cultivating lands in both, is 
said Adkidr-harna, or, in llohilkhand, Adh-bdr. 
Adhidri, H. (^bJto!) A half share. 
Adhia, H. (Lwbjl) Division of produce between two parties 
in equal proportions ; one furnishing the land and seed, 
and the other the labour. The payment of half the annual 
assessment by the cultivators to the person who is respon- 
sible to the Government for the revenue at the vernal and 
autumnal harvests. 
Adh-kachcha, H. (1=^ Sjl) A soil lying between the land 

named Pahara and the Tarai in the district of Saharanpur. 
Adh-kari, or hurec, H. ("iNMoliCl) An instalment of eight 
anas in the rupee, or half the Government revenue, 
(from the S. kara "Wf.t tux). 
Addhak, Uddhuk, H. (^ffSFR) A half, a part: less in use 

than Adhd. 

ADHAK, ADHUK, or ARHAK, H. (S. Wld4'.) A measure of 
capacity, used as a dry measure ; a vessel 18 inches in 
depth, containing 4 prasthas, the 16th part of a hhdri. 
In the Dekhin nearly 71b. lloz. avoirdupois. In Mysore 
the Adah, or Adhak is a measure of grain, equal to 71b. 
avoirdupois, or a measure of capacity, containing about 
750 cubic inches : also called a Markdl. 
ADHARAM, Mai. (cS^euoiOo, s. "srrart) A prop, or support; 
that on which any thing lit. or fig. rests; also a canal, 
a dyke ; a document, a voucher or title -deed, by which 


a right to property is established. Karn. (e3(?c)6o) A. 
canal, or water-course for irrigation. It is used in Karnita 
in composition, to denote various modes of irrigation, as, 

Amej-ddharam, (from P. Amez, mixing) Irrigation from 
more than one source, or from tanks, wells, water-courses, 
&c. The land so irrigated. 

Dhdvi, or Bhdvddi ddhdram, Tel. Karn. (^> <=>>, S. Bdpi, 
or vdpi, a well) Irrigation from wells. The land so 

Nala, or Ndla ddhdram, (from S. TR?t ndla, a pipe). 
Irrigation from natural water-courses, or nalas. The fields 
so watered. 

Tatdhddhdram, Tel. (from the S. taduga rti|J|) A pond, 
a tank ; irrigation from a tank or pond, or the fields so 

ADHARSHAN, Beng. (S. T srto%0 Conviction of a criminal. 
ADHI, or UDHI, less- correctly, UDHEE; also corruptly, AD, 
ADH, ADI, AUDI, H. (S. ^tfv) Over, above, in place, office, 
or possession. It is used chiefly in composition. 

Adhikdr, H. &c. (S. 4)fvi4Rt) Office, duty ; superinten- 
dence, government ; right, rightful claim or property. 

Adhihdr-patra, or patrika, Beng. ('srftrStsr'fiS) A power 
of attorney, a letter of credit. 

Adhikdri, corruptly, Adhhdr, Adhdri, Adihari, Audicarei ', 
hence also the Adigar of Ceylon, II. &c. (S. *jftjMO) One 
who holds a superior office or authority ; a superintendant, 
a ruler, a governor; as, 

Grdmddhihdri, The headman of a village. 

Desddhikdri, The head of a district or province ; abbre- 
viated in the south of India to Dcsdi, corruptly Di-i/xm-i; or 
Desaye : also one who claims a right ; as, Uttarddhihtir'i , 
Subsequent claimant, i.e. Successor, heir, especially as ap- 
plicable to landed property : it may also denote one who, 
although a member of a village community, occupies his 
land in his own right, or in severally. See Arudikdrai. 

Adhikarma, H. (S. 'SrfVcRwi) Superintendence, supervision, 

Adhikarma-krit, H. (S. ^lft|h*A<*r( ) A supervisor, a supe- 
rior, a governor. 

Adhipati, or Udhijmtee, corruptly Adhiput, H. (S. ^rftpTfTf:) 
A superintendant, a headman. It is used like Adhihdri in 
composition, as Grdmddhipati, Head of a village ; Dea- 
ddhipati, Head of a district. 

Adhirdj, or Udhiraj, H. (S. ^lfv<l*(!) A paramount prince 
or sovereign, but also commonly used as a title to persons of 


inferior pretensions, although of consequence. It is some- 
times abbreviated to Dhirqj, as Mahdrdj, Dhirdj, Jay 
Sink, the great king, the supreme Jay Sinh. 
Adhi-vinnd, S. C^rfVlfcNl) In Hindu law, a superseded wife, 

one who has been succeeded by other wives. 
Adhi-vedanika, S. (^rfv^ftni?) In Hindu law, Dowry or 
settlement given to a first wife on her supercession by a 
second marriage. 

Adhyagni, S. ("SajfiTT) Property given to the wife at the 
time of marriage, or over the (nuptial) fire. One of the 
items of Stri-dhan, or female property, in Hindu law. 
AdhydvdhaniJta, S. (^nflT^T?ftrl?) An item of woman's 

property ; property that has descended to her lineally. 
ADHIK, or UDHIK, H. (S. wftrat:) More, any thing in addition 
or excess. It occurs in most of the dialects, singly or 
in composition. 

Adhika-vdram, Tarn. (5ljsli5&6LjrrrjLQ) In South India, a 
division of the crop in which a larger share is assigned 
to Brahmans or other privileged persons. 
ADHI, S. (wrftn) A pledge, or deposit, which may be of 
two kinds Gopya, to be preserved entire and perfect, or 
Bhogya, to be used or enjoyed ; also Bandhaha, q. v. 
Adhi bhoaa, S. (^rrfwtr) Use of a thing pledged, either 

as the equivalent of a partial or entire remission of interest. 
AoHORiA, or UDHOHEEA, Thug. A person who has separated 
from a party, and has thereby escaped their fate of being 
waylaid and murdered. 

Am, or ADHI, Beng. (^tHs*, ojlH*) A measure of ca- 
pacity, equal, in the neighbourhood of Calcutta, to two 

ADI, corruptly ADDY, Tarn. (.l|Up A foot ; also a measure 
of length, a short foot = 10 . 46 inches : 57,600 square adis 
are equal to a kdni, q.v. 

Adikol, Tarn. (5i|lij.<5(S<srT^)) A measuring rod. 
ADI CHERI, Tarn. (Smq.&<c&lf\) Near the town; a village 
near a town, a suburb ; that part of the village in which 
the hereditary proprietors reside. 
AUIDADI, (In Chingleput) Breach of the peace. 
ADIKASU, Karn. (es>~3~sX>) A daily tax levied on shops, 
especially in regimental bazars, varying from one to four 
has, or cash. 

ADIKI, ADIKE, Kara. (e&i, esfci) Betel or Areka-nut. 
Adike-gonikdr, Karn. A tax on the hire of the Gonikars, 
a low caste of Hindus employed to gather the areka-nut 
from the gardens of the Ryots in Mysore. 



Aflike-kriydvdsi, Karn. A tax on betel-nut tree groves in 


ADIMA, UDIMA, Mai. (dS^slQ) ; Adimai, Tarn. (a^<555Ln); 
Adime, Tel. (C5& ^> ) Slavery, bondage in general. A bond- 
man, a slave. In Tarn., especially a predial slave attached 
hereditarily to the land, and only transferable with it. In 
Malabar it also implies the feudal dependency of a Nair upon 
some chief whom he selects for his protector or patron. 

Adimaichittu, Tarn. (^l^-<5roLQ<&-<^L_) Bill of sale for 
a slave. 

Adima, or Udima janm, Mai. (2SO2, S. 'SpT, birth, birth- 
right). Mortgage of land for a sum inferior to its value 
by a superior to a person of a low caste ; hence some- 
times applied to a grant of land by a superior to an in- 
ferior, either rent-free, or at a quit-rent : the land, in either 
case, reverting to the granter on failure of heirs of the grantee. 
[This is evidently the same as the Adoni-janm of the Glos- 
sary, Fifth Report. See R. p. 801.] 

Adima-janm kdr, or Adima-janm-kolunavan, Mai. (6)<&>94 
OOO_ia6) The person who holds an Adima grant. 

Adima-janm panam, Mai. (a_l<ST>o, price). Price or fee 
paid for receiving land by Adima tenure. 

Adimapani, Mai. ( 05*3 s)(2o_i err)!) The duty of a slave, 

Adima-paramba, Mai. (o_loOOJ, a garden), A plantation 
or garden held by an Adima grant. 

Adimuydvan, Mai. (CS^QsloiCEJOnJOO) Immunities granted 

to slaves by their masters, as land, gardens, &c. 
ADIMAN, corruptly,^Lrfe/maww, Mar.(^3Tf^'n*T, from the S.^Hlf^, 
first, and mft, respect). The first rights or privileges enjoyed 
by a village officer ; certain claims or rights of precedence, &c. 
AoiNAM, Tarn, (S. jg},<E^<5OTLo) Government. Property. 

Adinattuhudaiyavan, or Adinahartan, Tarn. ( .a^^CCTS 
S|c5@CtDI_U_l6L!OTT ^,^C3Cr<5 USSOT) A proprietor, 
an owner, a landlord, an heir or inheritor. 
ADI - PATTADENELLU, Tarn. (^l^-UUUl-G^G^Qie^j) 
Waste or sweepings at the foot (adi) or bottom of a stack 
of straw; a band of straw tied round a stack of grain to 
prevent the clandestine removal of any part of it. 

Adippukkuli, Tarn. ( =HL9-LJl_|S<3n_6\51) Wages for thrash- 
ing corn. 

Adittumutaldnatu, Tarn. (^Uj.^Sl(LpiS6C)rTOT'Sj) Quan- 
tity of grain thrashed. 

ADIRASU, Karn. (es>G c/Kx>) Remains of a heap of corn; 



Api SUDRA, Tarn. (SXIl^-^SJ^lcrrTCOT) A man of a low 
caste ; one of a caste inferior to (adi), even the Siidra. 

ADITI, or ADITIYA, H. (VHfifiT) A mercantile correspondent 
or agent ; but the word is a corruption of Adat, Arhat, 
or Arhatiya, q. v. 

ADITYA, H. (S. ^rrf^TT.) The sun. 

Aditya-vdr, or Aditya-bdr, abridged to A-it-rvar, or more 
commonly, Etrvar (H.^I^Jul) Sunday. 

Apiy^N, plur. ADIYAR, Mai. (flS*oslCQ/>nr6) A slave, a serf, 
a vassal ; a man of low caste in Malabar, who lives under 
the protection of a Raja or religious establishment Tarn. 
( ajLqJJJ nCDT ) A man-servant; Adiydl, Tarn. (l|Uj.- 
LUrrsfr) a woman-servant. 

ADL, UDL, H. &c. (A. J>\c) Justice, equity. Equality, equi- 
poise. The word occurs in most dialects, with slight 
modifications, and in some places denotes an official seal 
or stamp for documents, parcels, &c. ; also, in Orissa and 
the northern Cirkars, a wooden stamp for blocks of salt. 
Adl-ddr, H. (^L> Jj>c) A sealer ; an officer whose duty it 

is to apply seals or stamps. 

Addala-vddu, Tel. ( C5C|CT T> QO ) An officer who stamps 
blocks of salt; also a manufacturer of salt, or hired 
labourer employed in the manufacture. 
Addil, H. (A. Jt>lc) A just or upright person; one in 
whom trust may be placed. 


Addil al Rahn, A. ( ( .f>)' Jw*X In Mohammadan law, 
a third party, to whose keeping a pledge or security given 
by a borrower to a lender is entrusted. 
ADALAT, UDALUT, corruptly, ADAWLUT, H. (A. c^J'<Xc) 
Court of justice ; justice, equity. Under the Mohammedan 
Government the Addlats, or Courts of Justice, were four : 

1. Nizdmat Addlat, (ciJlAc e^volliJ) The Supreme Court 
of Criminal Justice, nominally presided over by the Ndzim, 
or Viceroy of the province. This was subdivided into the 
Roz-addlat, or Court held on a Sunday by the Ndzim 
for the trial of capital offenders, and the Addlat ul Adli- 
i/at (from ^Lc), The High Court, in which affrays, quarrels, 
and cases regarding personal property were tried : this was 

usually presided over by the Nizam's deputy, or Ddrogha. 

2. Dirvani Addlat (oilAc (J'^J) The Civil Court of the 

Diwan, the chief officer in charge of the revenue of the 

3. Faujddri Addlat (e>Jlj>c ^lAa^y) The Court of the 
Faujdar, or chief of the magistracy and police of a district ; 
the Subordinate, or District Criminal Court. 


4. Addlat ul Kdzi (^IflJl e^JUc) The Court of the Kdzi, 
the chief judge of a town or district in civil causes and 
questions regarding the Mohammedan religion. Under him 
the Muhtasib held a Court for the adjudication of offences 
against morals as drunkenness, gambling, &c. Under the 
British Government these Courts were continued, with some 
modifications, until 1793, when the judicial and revenue 
departments were separated, and Zila and Provincial Courts 
were established, subordinate to one Supreme Addlat at the 
Presidency, distinguished as the SADR, or SUDDEH ADA- 
LAT (A. c^J'jj; ji^e ) High Court of Justice, or Court of 
Final Decision, subdivided into, 

Sadr-Dirvdni Addlat, or, corruptly, Sndder Dervanny 
Adawlut, High Court of Civil Jurisdiction. 

Sadr Nizdmat, or Faujddri Addlat, High Court of Cri- 
minal Justice. Beng. Reg. iii. ix. xii. xiii. 1793, ii. 1795, 
ii. 1801, viii. 1803, v. 1809, &c. 

Addlat Akbar, H. (A.^J^I, greatest), A superior Court of 
Justice ; a Court of Appeal. 

Addlat Axghar, H. (A.^e!, smallest), An inferior, or 

subordinate Court of Justice. 

ADM, UDM, H. (A. ,J>c) Cessation, discontinuance. In Urdu 
it is chiefly used to form technical compounds ; as, 

Adm-i-jaiddd, H. (P. liljjU-, a grant), Loss or forfeiture 
of a grant ; loss of subsistence. 

Adm-nishdn, H. (P. ^jLiJ, sign or trace), Unclaimed or 
untraceable property, &c. 

Adm-i-sabut, P. (A. <-^-J, confirmation), Wanting proof, 
defective in evidence. 

Adrn-ir-tandehi, H., Remissness or neglect in pursuing a 
cause, suffering it to go by default, (lit. want of bodily 
exertion ; or P. tan, and S. deh, both meaning body). 
ADMARJAI, Hindi (^HMI^) A term used in leases, signi- 

fying failure from drought. 

ADONI-JANM, Mai. Lands held by individuals of low caste 
and artisans under grants from persons of rank and property. 
See Adima-janm, for which it is no doubt an error. 
Apu, Tarn. (Sij,), ATA, Mai. (CS^s) A sheep, a goat. 

Attukdran, Mai. ((S^)^<fi>9(0nf&) A shepherd, a goatherd. 

Attuhkidai, Tain. (ajjl_(S<Ebl(3fnL_) A field, cote, or place 
where goats or sheep are penned, for the sake of their 

Attumari-Mli (?) Tarn. The hire paid to the owner of a 
flock of sheep or goats for their detention in a field for 
the purpose of manuring it. 



Attu-vari, Tarn, (sucfl, tax), A tax on sheep or goats. 
ADUKKUVATA, Mai. (CS*oSoe6in_jrff)) Any right retained by 

the original proprietor from the purchaser or mortgagee. 
AUUTTI, Tarn. (a|^^l), Usury. 
ADYA-SRADDHA, S. (^nfiCHI^) The first israddha, or obse- 

quial ceremony after a person's decease. 
AENTHA, Thug. Silver money. 
AFAT, AFUT, vernacularly, APHAT, H. (A. e^il, xNlihri , 

S. Hdllli^) Misfortune, calamity. 
Afat dsmdni, H. (P. ^U-* I , heaven), Misfortune from hea- 

ven, as bad seasons, storm, drought, &c. 
Afat farmdni, or suUdni, H. (A. jjUjJ - ,jlkL. ) Misfortune 
from the tyranny or exactions of the Government or its 
AFIM, UFEEM, or UPHEEM, H. (A. ,jjl , WUffa); also AFIUN, 

(A. j-j^w') Opium. 

AFSHANI-KAGHAZ, H. (P.J& jjliJl) Paper studded or 
spangled with gold-leaf, used in writing to persons of dis- 

AFTABA, H. (P. UUiT) A ewer. 
AFTAB-GI'R, H. (P. a/tab- 1 jUi I, the sun, and girj&, what 

receives), A large flat semicircular parasol. 
Aftdb-giri, H. The servant who carries the parasol. 
AFTABI, H. (from the P. <__>Usl, the sun), A large flat cir- 
cular or semicircular parasol carried by the side of the 
person or palankin shaded by it. Under the Mogul Go- 
vernment it was one of the insignia of high rank, and 
could be carried only by special permission or grant of the 

APHTADA, for AFTADA, Hindi (^tMiril^l, from P. Jt>liil, 
fallen), Lands of which possession has been transferred to 
another ; also, neglected land, or that which has fallen 
out of cultivation. 

A A 

A FIT, UFOO, A. (ytc, lit. pardon), Balance or residue of 
an estate. Exemption from, or remission of surplus 

AFZUN, AFZOON, H. (P. <.jjjsl) Increase ; increased revenue. 
Addition (in account) ; an account in which a certain 
number of items are added together, and their totals 
are then progressively added, until the final sum is 

AGAIRA, corruptly, AUGAYRA, H. (t,JjS\, from S. agra^Rt, 
and H. dye ^ I , before, at first), The first sheaves of the 
crop presented to the Zemindar. 

AGAIYA, UGAIYA, H. (Ijsl, from dg, from S. wfiij, Fire, 

abridged to WTT) A disease affecting rice, in which the 

plant seems burnt up. 
AGAM, Tarn. (a|S>La) The earth. Grain. 
Agamudaiydn, Tarn. (a|<5(Lp<3cOI_LLJrTOT) A landholder ; 

also, the name of a caste. 

Agavllai, Tarn. (<!|<H>6lJ13a}) Market-price of grain. 
AGAMA, S. (WTO!) A work on sacred science; a scripture. 

In law, a voucher, a document, a title ; also, descent of 

AGAMI, Beng. (S. ^WlBd, Future, what is to come ; whence 

Agdm, an advance of payment ; also used in deeds and 

leases, to indicate all future possible privileges or profits. 
AGAN, UGU*, or AG, H. ( LL/I S. Agni ^rfnr., fire), Fire, or 

its personified divinity. 
Aganhotri, more correctly, Agnihotri, H. (S. -f[j1tiO A 

Brahman who maintains a perpetual fire in his house. 

See Agni-hotri. 
AGAH, AGUH, H. (^Sl , probably from S. ^Uch{, a mine), A 


Agari, Aguree, H. (<_/') A manufacturer of salt. 
AGAR, Mar. (wPlO A plantation of fruit-trees, especially of 

betel-nut and cocoa-nut trees. A place on the sea-shore 

having salt-pits. 
Agar-gaon, Mar. (SHNK'IN) A village having plantations 

or orchards attached. 

AGAHAM, Tarn. (.ajcEbrJLa) A corruption of Agrahdram, q.v. 
AGARI, AGAREE, H. ((_; I, from the S. agra ^sni, before), 

Money, &c., paid in advance. There are various dia- 

lectical modifications of the same, as, Agdi or Agaee, 

Aguri or Agooree, Agdu, Agdvu, &c., all derived from 

Agra, meaning, Before, either in place or time, through 


the vernacular form Age. 

AGARI (?). Said to be the name of a low caste of Hindus 
in Cuttack : according to one authority, bullock-drivers ; 
to another, domestic slaves. 

AGARI'YA, AGUREEYA, Thug. Descendants of the original 
Thugs, who, after being expelled from Delhi, settled for 
a time at Agra. 

portant sub-division of the mercantile caste, comprising 
many of the wealthiest traders and bankers in Hindustan. 
According to Mr. Elliot they derive their name from 
Agroha in Hariana, whence they originally migrated to 
other provinces after the capture of that place by Shahdb- 
ad-Din Gori. Common tradition refers their name and 




origin to Agra. The Agarmal is one of the Gachhas, 

or families of the Jains ; and most of its members profess 

the Jain religion. 
AGASA or AGASI, Uousu, UGUSEE ; also AGUSA, Kara. 

( oXctf, eXbctf ) A washerman. 

Agasara-terige, Kara. (S*"A t a tax)i A tax on washermen- 
Ac ASI, UGASEE, H. (j-wiot) A turban, in which sense it is 

also used by the Thugs ; but they apply the term like- 

wise to the cry of the kite. If heard between the first 

watch of the night and day-break it is unlucky ; in the 

day it is immaterial. 
AGASI- (probably for Ah&si, skiey)-BiRAR, Thug, (but used 

in the Dekhin), Thunder. 
AGASTWAR, H. (j\^J,\) A small clan of Rajputs in Haveli- 

AGAU, H. (jtfl), Agavu, Tel. (^, from S. TO) An ad- 

vance of money. In the northern Circars the same as 

Takdvi, or money-advance to the cultivators ; also collec- 

tion of revenue before it is due. 
AGAYADI, UGUYUDEE, Kara. (eXo&&) Small spots of 

land on which rice is sown for transplanting, and which 

the ryots claim free of rent. 
AGDA, or AGRA, H. ( I5>ff ) An ear of com or rice which has 

been blighted and contains no grain. 
AGHAM, Mar. (?). In the Dekhin, an extra assessment 

imposed upon the hereditary proprietors of a village to 

cover charges for unusual expenses or default of any of 

the community. E. I. Set. iv. 54 L 
AGHAN, UGHUN, corruptly, Auotm, H. (j.^1 , S. HUgimu) 

One of the months of the luni-solar year the eighth, cor- 

responding with November December. 
AGHANI, UGHUNEE, H. dj^\ ) Produce of that portion of 

the Kharif, or cold weather crop, which is gathered in 

the month Aghan. It is also applied to the harvest of 

the cold season. 
Aghani-fasl, Ughunee-fusl, H. (J^i ,J^\ ; also, vernacu- 

larly, but incorrectly, in Hindi, Aghani-phasil 

The cold-weather harvest, reaped in Nov. Dec. 

AGHAT, UGHAT, corruptly, AGHAUT, H. (ej^, 

from S. a. ^, neg., and yhdta ^R, struck), Land held in 
perpetuity, and inalienable. 

AOHORA, H. Mar. (S. Wtftu, dreadful), A name of SIVA. 

A religious mendicant, of an order of which the practices 

are most filthy and disgusting, the food being ordure and 

carrion, and, it is said, human flesh ; but much of this is 


imposture, the object of which is to excite the wonder of 
the beholders, and make them believe in the utter indif- 
ference of the Aghora to worldly enjoyments. 

Aghora-pantha, or marga, H. Mar. (S. ifa, JTP!, a road), 
The path or practices of the Aghoras. 

Aghora-pantki, H. Mar. One following the Aghora path. 

Aghora-pramdnam, S. (HHUU, authority), A peculiarly 
solemn form of oath used in the south of India, wherein the 
person to be sworn, after fasting and bathing, sits down, 
decorated with flowers, in a temple ; and having made his 
asseveration in front of the idol, puts out a lamp burning 
before it, and wishes he may be similarly extinguished if 
he has uttered an untruth. 

AON I, UONI, S. (<flf'i:, written also, but incorrectly, Ugnee, 
and abbreviated in several dialects to Ag cL/l) Fire. 
Either the element, or domestic or sacred fire, or the 
element personified as the god of fire, to whom oblations 
of clarified butter are offered at most domestic rites. 

Agni-astra, S. Fire-arms, a weapon of fire ; a fabulous 
weapon so called ; a rocket. 

Agni-brahmnna, S. A Brahman who officiates as priest 
at the burning of dead bodies. 

Agni-dagdha, S. Ben. A Hindu, who having died with- 
out issue, is burnt at once, without the previous cere- 
mony of having fire put into the mouth of the corpse. 

Agni-ddha, S. The ceremony of burning a dead body ; 
lit. burning with fire. 

Agni-dik, S. The south-east quarter, of which Agni is 
the regent. 

Agni-hotra, S. Performance of daily or occasional wor- 
ship with fire lighted from a perpetual fire preserved in 
the dwellings of a particular class of Brahmans. 

Agni-hotri, S. A Brahman who maintains a perpetual 
household fire. 

Agni-homa, S. Performance of worship with fire ; offering 
oblations to fire. The ceremony is denominated also 
simply, Homa. 

Agni-kriyd, S. Any ceremony with fire, but especially 
the burning of the dead. 

Agni parikshd, S. (from m?fai|T, trial), Ordeal by fire, as 
formerly practised by walking through it, or as subse- 
quently practised, dipping the hand into boiling oil, &c. 

Agni pratishtkd, S. Consecration of fire ; fire lighted from 
the perpetual fire for any particular ceremony, as that 
of marriage. 


* Agni-sanskdra, S. The sacrament of fire ; the burning of 
the dead body as an essential rite of the Hindu religion. 
The completion of any essential rite by worship with fire. 
Agni-shoma, or Agnishomiya-ydga, S. A ceremony per- 
formed at the new moon, when oblations of milk are 
offered to Indra through fire. 
Agnishtoma, S. A sacrifice, in which the juice of the 

Soma or asclepias is offered in oblation. 
Agni-sutra, S., lit. A thread of fire, but in Mysore applied 
to a girdle of sacrificial grass placed round the waist of 
a young Brahman when he is invested with the sacred 
string of his caste. 

AGOT, Mar. (^nft?) The period shortly before or after the 
setting in of the rainy season. 

AGOR, UGOR, or AGORYA, H. (^jy' jf\) A man appointed 
to watch the crops (used chiefly in the Benares district). 
A division of the crop. 

( (_& jf I ) Division of the crop immediately after reaping 
between the cultivator and the Government, the latter 
taking half the produce in kind. A division of the crop 
in predetermined proportions between landlord and tenant ; 
lit. a watching and sharing, each party keeping a watch 
over the fields, that none of the crop may be fraudulently 
made away with. Reg. ii. 1795. 

AGORA, UGORA, H. (^/') Daily hire. 

AGOUKD, UGOUNB, H. ( &>fl ) The top of the sugar-cane 
cut up for seed, in distinction to Bel-kd-bij, in which the 
cane itself is cut into five or six pieces. In some parts 
of the north-west provinces the different portions of the 
cane have different names. Pat implies the leaves of the top ; 
Ag, Agao, Agmtra, Agin, or Gaundi, are applied to the 
cane a few inches below the top ; Kdncha, Gulla, Paln-a, 
or Phungi, about a foot lower, and is the part generally used 
for seed. The rest of the plant is termed Gande, Gunda, 
or Gunna (perhaps for the S. Khahda T$1\). Elliot. 

AGOUR, H. (jjjl, from II. Age J>\, S. agra ^TCT) An advance 
of rent paid by the cultivator to the Zemindars in the months 
of Jeth and Ashdrh (Oude). 

AGRADANA, Ben. (^T2|Tffa) A Brahman of an inferior order, 
who conducts funeral obsequies, or Sraddhas, for hire ; 
also called Malidpdtra, Malidbrdhmana, Great Brahman, 

AGRAHARAM,UGRUHARUM, or, with the inflective sign, AGRA- 
HARAMAH, AoRAHARAMU ', also abbreviated as AGA- 


RAM, AGRARAM, and corruptly, AGRAGHRAH ; also, but 
superfluously, AGRAHARAVADAI. Tel., Karn., Tarn., Mar. 
(S. SHy^KJ, from agra ^TQ, first, and tiara ^TC, what re- 
ceives), A village, or a part of one, occupied by Brahmans, 
and held either rent-free under special grants, or at a re- 
duced rate of assessment. The precise nature of the tenure 
is usually denoted by a term prefixed, as Sarvdgrahdram, 
free from all (sarva) tax ; Bil-makt agrahdram, a village 
at a stipulated (A. LLtJW rent; and Kattubadi agra- 
haram, a village held at a rent which fluctuates with the 
produce (from the Tel. Kattubadi, a favourable or quit 
rent). The same is termed, in Karnata Jodi-agrahdra 

Agrahdravddai, Tarn. (<l|&S3l IT <5&nTJ SUIT 0551 ), Agra- 
hdra vddike, Karn. (e,5oS&3~3ai ) One of the former 
divisions of the villages in the Dravira countries ; those 
exempt from revenue, usually occupied by Brahmans, but 
sometimes by other classes. 

Agrahdrika, Ugruharika, Tel. Karn. (W v X,c5oaa$') A Brah- 
man inhabiting an Agrahara village. In Bengal, a Brah- 
man who conducts Sraddhas, or obsequial ceremonies. 

AGULA, Uriya (2|S1R. ) In the northern Circars, a dam to divert 
the course of a stream, and turn it over the fields for irrigation. 

AGTJRI, Beng. (^Tt*tSt) Alow caste ; mostly cultivators. 

AGWA, H. (Ijsl) A village servant, who acts as a guide to 

AGWAR, H. (jU>D The portion of corn set apart for the vil- 
lage servants (from Age, first ; the first part to be taken 
from the heap). In the eastern provinces it implies the 
perquisite of the ploughmen in kind. 

AGWASI, H. (^^Jyl) The body of the plough-share. 

AGY!, H. &c. (Uil , from the S. Ajnd ^nsTt) An order, an 

edict, award, decree. 
Agyd-patra, H. A written order, a warrant or commission. 

an edict. 

Abdgya, Uriya (for S. ^ra, against, and ^T$n) Disregard 
of orders ; resistance to process. 

AHAD, UHUD, H. (A. iX^c) An agreement, an engagement, a 


Ahad-ddr, H. One who makes an agreement ; an officer 
of the Mogul Government who, for a per-centage on the 
collection, engaged for the revenue of a district. 
Ahad-ndma, H. A written engagement. 

AHADIS, H. (A. LS^Ol*-}, plur. of L^>J>-) Traditions; espe- 
cially the traditionally transmitted sayings and doings of 



Mohammed, as constituting the basis of the Sunnat, or 
traditional law. 

AHAK, AHUK, H. (P. t^Jjb I ) Quick-lime ; an abwab, or cess 
upon lime. 

AHAL, Hindi (l^<$) Freshness of soil. 

AHAN, AHUN, H. (P. ,^1) Iron. 

Ahani-holimi, Tel. (from Ahan, iron, and Tel. kolimi 
S^SOJ, a forge), A tax on blacksmiths. 

H. (t^j&i tj&> I > from S. ddhdra ^TTOTT) A small pond ; a 
reservoir for collecting water for irrigation ; a drain or 
ditch for the same purpose ; a trough for watering cattle. 

AHAR, AHUH, H. (jtA) A salt-pit. 

AHAR, AHUR, H. (y&1) The name of a tribe or caste ex- 
tensively spread through Rohilkhand and other districts in 
the north-west provinces, following pastoral occupations, ' 
and claiming to be descended from the Yadu-nace of 
Rajaputz, but not so recognised by other castes. The tracts 
they occupy are known collectively as the Ahdrdt. 

AnAVANfYA, S. (VH^tHl'li:) The consecrated fire taken from 

the household fire for the purpose of receiving oblations. 

AHDAH, UHDUH, or more correctly, OHDUH, q.v. H. (A. xj^c) 

An office, whether civil or military. 

Ahdah-ddr, H. (P.^lj, who has), An officer, a functionary, 
whether military or civil. 

AHERA, Mar. (W^) Presents made to a person by his rela- 
tions on occasion of a marriage in his family. 

AHERIYA, H. (\>jjJt>\) A sportsman, a fowler. 

AHEVA, Mar. (<N^, from S. a *f, not, and vidhavd ftjljin, 

widow), A woman whose husband is living. 
Aheva-navami, Mar. The ninth of the dark fortnight of 
Bhadra (Aug. Sept.), when offerings are made to the 
manes of women who have died before their husbands. 

AHIR, UHEEH, H. (jJ&>\, from the S. ABHIB, q.v.), A caste 
of Hindus following the occupation of shepherds; originally 
a pastoral tribe in the west of India, but now spread univer- 
sally, and especially numerous in the north-west provinces, 
where they are distinguished as three races, acknowledging 
no other connection than the name of AMr. These are 
of the Nand-bansa (race), Jad or Yadu-bansa, and Gwal 
(Go-redid, cowherd) bansa. The first are most nume- j 
rous in the Central Doab ; the second in the Upper Doab, 
and on the west of the Jumna ; and the last in the Lower 
Doab and the province of Benares. The two first are 
numerously sub-divided, bearing distinctive appellations, 

taken usually from the place where they reside. Some 
of the Jad-bansis have been converted to Mohammedanism, 
and are known as Hangars in common with some other 
tribes. Tribes of Ahirs are numerous also in Rajputana 
and the Punjab. In the Delhi territory the Ahirs eat, 
drink, and smoke with Jats and Giijars, and in some cases 
with Rajputs. The several sub-divisions intermarry, 
avoiding only the four families nearest in affinity ; and 
where they are much intermixed, as in the Delhi district, 
with Giijars and Jats, they conform to their usage of the 
marriage of the widow of an elder brother by the next in 

AHITA, UHEETU, H. (<UJAI) A person appointed to watch 
the grain when it is ripe, and see that none is carried 
away before the demands on it are liquidated. 
AHITAGNI, S. (^Hlf:g 1 tnf'T;) A Brahman householder who 

maintains a perpetual family-fire. 

AHKAM, H. (A. J-1, plur. of *-) Orders, commands. 
Ahkdm-ndma, corruptly, Aham-nama, or Altdm ndma, II. 
Written orders ; the title given, in the Karnatie, to the 
assessment of the land-revenue made under Tipu. 
Ahhdmi-zaminddr, H. A Zamindar appointed by the ruling- 


AHL, UHL, H. (A. (Jjbl) People belonging to either person, 

place, or practice ; family dependants ; the women and 

children of the head of a family. It is commonly used 

in composition, as, 

Ahl-ul-Ijtihdd, A. (tilyls-HI (Ja!) In Mohammedan law, 

People capable of legal investigation ; qualified jurists. 
Altl-i-lidr, H. (jo (Jib") People of business; officers of a court. 
Altl-i-kalam, H. (Jj (Jjb!) Civil officers; people of the 
pen. This is also used in Mysore, as Karn. (CSSoB&UO), 
Ahli-kitab, H. (A.L-jlj^, a book), People of the Book Mo- 
hammedans, Jews, and Christians. 

Akl-i-m&dsh, H. (A. |^U*>) Possessor of a means of subsis- 
tence ; holder of a rent-free tenure. 

Altl-ul-maxdrif, A. (from i_9,La) In Mohammedan law, A 
proprietor ; one who has the right of appropriation, or 

Ahl-i-nasrat, A. (from X^flj) In Mohammedan law, Coadju- 
tors, colleagues; persons fit or able to assist or restrain their 
associates, and who are therefore amenable to punishment if 
they suffer or aid them to commit any offence. 
Ahl-i-simnat,A. (from OX*,) The followers of the traditional, 
aswellasthe written law. TheSunnis,asopposedtotheShi-as. 


AHLA, H. (iW) Inundation, overflow. 
AHMAKANA, H. (&UU-I, from the A. J}**-], a fool, lit. 
foolishly), A fine paid by a collector or farmer of the re- 
venue on account of deficiency or default. 
AHMED-MAHMUD, H. (A. liyks*, iX*s>J, lit. the praised, but 
used as proper names), A term applied in the Courts to 
two persons who have combined to defraud a third. 
AHMEDI, H. (A. (^jj^a-l) A gold coin of Tipu Sultan, 
equal to 5 pagodas, MARSDEN. MIII. MIV. It is also ap- 
plicable to the coins of Ahmed Shah of Delhi. 
AHNIKA, S. ('STf^oS, from VH^H , a day, diurnal), The daily 

observances of the Hindus ; a diary, a journal. 
AHORATHA, S. (VigkHO A day and night, from sunrise to 


AHSHAM, corruptly, ASHAM, (H. J,i-l, A. plur. of *As>-) 
Karn. (es5b^taO) ) HASHAM, or HASHAM, Mar. (^fJH, 
^5IW), Attendants, followers, retinue. In the Dekhin and 
Carnatic, A kind of irregular troops or militia, employed 
chiefly as garrisons, and as an armed police. 
Alisham, or llaxhdm-daftar, H. Mar. (P.^JIj'J, an office) \ 
The muster-roll or return of the local militia, and their 

Ahshdm, or Hashdm daftarddr, H. Mar. (P.^b) An officer 
in the Maratha state who made out the annual accounts 
of the expenses and dues of the irregular troops from the 
rough accounts. 

Hasham, or Hashdm-farnavis, Mar. (ifcim"l$() An officer 
who made out the muster and pay-rolls of the irregular 
troops ; also Afishdm or Hashdm-navis. 
Ahshdm, or Hashdm-jdifjir, H. Mar. (^jjols-) Assignments 

of revenue for the support of the irregular troops. 
Ahshdm, or Ifashdm-sibandi, or Ahshdm, or Hashdm Si- 
pdhi, H. Mar. (fifl^sg^, f^nrr?^) Local militia, or irregu- 
lar troops, employed in garrisons, or as an armed police, 
in the Maratha countries. 

AIIWAL, H. (A., plur. of Jl-) Circumstances, condition, 
events ; a report or record of the particulars of an affair, 
or of the condition of a thing or person. 
AHYA AL-MAWAT (A. cu^Jl U-l , lit. revival of the dead), 

Cultivation of waste lands. 
AL AHYAI BAD AL-MAWAT, Mar. (trjl^!! ^*> ,_yUrs-! J!) 

Surviving heirs after others' death (Mohammedam law). 
A-IGALU, or AYIGALU, Karn. (CXX}Xeo) The box in which 
the portable emblem of the Lingaits is carried hung round 
the neck. 



A-IDENE, Karn. (GC^OQrO) Ears of corn selected for seed. 

First crop. 

AILA, or ILA, A. (1)1) A vow; but in Mohammedan law, 
especially a vow to abstain from carnal knowledge of a wife 
for four months, the fulfilment of which is equivalent to a 

A-IL, A-EEL, Ben. (^1^*0 A bank or mound of earth forming 
a division between fields, a boundary mark, an embankment. 
AIM A, less correctly, AYMA, H. (A. 3Uol) Land granted by 
the Mogul Government, either rent-free or subject to a 
small quit-rent, to learned and religious persons of the 
Mohammedan faith, or for religious and charitable uses 
in relation to Mohammedanism. Such tenures were 
recognised by the British Government as hereditary and 
transferable. Beng. Regulations before 1793, p. 24. Reg. 
viii. 1793, &c. 
Aima-bdz-ydft, H. (P. L^sUjb) Lapsed Aima grants, or 

such grants subsequently assessed. . 

Aima-bdzi-zamin, H. (A. j-^-cf ^^^ Land held rent-free, 

or at a quit-rent, under an Aima grant. 
Aima-ddr, H. (P.^!i> , who has), Holder of land granted for 
religious or charitable uses, or to religious or learned Mo- 
Aima-mauzd, H. (A. r^y*) A village given as a charitable 

endowment to learned or religious persons. 
AIN, A. (the Arabic letter c). The official counter-mark 
of the Vazir upon a royal mandate for an assignment of 
revenue under the Mohammedan Governments. 
A-IN, AEEN, A YIN, AYEEN, q.v. H. (P. ^1) Laws, statutes, 
rules, regulations ; the laws enacted by secular authority 
in distinction to those of the Koran or sacred tradition. 
Am-ddn, H. (P. ^jlj) Literally, One who knows the law, 
but applied especially to one who, by his knowledge of Go- 
vernment regulations, takes advantage of those who are 
unfamiliar with them. 

Ain-rvartan, or murtun, (?) (S. TlN) A special allowance 
in some parts of the south of India to the Zemindar from 
the resources of the village. 

Aln-i-sharkat, H. (A. d^o/*>) Terms or rules of partnership. 

AIN, A. ( (i j^) Property actually existing, specific sum or 

value, the most precious or substantial part of property. 

As adopted in Maratha finance, Ain ($0, incorrectly 

written sometimes Ay en, implies either the original 

fixed or standard assessment of the revenue or the lands 

bearing such assessment It occurs also in various com- 




binations in the revenue language of the Maratha provinces 
and some other parts of India, chiefly in the South, in the 
sense of actual, original, or originally fixed or standard. 
Ainbabati, Mar. (gfWNril) The original Sdbati, or 
portion, of the fourth of the Maratha tribute set apart for 
the prince. 
Ainberij, Tarn. (ajLLKjbrCL-irfgg ) Actual or standard 

Aindasta, Mar. dH^jf) The regular cess upon fields, &c., 

as opposed to any incidental or extra charge. 
Ainjamd, corruptly, Ayen-jumma, H. (from the A. am ^J& , 
special, and jamd **?-> collection) Mar. (HHl) Tarn. 
(a|U_loT5TggLQrT) The regular or standard collections or 
revenue, fixed exclusive of extra cesses, the same as the 
Asal jamd of Bengal. 
Ainjamdbandi, Mar. (P. 4,?^) The settlement or account 

of the assessment upon any given tract. 
Ainjinna.1, Mar. ({HHiltH, from the A. \j~io-) The produce 

of the soil as assessed in kind, not in money. 

Ainkamdvisjamd, Mar. (<H4iHNl$MHT) The original 

articles of the extra revenue not included in the land 

revenue ; cesses or fees of some standing. 

Ain-mohdsd, Mar. (*?HHl<*mi, from the A. muha&iar, ,-aiU, 

diminished, or multhassas, ^0*0**, appropriated ?) The 

original amount of assignment of lands, or of a portion of the 

Government claim of the fourth of the revenue, to the Maratha 

Sirdars, on condition of their keeping up troops, &c., for the 

service of the State ; also the fixed share of the Government 

in the property of a village, and the revenue derived from 

it, or the village originally paying part revenue to the State. 

Aindti, corruptly Ayanatee and Einatee, Mar. (Jhrrift) The 

original standard assessment of the revenue. 
Ain-mulki, Mar. (A. CJ1, a kingdom) The original land 

Ain-sibandi, Mar. (f$|=}^1) The original establishment of 

Ain-taram, Tarn. (A. ^^c, original, and T. taram SIJLa, 
kind, species), The original classification of lands in the 
Madras provinces at the time of the survey, according to 
their kinds or qualities ; also the assessment thus fixed, 
exclusive of sums imposed on account of subsequent im- 

Ain-tankhd Dekh. (P. xlyku) The original and fixed assign- 
ment of the revenue of lands ; a particular settlement of 
the revenue in the Dekhin. See Tank/id. 

AINAT (A. iufi), Delivery of goods on credit at an enhanced 

price, instead of a loan of money at interest. 
AISH-MAHAL, H. (from A. (_/AC, pleasure, and (Jar*, a 
chamber), The inner or female apartments of the house 
of a person of wealth or rank. 

AIVAJU, Tel .Kar. ( SD^S^ , corruption of the A. \jcf , iwaz), 
Substitute, equivalent ; one thing substituted for another. 

Aivaj-dkaram, Tel. (?) Gross product. 
AIWARA, H. (&>'j?0 A cow -shed in the middle of a jungle. 
AIYAN, Tam. (ggLLJOTr) A father, also more reverentially 
Aiyangar, and, in the South of India, a title added to the 
names of Brahmans, especially those of the Xrii-iilx/thava 
or Rdmdnujiya order. 

AJA, Uju, or ADJA, UDJU, Tel. ( ^>& ) Amount, total, whole, 
the gross produce of the land, including the shares of the 
Government and of the Ryots. 

AJA, Mar. tend The line drawn over the items of a 
paper of accounts ; also of the columns and several lines 
across it. 
AJALU, Tuluva, but current in Karnata, (?). Hereditary fees 

and perquisites of the village officers and servants. 
AJAMAN, Tel. (corruption of S. yajamdna, H'*WW.) House- 
holder, manager, master : it properly means the house- 
holder at whose expense, and on whose behalf, a religious 
ceremony is performed. 
AJAN, Hindi (^ISpO The length of a field. 
AJARA, UJARU, more correctly IJAKA, q. v. A farm, aeon- 

AJATA-PUTRA, S. (from ^nrnr, unborn, and HH, a son), A 
man to whom no son has been born, (and who has, 
therefore, power to adopt one). 

AJAURI, UJOUREE, H. (c.?/j^) Advances, particularly to 
agricultural labourers. East Oude. Agraurhi is the term 
used in some other places. Elliot. 

AJAUJLI, UJOULEE, H. (^fr^ Perquisite of the lower 

castes from the threshing floor : Henares. It is derived 

from the S. Anjali, the two hands joined, being as much 

as may be so taken away. Elliot. 

AJIL, A. ((J--i) Procrastination in law. Suffering such 

an interval to elapse as does not preclude complaint. 
AJINA, S. &c. OaftfTf) The hide of an antelope or tiger used 
as a seat by the religious student, also in the South of 
India at weddings. 
AJIR, UJEER, H. (A. (^f-l) A hired servant or labourer, 



a bondsman, a bond-slave, one who has entered into an 

engagement for a stipulated sum to serve another for a 

specific term, or until he repay the sum advanced ; also, 

a hirer : a lessee. 
Ajir muxhtarik, A. ( <^JyLi~c j> \ ) A common hireling, 

one whose services are not confined to a single employer. 
Ajir wdhid, A. ( iXx-[j jl^ ^ A hireling who takes service 

with one master only for a given term. 
AJNA, in some dialects but corruptly, Atjyd, q. v. H. Ben. 

(S. ^n$(T) Order, command, decree, award. In Tarn, it 

is transmuted in writing to AltMnai (.a^StEflSssr). 
Ajnd patra, H. Ben. (S. IT? , a leaf), A written order or 


AJNAGDI, Hindi (ViH'l<(l) Taken at a fixed money rate. 
AJR, UJH, H. (A.^-l) Hire, wages. 
AJURA, UJOORA, Mar. (W3TT, from the A. ^1) Hire, 

wages, especially to one employed by the job. In com- 

mercial transactions the fee or per-centage charged on a 

dishonoured bill, for the cxpence of returning it to the 

drawer when residing at a distance. 
Ajurd dar, Mar. (P. j\i)) A hired labourer. 
Ajurd ddri, Mar. (P. i^*) Hire, wages, pay by the job. 
AJYA, S. (Vilitj) Butter that has been clarified by boiling, 

more commonly called Ghee, and peculiarly fit for oblations 

at sacrifices with fire : it is also drank at meals. 
Ajya bhdga, or Ajya-bhdm, S. The portion of a cere- 

mony when the oblation of butter is presented. 
AK, H. (CJ1, from the S. ^T%) Gigantic swallow-wort. A 

sprout of sugar-cane. 

AKA, Ben. (^(M) A sack, a bag, a furnace. 
AKABATI-TOKRI, Uriya. A basket for heaving salt over- 

board from salt-sloops. 
ARAL, H. (S. a ^ neg., Itdla, WR$'., time), Famine, drought, 

any unseasonable occurrence. 
AhdUvrishti, Hindi (S. ^fi?, rain), Untimely or unseasonable 

AKALA, A. (irfU'l) Cancelling or revocation of sale. 
AKALI, S. (WoRT^t) A class of armed devotees among the 

Sikhs, worshippers of Him who is without time, eternal." 
AKAN, AKUN, H. (^1) Grass and weeds collected from a 

ploughed field. 
AKAR, less correctly, AKUR, Mar. (S. fllcjrc lit. form, shape), 

The assessed rent or revenue of a village or district. 

Estimate in general. 

Ahdr band, or bund, Mar. (iHloMMS;) A statement pre- 

pared at the time of the annual settlement, shewing the 
highest amount of revenue derivable from a village, the 
quantity of land paying rent, or rent free, the sum assessed, 
and land cultivated during preceding years ; the balances 
due, and instalments by which they are to be discharged ; 
the sums payable to the village officers, and the shares in 
which the assessment is to be distributed among the oc- 
cupants of the lands. 

Ahdr patra or pair ah. Mar. (S. TT3T, a leaf), Account of 
rules of assessment, and amount of revenue kept by the 

AKAHMAHI, Mar. (^tcm,*njfl, from ^?TO, eleven, and HTtf, 
a month) Employment, &c., in which only eleven months' 
pay is received for twelve months' service. 

AKA RAN, H. &c. (S. ^ neg., and cRTOJJ. cause), Causeless, 


Altdrana-vydjya, Karn. (e3~SDO35J^)J^) An idle or 
groundless suit 

AKARAYA, Hindi OaoKI4l) Ground not properly cleaned 
for receiving the seed. 

AKAS, H. (from the S. ^TcliTSr.) Ether, the fifth element of 

the Hindus ; but, in common use, atmosphere, sky. 
Akds-birt, H. (S. SHI*I!}I^P3:) One who has no ostensible 
means of subsistence : lit. one whose subsistence is the air. 
Akds-dia, H. (from S. HMty^<K) A lamp or lanthorn 

raised on a pole, a signal or watch light, a light raised 

at the Diwali festival. 
Altds-muhhi, H. (S. WKT$l and JTO, the face), A devotee 

of the Saiva order, who keeps his face turned up to the 

sky, so that sometimes he cannot, without difficulty, restore 

his head to its natural position. 
AKASALlGA,or AausALIGA, Karn. 

A goldsmith. 

Strong presumptive evidence ; sufficient to convict. 
AKD, UKD, H. (A. JJu:) A knot, a tie ; an agreement, a 

compact, a contract of marriage. 
Akddna, H. (<O^JJb) Marriage fee paid to the Kazi. 
Akd-hitdbat, A. (A. c^-J&O A contract of Kitabat or con- 

ditional ransom granted by a master to his slave. 
Akd-ndma, H. (P. <ul), writing) A written contract, a 

marriage settlement. 

AKHA, H. (l^T) A pair of grain bags used as a pannier. 
Althen, Mar. (^Tt?t) One of the pair of grain or water 

bags forming a horse or bullock load. 



AKHA, Ben. ('3TW) A sack or bag ; a furnace. See Alia. 

AKHADA, UKHADA, or AKHADA, AKHUDA, pronounced also, 
AKHARA, H. &c. OcUsHSli ^flWil) A place where people 
are assembled either temporarily or permanently ; a wrest- 
ling ground, a place for bodily exercises and games, a stand 
or place of resort for low people and hired labourers. The 
residence of a society of religious mendicants, a monastery. 
In Bengal it also means a band of singers. 

AKHARWAR. A division of the Kurmi tribe (?). 

AKHARJAT, corruption of IKHRAJAT, q. v. Expenses. 

AKHAT, Hindi (^Hsfrf) A portion of the crop per each plough 
paid to the village artisans, or the smith, carpenter, &c. 
North-West Provinces. 

AKHBAH, H. (A. plur. ofy^-) News, intelligence, a news- 
paper ; especially the written intelligence of the proceed- 
ings of Native Courts and Princes circulated to other 
Courts and Princes by their appointed agents a regular 
practice under the Native administration. 
Akhbdr-namn, A. (P. ir> : '.y) A news-writer, an appointed 
communicator of intelligence our own ' correspondent. 

AKHIH, H. (A. -i-l) AKHEH, Mar. ('WEIR) Final, last, end. 
In the Dekhin, the last assessment, the rate at which the 
revenue was last fixed. 
Akh'iri, A. (|_^-I) Last, final. 

Ahhiri-himb-kharch, H. (A. _^i- i_>La>.) Adjustment of 
the cultivators at the end of the year, shewing the amount 
of revenue assessed, paid, and in arrears, with the items 
of deduction for expenses. 

Akhir-jamA tumdri,H. (i^lj^^o ^- ) Improved revenue from 
that fixed originally ; applied especially to the revenues of 
Bengal, Behar, Orissa, Allahabad, &c., in the time of 
Mohammed Shah, as contrasted with those fixed in the time 
of Akbar. 

Akhiri-jamd-n-dsil-bdki, H. (A. J'U <^c\*) Final settlement 
of the accounts of a Zemindari, or a village, crediting 
profits and receipts ; debiting all disbursements and pay- 
ments of revenue, and adjusting the balance. 
AkMr-i-nikds, H. (^^J, S. firi'sum) Final settlement of 
an account, final adjustment of demand for revenue to be 
levied on a village or an estate ; annual account of col- 
lections duly balanced, furnished by an assistant collector 
or subordinate revenue officer. Nikds implies, properly, 
the settlement of an account or payment of rent by the 
cultivating Ryots to the Zemindar. 

Ahhir-patraka, H. (S. ^IcR) In the Dekhin, account of the 

last preceding assessment kept by the village accountant. 
Akhir-i-sdl, H. (P. JLu) The end of the 'revenue' year. 
Aklier-sdlpatli, Mar. (^ri373n^q0) The last instalment and 

final settlement of the revenue at the end of the official year. 
AKHTU, UKHTEEJ, H. (^{Jffti from S. ashta "Wf, in the 
North-West pronounced akhtd,an<l doxa ^l, ten, eighteen), 
The 18th of the month Bai.mhh (April May), on which it 
is customary for the cultivators to settle their accounts for 
the expenses of the liabi, or spring crop, and repayment 
of advances. It is proper on this day also to begin the 
manufacture of agricultural implements, to feed Brahmans, 
and to eat a small quantity of the new grain. A plough 
is also slightly passed over the fallow fields for good luck, 
but it is forbidden to sow seed on this day, except under 
particular circumstances. 

Akhtij ha b/iao, H. (yy) The rate or price of corn prevail- 
ing on the day of Alilitlj, at which rate the cultivator agrees 
to repay, in kind, the amount of any money advanced, 
together with the interest. 

AKHU, Uriya (S. ^Bp Sugar-cane. 

AKHUN, or AKHUND, H. (P. ^^-1 AJj-T) A Mohammedan 
teacher or schoolmaster. In the Mohammedan villages 
of the South he is one of the village officers, and is paid 
by fees or perquisites by the community. 

AAKILA, A. (<sli'lc, from did, Jjic, having for one sense, re- 
straint ; but applied especially to the fine for bloodshed ; as, 
a restraint upon the commission of violence), In Moham- 
medan law, an individual connected with one who, whether 
intentionally or unintentionally, perpetrates homicide, and 
who is held jointly responsible for the fine to be paid by 
the perpetrator. 

AKKADI, UKKUDEE, Karn. (^|f&) Pulse, or leguminous 
plants with a bivalve pericarp, having the seeds fixed to 
one only of the sutures. 

Akkadi-pairu, Karn. (e>|&~>^&)) Sowing different kinds 
of pulse at the fit season. 

AKKAR, A. (^lic) Real property. 

AKKASARI, UKKUSUREE, Tel. (olrSO) Neighbouring, 


Akkasari gramamu, Tel. (jffi'w&X/) A neighbouring 

AKKI, Karn. (^g) Rice deprived of its husk before boiling. 

AKKUSAI, UKKOOSAEE, Tel. (es&J^ox)) c omm ; ss i on on 
goods, brokerage. 

AKLIF, UKLIF, H. (A. i_ai!) A Mohammedan, who, from 



adequate cause, has omitted circumcision, but is not thereby 
disqualified from giving evidence. 

AKOR, UKOH, H. (jfl) A bribe. Used also in the North- 
West Provinces to signify the coaxing of a cow or she- 
buffalo which has lost its calf, and inducing it to eat. 
Akor, or Kor, as sometimes pronounced, also denotes 
the food which a labourer eats at intervals of work in 
the open field. Elliot. 
Akori, H. One who takes a bribe. 

AKR, A. (jte) In Mohammedan law, a marriage portion 
or dower ; also one to be settled on the female slave, 
termed Mukatiba, with whom the owner has cohabited; also, 
price paid for the violation of a maiden. 

AKRA, H. (1^1) A grass or vetch which grows in fields 
under the spring crop, twining round the young corn and 
checking its growth (Vicia saliva). It is also termed 
Ankri}), and is used as fodder. 

AKRIBA, A. (plur. of C_-oy ) Kinsmen; relations within 
the degrees recognised by law. 

AKSAT, UKSAT, H. (A. plur. of iaJi , kisf), Instalments of 
the annual revenue. 

AKSHATA, read in some dialects, Achchata, Mar. &c. (from 
S. Ahfhata, ^nipT, unbroken) Grains of rice, coloured with 
saffron or vermilion, placed on the forehead of an idol, or 
on those of the bride and bridegroom at their marriage ; 
also presented to persons invited to a feast, who place 
them on their foreheads if they accept the invitation. The 
sectarial mark worn by Hindus on the forehead, or the 
pigment with which it is made. 

AKSHAYA, S. &c. ( ^ntpl, imperishable) The sixtieth year of 

the cycle of sixty years. 

Akshaya-pdtra, Tel. (S. W8T>J, un wasting, and Trra, a 

vessel) A charitable allowance to Brahmans from the 

gross crop. A beggar's dish or platter. 

Akshaya tritiyd, S. ( Wtyil, imperishable, and TTJThn, third) 

The third lunation of the light half of Vaisakha April, 

May when offerings are made to the manes, also to 

Krishna. It is the supposed anniversary of the creation. 

AJtshaya lalitd, S. OST5R, and ^f^sm, agreeable (day) 

The 7th of Bhadra (August, September), when a festival 

is celebrated by women in honour of Siva and Durga. 

AK.TAA, corruptly, ATKA, and more correctly, IKTAA, H. 
(A. cUai'l) An assignment of land for the maintenance 
of a body of troops, a jagir. 

AKTA, also, AKTI, corruptly, AKHTY, OCKHTAY, Mar. 

from the A, katd, jlas, cut off, separated; whence also 
Mar. Makta and Makti, &c.) Land held at a fixed rate, 
which is lower than it is capable of paying : it is of two 
descriptions, Makti gatkul mirdssi, land belonging to the 
village community, let for a specified term for a fixed 
sum, less than the probable demand^ of the Government ; 
and Khand-mukti mirdsi, land similarly let, but in per- 
petuity, and held in absolute property by the occupant : 
(such are the explanations given by the collector of Poona, 
Rev. Selections, 4, 543, but Akti and Makti are 
clearly only the epithets of Mirasi, hereditary property, 
implying, set apart, let on lease, either for a term or 
for ever.) 

AKU, Tel. (&>) A leaf, the betel leaf; the young rice plant 

ready for transplanting. 
Aim-Ma, Tel. (eSbSo) A betel plantation or garden. 

AKU BAT, UKOOBUT, H. (A. e^JjJic, from c^ouir, behind, 
subsequent), Punishment, torture. 

AL, corruptly, AUL, H. (Jl) A plant (Morinda citrifolia), 
from the roots of which a red dye is prepared. The best 

kind in the North- West Provinces comes from Bundel- 

khand. In the same Provinces Al sometimes denotes a 

Pana, or division of a village. 
Al kdri,H. (S. efclO, who makes) A class of Rajput cultivators 

in Nagpur, from their especial cultivation of the Al tree. 
AL, or AAL, H. (A. Jlc) Boundary of a field. 
AL, Tarn. (s^ch), AL or ALA, Mai. (C^5)6o, (S^)^), ALU, 

Kara. (W?^ 3 ), A man, a person, an individual, an adult, 

or one equal to take care of himself, a servant, a labourer, 

a messenger, a slave (perhaps from the A. J I , progeny, 


Alkuli, Mai. ((S^iio^g.fill) Wages of a labourer. 
Alotti, Tarn. (.ajjGsnTTlL!}-) An overseer, one who super- 
intends and urges on labourers. 
Alpattam, Mai. ( OS*5)6oa_)0O) Hire or rent of a slave 

lent out to another person. 
Alvsunka, Karn. (C3<J>r\X>Os) A tax levied on cultivators 

in Mysore, who employ labourers or slaves, at so much 

per head. 
ALA, H. (Ill) Wet, moist, as land saturated with water, 

especially rain-water : the word occurs in the dialects 

as Al, Ahal, Ali, and Ail. 
AL-ABD, H. (A. Jl, the, iXAc, slave) Form of countersig- 

nature by a subordinate clerk or officer, lit. the slave or 




ALAG, ULUG, corruptly, ALAGA, ULUQA, or ALGA, ULGU, 

H. (cL^l, from the S. a W, neg., and lagna <$rs%, con- 
nected ; disjoined, unconnected) Separate, several, detached : 

the word, modified, occurs in most dialects. 
Alagd-dsdmilu, Tel. (A. j*!*- I ) Loose folks, wanderers, 

vagrants, temporary occupants, persons not reckoned among 

the inhabitants of a village. 
Alagd bltumi, Tel. (S. *|fa) Waste land, land set apart for 

Alagd pullari, Tel. (.&)-^) Grazing tax or fine levied 

on stray cattle. 
ALAKH NAMI, H. (from S. alahsln/a, WtftH, the indefinable 

God ; and ndma, a name), A mendicant of the Saiva 

ALAKKIRA-KOL, Tarn. (5l|5fT<B(E&ljT)G<an'ai) A measuring 

rod or pole. See Alavu. 

Alakkiravan, Tarn. (a|err<S<Elrj6VJ<5CT) A measurer. 
Alavan, Tarn. (.Sl|6fT61J(53T) A measurer, a guager. 
Alakkugai, Tarn. (a|6TT<5g)<50D<E:&) Measurement 
ALALHISABU, TeL Kara. (e>e>yaj-sr D tX) j f rom the Ar. 

I'ti-hisdbu, (l >leg%i , according to the account) Pay given 

before hand, money paid in advance or on account 
AL-AMANji,Tam. (aj,efr-^LDQ<#l, fmmAl, a labourer, and 

amanji, compulsory service) Compulsory service which the 

villagers in the Dravira provinces were formerly compelled 

to render to Government officers or persons travelling 

on public duty. 
ALAM, H. (Jx ) A banner; the banner of Hasan and Hosuin 

carried in procession at the Muharram. 
AI.AM, ULUM, Tarn. (ajSTTLQ) A salt pan, a place where salt 

is made. 

Alavan, Tarn. (51|fffT6LIOTr) A salt maker. 
Alattunilam, Tarn. (a|6TTf|.Sijnl60LQ also, in some lists, 

Alava-nilam, or Alava-podal) Land impregnated with salt, 

and therefore unfit for cultivation. 
ALAM, Hindi (^c*H) Sticks set up for creeping plants to grow 

ALANDADEY ? A class of slaves in the Tamil countries. 

ALATA, or ALATI-GARA, Kara. (8, 65^, a measure, 

and ~A~3O, from S. WTC, who makes) A person employed 

in Mysore to measure corn or land, sometimes included 

among the village officers. 
ALAM AT, H. (A. u>JL) Lit. A sign. It is usually written 

before the signature of a female. It is also used to signify 

a discoverable trace or vestige of a robbery or murder on 
the spot where committed. 
Aldmat-i-dastkhat, H. (P. lakL-J) A mark in place of 

signature ; usually the mark of one unable to write. 
ALASANDI, Kara. (ese/>oQ) A species of pulse (Dolichos 


ALAVI, Kara. (Y ~) A lease or agreement given to the Ryot 
in writing ; one stipulating a progressive assessment : also 
termed Alavi Gent. 
Alavi-sair, Kara. (A. .jLu) Sea-customs. Extra revenue 

let on lease or in farm. 

ALAVU, or ALAVAI, Tarn. (51|5rT6L|, 5H5fTOC56Ll) Measure, 
measurement, especially of grain. Portion of produce set 
apart as payment for the measurement of the crop. 
Alavu-kdran, Tarn. (<&|6TT61_|<5&<5ITCrdOT) A measurer, 
the village officer who measures the threshed grain and 
regulates the proportionate distribution of water for irri- 

Alavu-paima'tsh, Tarn, (from Alavu and P. paimaiih, measure- 
ment), Survey or measurement of fields, especially the name 
of a particular survey and valuation of the lands in Malabar, 
made for the purpose of assessing the revenue in 1807-8. 
Alavogulu, Tarn. (?) An account specifying the measure- 
ment of each field in a farm or hamlet. 

ALAWA, H. &c. (P. 8p!l, ^S'RT) A fire-place; applied in 

Hindustan especially to a hole in front of the shed where the 

paraphernalia of the Muharram are deposited, and in which 

a fire is lighted every evening during the festival. 

ALCHALIKU, (?) The mouldering away of the banks between 

the corn fields. 

ALDHOLA, Kara. ( e3 !tf 3e O A field in one's own possession. 
ALE, Kara, (^v), ALAI, Tarn. (S^dati) A press for extracting 
the juice from the sugar-cane ; a sugar-mill ; the juice of 
the cane ; also a forge. 
Aleyuni, Kara. (eSe5"X3Co>) A hole for receiving the juice 

of the cane. 

Ale hoge, Kara. (?) A tax on sugar-mills in Mysore. 
Alemanisunha, Karn. (OODOcS^XxXDS) A duty levied on 

sugar works. 

ALEKAL, more correctly, ANAIKAL, q. v. Tarn. Stone embank- 
ment of a reservoir. 
ALI, ALEE, H. (.Jl) A land measure of four Bisis. Nine 

Alls go to one Jula. Germhal. 

A ruler, a master, a king. 



ALIYA, H. (L*il) A branch of the Turkia subdivision of the 
travelling grain dealers, called Banjaras. 

ALIYA, Karn. (O^OXJ) A son-in-law. 
Aliya santdna, Karn. (S. WTT, offspring) Succession or 
descent by the female line in Malabar. 

ALI-GOL, H. ( Jyljic., from the A. AH, ( Jic, lofty, excellent, 
and the S. gola, *fft$, a ball, a troop), Irregular foot in 
the Maratha service, without discipline or regular arms. 
According to some they are so named from charging in 
a dense mass, or Gol, and invoking ALI, the son-in-law 
of Mohammed, being chiefly Mohammedans. 

ALKAB, ULKAB, H. (A. plur. of V._~aJ, a title) Titles, honours, 
part of a form of address to persons of high rank ; as to 
the Governor-General, who is commonly styled Nawab 
Mali-alkab Bahadur, the noble, the Nawab, of lofty titles. 

ALLU, ULLOO, Guz. ( ? ). In Kattiwar a kind of ordeal incases 
of disputed boundaries in which the claimant walks over 
the contested limits with a raw hide or a cloth on his 
shoulders, previously dedicated to one of the fearful forms 
of Durga, from whose vengeance he will receive some 
calamity if his claim is unjust. 

ALLU, ULLOO, Tarn. (ajeiT(6TT)) A handful of grain given 
to the village servant by whom a quantity has been 
measured ; or a small quantity of any article sold in the 
bazar taken as a cess or tax. 

Alledukiravan,Ta.m.(SHsnQ6n<S>S>^\rr)eu(^) The mea- 
surer who is paid by a handful from each quantity measured. 

ALMA, Karn. () A king, a ruler. 

ALMAOA, Karn. (C3<5fiSDA) A servant. 

ALMAHA, or ALMARI, H. (t^UH, Port Ulmaria) A cabinet, 

a wardrobe, a cupboard, a chest of drawers. 
Almara-konent, TeL(?) A well with steps down one side. 

ALO, H. (j!1 ) A portion of unripe com. Province of Benares. 

ALTA, H. (US1) Balls of cotton impregnated with lac dye ; 
hence also the dye itself. 

(from the Turkish dl JI, red, and tamghd IjUj, a stamp 
or impression ; Bianchi, Diet Turc-francais) A royal 
grant under the seal of some of the former native princes 
of Hindustan, and recognised by the British Government 
as conferring a title to rent-free land in perpetuity, heredi- 
tary and transferable. Although probably originally bear- 
ing a red or purple stamp, the colour of the imperial seal 
or signature became in Indian practice indifferent Elliot. 

ALU, H. &c. (S. j! I , ^TTtg) An esculent root, a kind of arum, 

and applied to any similar root, as to the potato, also called 
Bilaiti-alu, and the yam, called Phul-a'lu. 

ALUKU, Tel. (eseofo) Sowing seed in ground prepared 
for its reception. 

ALUGU, Tel. (raeuXb) A channel, a sluice to carry off 
the overflowing water of a reservoir or tank. 

Mar. (xj^ifr, plur. of ^T^rfT, possibly a mere alliterative 
term derived from Salute, q. v. as JJalute-alute) The 
collective designation of the persons whom it is customary 
in some of the provinces of the Dekhin, to retain as vil- 
lage servants, in addition to the Salute, or regular village 
servants, such as superannuated members of the Balute, or 
their widows, religious mendicants, and the helpless and 
lazy in general. Besides these, twelve classes of the 
Alut^, as well as of the Balute, are specified, viz. 1. The 
Janyam, or priest of the Lingayits, who is employed to 
blow the conch shell in the temples; 2. The Koli, or 
water-carrier, who supplies travellers and government 
functionaries travelling on public duty with drinking-water, 
also the cultivators with water to wash their threshing 
floors, and the village at large with water on public 
festivals ; 3. The Bhdt, or village bard, who chants 
hymns in the temples, and is employed when children are 
betrothed to ascertain that there are no physical impedi- 
ments to the marriage ; 4. The Rdmusi, or village watch- 
man, by caste and practice a thief. In different parts of 
the South- West of India his place is taken by the Bhil or 
the Koli, both wild and lawless tribes, residing chiefly in the 
thickets of the Satpura hills, but taking service in the plains ; 
5. The Mali, Bdyhbdn, or gardener, who grows flowers to 
decorate the temples with, and prepares nosegays to present 
to Government officers or men of rank passing through the 
village ; 6. The Taral or Yeskar, who is considered the 
same as the Mher, except that the latter is usually ranked 
among the Balute receiving only a different scale of 
compensation. All the Mhers in the village take the 
office of Taral for a year in rotation, and, besides the 
fixed allowance of land or grain, each receives annually 
a pair of shoes and a blanket. The Taral is to be always 
resident and at the call of the Patil, and is especially 
assigned to attendance on strangers, whom he furnishes 
with local information, and for whom he procures the 
necessary supplies ; 7. The Gondhali, beater of a double 
kettle-drum ; 8. The Daurl Gosain, who beats a sort of 


small drum ; 9. The Garsi, (?) or piper ; 10. The Sempi, 
Darji, Su'ti, or Sui, the village tailor; 11. The Tell, 
or oil presser and vender ; 12. The Tdmbuli, or preparer 
of the Pan, or betel-leaf, &c. Few of these hold land, 
but are mostly paid by an allowance of grain. There 
are some varieties in their specification; as, for instance, 
in Duff's History of the Marathas the twelve Alutas are 
called, 1. The Sonar, goldsmith ; 2. The Jangam ; 3. The 
tailor; 4. The water-carrier; 5. The Tar Id ; 6. The 
Mali ; 7. The drummer ; 8. The piper ; 9. The Rdmwi 
or Bhil ; 10. The Taili ; 11. The Tdmbuli, and 12. The 
Oondali. But the whole number of twelve are rarely 
found in any village establishment. On the other hand, 
there are occasional additions to the list, as, Bdjantrix, 
musicians and comedians ; Kaldvantins, dancing girls ; 
a Vaidya, or village physician ; a Ghota-hhor, a diver, 
one who plunges into the water to recover lost articles ; 
and a Gdrpagdri, a village conjuror and fortune teller. 
AJ.VAR, Tam. (pi. a^o-jr-rcr) ALVAHU, Tel. (pi w$3&>), 

Rulers, persons of authority, the collective title of twelve 
reputed saints of the Southern Vaishnavas, who are said to 
have each written a portion of the Drdvida Prabandlia, 
or Tamil Veda, chiefly designed for Sudras and women. 
Rama'nuja, the founder of the Sri Vaishnava sect, which is 
one of the three great sects of the Peninsula, is sometimes 
considered the same as Yembiru-manaru, the last of the 

AAM, or AM, corruptly, AUM, H. (A. J*) The general 
people, the commonalty, as opposed to the Khds, the nobility, 
or the select. 

Diman-i-Aam, H. The public hall of audience, that to 
which all persons may be admitted ; in distinction to the 
Diwan-i-khas, the hall of the select, the privy council. 
A MAD, AMUD, H. (from the P. dmdan ^liml , to come), 
Income, revenue. 

Amad-o-raft, H. (from the P. yjiVcl, and \.j*j, to go, 
literally, coming and going), Income and expenditure. 
Imports and exports. (In Guzerat) Town duties: also applied 
to Safe-conduct, permission to come and go without harm. 

Amad-o-raft bhanddri, H. Surety for safe conduct ; 
guarantee for coming and going with impunity. 

Amad- or Amda-rvdla, H. A merchant who purchases im- 
ported goods wholesale for retail to petty dealers. 
AM-I-WALAD, or, more correctly, UM-AL-WALAD, A. (from J, 
a mother, and rcalad tVJj, offspring) A female slave who 


has borne a son to her master, and is therefore, by the law, 
to be emancipated at his death. 

AMAL, UMUL, H., used in most dialects, with the import 
sometimes slightly modified, (A. (J^, wi<js) -Business, 
affairs, an office, collection of revenue, administration of 
justice, management of any land or business on behalf of 
another, deputation, authority, government. In Maratha 
finance an item or head of collection, the share or por- 
tion of the revenue after the expenses and extra charges 
have been defrayed. In the Tamil countries commonly, 
Confiscation, seizure. 

Amal-ddr, H. &c. (^1jl*c) A manager, an agent, a 
governor of a district, a collector of revenue. An officer 
appointed to collect the revenue of an estate which has 
been attached by Government. In the South it is applied 
especially to the native revenue collector acting under the 
authority of the European collector. Any person holding 
a post or office. The title is also given to the native head 
of the police in a district, usually also the head revenue 
officer, whose duties are defined by Bombay Regulations, 
xii. of 1827, and iv. of 1830, and Act xx. of 1835. Under 
the Maratha Government, Amaldars or Aumildars were of 
three kinds ; those holding the office of collector on a lease 
from the Government ; those who were appointed by the 
Sarsubahdars ; and Bankers or Sahukars, who, having 
advanced money to the Government or its revenue officers, 
were appointed to collect the revenue of a district until 
they had paid themselves. 

Amal-ddri, H. &c. ( ,_^JkL ) Management, administration, 
collection of revenue. The office of Amalddr. Possession, 

Amal-dastak, Umul-dustuk, H. (liJjLjJiAc) Deed of 
conveyance ; any document giving possession of property. 
Warrant or authority to collect the rents of an estate ; a 
written order from the proper authority to enable the 
purchaser of an estate at a public sale to obtain possession 
of it. 

Amal farmdwh, Mar. (P. ^jU^i, order) An item in the 
deductions from the net revenue, fees paid to revenue 
officers (?) 

Amal-ffuzdr, H. (^l^J^c) A collector of revenue. 

Amal-nama, H. (P. .toUL^) Authority to manage or 
administer property, an order for possession, a warrant 
from a competent public functionary to an individual, 
authorising his taking possession and management of 



landed or other property, an order from a Zemindar to his 
cultivators to give possession to a renter. 

Amal-patta, H. (<&Ji4>c) A deed appointing an agent or 
manager, a warrant authorising a person to collect the 
rents of an estate. 

Amal-sanad, H. ( iXLu (J**c ) A deed or warrant empower- 
ing a person to collect rents or manage an estate. 
AMALI, AMLI, UMULEE, or UMLEE, H. C^jUc) Payment 
of the revenue by a division of the crop or in kind ; applied 
also to a village where the revenue is paid in kind : any 
thing related to, or connected with, managements, collec- 
tions, and the like. The title of the revenue year in 
Bengal and Orissa, the same as Fasli, q. v. 
AMAL-I-JINS, H. (from H. i_^el amal, intoxication, and A. 
jins (wJL*-, sort, kind) Intoxicating liquors or drugs. 
Among the Marathas the revenue levied upon their sale, 
the same as Abltari. 
AMAL, AMUL, Hindi (^TRcJ, perhaps an error for AAMJL) 

Being in charge or possession of. 

AM A it, UMUN, also, AMAN> UMAN, H. (A. ^1, yjU) Safety, 
security, protection : protection granted to an infidel 
during the first year of his residence in a Mohammedan 

Amdnat, Umanvt, II. (ij^oW, from aman ..j-o') occuring, 
slightly modified, in most dialects, or sometimes corrupted, 
as in Tel. to Andmat or Andmatu, (tSfJ ^^), as well 
as Amanatu 5<Jj~~rO30. Deposit, charge, any thing held 
in trust, money deposited in court. Among the Marathas, 
profit derived from deposits and temporary sequestration 
of estates. 

Amdnat dfffar, H. (R^ii'ii, office) An office under the 
Mohammedan Government for deposits, or for a register of 
trusts. The superintendant was invested sometimes with 
judicial powers in civil suits. Reg. xxii. 1795, preamble. 

Amdnat ddr, H. (P.^'t) , who has) The holder of a deposit 
or charge, a trustee, a guardian. 

Amdndt-ddri, H. (P. (jrj '3, having) Guardianship, agency, 

Amdnat-jari, H. (A. uf/J-, proceeding) (In the South of 
India) Assignments of revenue resumed or held temporarily 
in charge of a Government officer. 

Amanat-mahdl, H. (P. Jl=r*) An estate. 

Amdnat-ndma, H. (P. ili ) A deed of trust or deposit, a 
document conveying any thing in trust 

Amdnat-nashta,'Kani.( r 33-) A tax on ground first cultivated 



for the Piper Betel, and afterwards for rice, in which the 
difference of the revenue from dry and wet lands is charged 
to the Ryots. 

H. (^jLel) Held in trust or deposit; applied especially 
to the collection of the revenue direct from the cultivators 
by the officers of Government upon the removal or sus- 
pension of an intermediate claimant or Zemindar, the same 
as the khds collection : it is also applied to Ryotwari 
settlements, or settlements with each cultivator individually, 
where no renter or proprietor has been acknowledged ; also 
to lands in the possession of the collector's officers for 
arrears of revenue, or which, on any other account, are not 
held by individual tenants. 

Amdni-lazi-bdb, H. ( ita^y^o ) Miscellaneous heads of 
receipt or revenue held in trust or deposit, or collected 
direct by the officers of government. 

Amdni-tdldo, H. (_jUU jU) Karn. Amdnikere, (e3SST2>3- 
"so) j n Mysore, an unrented tank or reservoir of 
water, not belonging exclusively to any one village, but 
subservient to the watering of the lands of several, under 
the superintendence of the officers of the Government. 

AMAN, AMUN, Hindi, Ben. (WWT, ^Tfal) Rice grown on 
low wet grounds, the rice that, is sown in July and August, 
and reaped in December, winter rice. 
Amaniya, H. Ben. (^nJrfaTl) Land on which the winter 
crop of rice is sown. 

AMANJi.orAMlNJl, Tam. (ajLa(5Tj<^l , SljLdl(5Tj<#l) Compul- 
sory service without payment ; the gratuitous employment 
of the villagers in the' transport of baggage, &c., for public 
officers ; also the general levy of men inhabiting irrigable 
villages for the purpose of clearing out the channels or 
tanks, and for repairing breaches or constructing dams. 

AMANTA GApu.Tel. (&&rO&~K*&J) A pedlar, a hawker. 

AMARAM, Tam. (L|LorjLO, lit. command of a thousand 
foot.) A grant of revenue by the Prince or a Poligar, 
on condition of service generally, military or police ; such 
grants were resumable when the Amarakdr, or grantee, 
failed to perform the stipulated service. 

AMAHI, UMAREE, H. (A. L^Uc) A canopied seat on an 

AMATYA, Mar. (S. ^HIW, a minister), One of the eight 
principal officers of the Maratha state. 

AMAVALUJINDAGI, Karn. (e3o3"3eu*OiSXj the latter 
word is a corruption of the P. zindar/i, life) In Mysore, 



the property of a person dying without heirs and escheating 
therefore to the Government. 
Amavdludana, Kara. ( &&><>J deuo.-o ) Cattle without 

owners, claimable by the Government. 
AMAVASI, UMAVUSEE, H. (^y^t*), from the S. SSWNtfl or 
^WT^TWT) Day of conjunction, day of new moon, when it 
rises invisible. The term is current throughout India, 
sometimes slightly modified, as, Amavdsi, Amdsi, Ama- 
vase, Amamdsi, and, as corruptly spelled, Amaubasee, 
Amauvasy, Amarvux, &c. 

' ' T T ' 

AMD, or AM, H. (^__<ol or ,l , from S. Amra or Amra W., 
WRn) A mango, the mango-tree ; occurring in most 
dialects, sometimes slightly modified, as, Amb, Ambd, or 

Ambd, or Ambi-ddhale, Mar. ('ffTT, isHft %^t$) A branch 

of a mango-tree ; an extra cess paid in commutation of 

presents of mangoes formerly required. Rev. Sel. iv. (552. 

Ambardi, or Amrdi, Mar. (^TT^, ^HIHI^) A grove of 

mango-trees, or any garden. Revenue derived from gardens 

and groves. Rev. Sel. i. 093, and iv. Ki7. 

Ambardi-yuttiyt!, Karn. (.fojoT* , assessment) Rent or 

revenue from mango groves or orchards. 
Ambd or Ambi-talta, Mar. (4HIJ<4il) Revenue from a tax 

on mango groves. 

AMBADI-KOVILAKAM, Mai. (?) The chief palace, the residence 

of the eldest and principal wife of the Samuri or Zamorin. 

AMBALAM, Tam. (SLJLDLJ60LQ) A place where public affairs 

are discussed. (Mai. CS^OQjeJO) In Malabar, a temple 

of the first class. 

Ambala-kdrati, or Ambalagdr, Tarrf. (S^LQLJ60<5<5>rTrj<5OT ) 
The patel, or head of a village, particularly of villages in- 
habited by Siidras. The person who presides in the meet- 
ing-house of a village. An officer who publishes the 
decrees of an assembly. R. Sel. ii. 530. 
Ambala-mdnyam, Tam. (t|LQLJSDLQrr(3CflLLJLQ) A por- 
tion of land held free of revenue by the headman of a 
village, as a perquisite of office. 

Ambala-pati, Mai. (from CXJSl , a step) In Malabar the 
hereditary dignity of an elevated seat or step in a temple, 
giving to the person who enjoys it the right of directing 
the ceremonies : the dignity commonly devolves on the 
headman of a village, but it is saleable. 
Ambala-vdsi, Tam. Mai. (5l|lliUSD6lJrT(#l) A caste in 
Travancore who are makers of garlands: they are attendants 
in temples, and rank between Brahmans and Nairs. 


AMBAR, H. &c. (P.^bol , S. <M4lO A store, a heap, a granary, 
a heap of any thing. 

Ambdram, Tel. Karn. Tam. (OO"EPtfx>, c^iLumTUii 
from the P.^Uil) Aheap, a pile, a stack of corn ; grain 
on the threshing floor ; Government share of the crop. 

Ambarahkadai, Tam. ( <!|LCiLJrTrT<5&<E5cTOI_) A store, a 
granary, a place where any thing is stored. 

Ambdra kltdna or -kltane, Karn. (15~6^5?, P. <jjli-) A 
magazine of grain, a granary. 

Ambara-rdft'i., Karn. ( "O~93 f s. TTS^t , a heap) The Govern- 
ment share of the crop collected in a heap. 

Ambdr-sdri , Mar. ( 'iSH I <,?HT^ ) A tax on houses, except 

those of Brahman village-officers. Rev. Sel. iv. l(i(i. 
Attambdr, Karn. (e>^o3T)6) The whole heap, or the 
shares of the Government and cultivator before the crop 
is divided. 

AMBAHI, also AMARI, H. (A. ^.U*) A canopied seat on 
on elephant. A litter borne by a camel. (P. ^UJl ) A 
Ambdri patti, Mar. (^^TTfr 1ft) A tax on the cultivation 

of hemp or making of rope from it. 

AMHASHTIIA, vernacularly, AMBASHTH, S. &c. (^H^IT.) A 
man of a mixed tribe, the offspring of a Brahman father 
and a Vaisya mother , by occupation a physician. 
AMBATTAN, Tam. Mai. (L|LQLJI I_(3OT) A barber, the barber 

of the village. 

AMBUVACHI, S. (iHUHI-41) Four days in Asharh (June 

July), the 10th to the 13th, inclusive of the dark half of 

the month, or moon's wane, when the earth is regarded as 

unclean, and agriculture is prohibited. 

Ambuvdchi pradd, S. (W^, what gives) The first of the 

four days. 
Ambuvdchi iydga, S. (HTPT, leaving) The last of the four 

AMD, UMD, A. (iV^x) Wilful; as, Katal-amd, Wilful murder. 

Shabih-dmd, Apparently wilful, i. e. manslaughter. 
still more so, AMDENNY, and AMDEHNY, H. (P. (jiXel, lit. 
a coming, from ,j Jx I , to come) Income, receipts : as a Go- 
vernment term, receipt of revenue or customs. 
Amddni, Mar. (^Wc(M"l, vernacular for the preceding) Pro- 
ducts of the earth, articles of merchandize generally arriving 
at market in their fit season, also that particular season. 
Profits, perquisites ; sway, rule. 
AMETHIYA, H. (UJixJ) A tribe of Chouhan Rajputs, origi- 



nally from Ametki, in Oude, some of whom are settled in 

AMEZ ADHARAM, H.,but current in the Dekhin, (from P.J.*^!, 
mixing, and S. adhara ^TTMTt, support, receptacle) Land 
having mixed resources, i. e. being irrigated both naturally 
and artificially ; also with bhumi, land, Amez-ddhdr bhumi. 

AMIL, or AAMIL, corruptly, AUMIL, H., but used in most 
dialects, sometimes slightly modified, and frequently con- 
founded with AMAL, (A. J^cLft, n. of agency, from dmal 
<J>*e, he performed a task, he transacted an affair) An 
officer of Government in the financial department, especially 
a collector of revenue on the part of the Government, or 
of the farmer of the revenue, also himself a farmer of, or 
contractor for, the revenue under the native system, and 
invested with supreme authority, both civil and military, 
in the districts which he farmed, as is still the case in 
several native states, especially Oude and Hyderabad. In 
the early settlement of Benares by the Government of 
Bengal the Amil was intrusted with the joint power of 
Hakim or magistrate, and Tehsildar or collector, and was 
responsibtt for the realization of a fixed amount of revenue, I 
being precluded from levying any excess on the Govern- ' 
ment demand. Reg. ii. 1705. 

Amil-ddr, H. (j't) (J-v) A collector of, or contractor for, 
the revenue: (used as synonymous with Amil, but no doubt 


an inaccuracy for Amal-ddr, q. v.) 

Amil-ddri, corruptly, Aumil-darrei, H. (^lololc) The 
district or estate for the revenue of which the Amil was 
responsible : (probably an error for Amal-ddri.) 

Amil-daul, H. ( J^O (J^elc) The estimated amount of revenue 
to be realized by the native collector or contractor. 

Amil-ndma, Aumil-namah, H. (<vliLelc) A written order 
or warrant to an Amil, a commission to take possession 
of land in the name of the Government ; preferably, 

Amill, Aumily, H. ( Julc) The harvest year, more cor- 
rectly, Amali ; also the same as Fasli. 
AMLA, UMLA, corruptly, OMLAH, H. (A. <d*c , plur. of AAMIL, 
l>lc) The collective head native officers of a judicial or 

revenue court under the European judge or collector. 
Amla-i-ahshdm, H. The collective officers of the irregular 

militia under the native Government. In Bengal a jagir 
was assigned for their support. 


Amla-i-narvdrd, H. Under the Mohammedan Governments 
the collective officers of the fleet of boats maintained for 

the defence of the sea-coast ; the assignments of revenue for 
their maintenance and that of the flotilla. 

AMIN, UMEEN, corruptly, AUMIN, AUMEEN, H., but occur- 
ring, slightly modified sometimes, in most of the dialects, 
(A. ^J-ol , from J.J*! , to trust, Hindi, wftrf) A confidential 
agent, a trustee, a commissioner ; applied in Upper India 
especially to a native officer of Government, employed either 
in the revenue department to take charge of an estate and 
collect the revenues on account of Government, or to in- 
vestigate and report their amount ; or in the judicial de- 
partment, as a judge and arbitrator in civil causes. In 
the Presidency of Bengal, in particular, two classes of native 
judicial functionaries are now so named, or the Sadar 
Amin ^jLKj>*e, empowered to try causes to the extent of 
1000 rupees, and the Sadar Amin Adli (.^J\ n^'^^X 
or Principal Sadar Amin, to whom lies an appeal from 
the decisions of the Amin, and who decides suits to an 
unlimited amount Beng. Reg. iv. xlv. 1793; vii. 1822; 
xxiii. 1814; iv. 1827 ; v. 1831 ; Act ix. 1844. 
Amin-daftar,H. (^JiiJ^jX-J ) An office in which the accounts 
of the Amms were audited ; the recorded or registered accounts. 
Amin-patel, Guz. Superintendant over the village Patels 
of a district, appointed to adjust boundary disputes, and 
furnish local information for the assessment of the revenue 
to the collector. This officer has come, in some instances, 
to supersede the Desai, or former chief district officer : in 
some places the office is hereditary. 

AMIR, corruptly EMIR, H. (A.^xi, from 1, to command) 

A nobleman, a Mohammedan of high rank. 
Amrd, orUmrd, corruptly, Omrah, H. (A. I^J ,plur. of^Xcl) 

The nobles of a native Mohammedan court collectively. 
Amir-ul-Umrd, H. A. Chief of the nobles, a title conferred 
by the sovereign at his pleasure, sometimes designating 
the Commander-in-Chief. 

Jayir-i- Amir-ul-Umrd, H. Assignment of lands or their 
revenue to the Commander-in-Chief for his personal remu- 

Amir-al-Mumanin, H. A. (jjxLt^JL^ol) Prince of the 
faithful, a title of the Khalifs especially, but often assumed 
by Mohammedan princes. 

AMJI, Dekh. (^ysT*!) Compulsory service. (See Amanj'i). 

AMR-BA-YAD, A. (Jo<io^e!) In Mohammedan law, a form of 
divorce. If a man say to his wife, Your business is in 
your own hands " (Amruki-ba-yadiki), and the woman 
assents, an irreversible divorce takes place. Hed* 



The produce of a piece of land, the crop. An estimate 
especially of the value or yield of a standing crop. 
Adangal-dmhlMm,or Amisham ddppu, Tarn. (l_ITLJl_j , an 
account) Estimate of the produce of a piece of land for a 
whole year. 

AMLAK, A. (plur ot'LLXLc) Landed possessions, real property. 

AMMA, (Tel.&c. e> ^^, S. Amba ^TWTT) In all the languages 
of Southern India except Tuluva, Mother, and affixed, as a 
respectful term of address to females in general, to their 
names ; as, Sitamma, Vangamma. It forms, also, a 
designation of various popular gbddesses unknown to the 
general system ; as, Mariyamma, and Agathammd, tutelary 
goddesses of Madras. The latter is usually called Ydyatha, 
and both are, no doubt, adopted from the Roman Catholics, 
being, in fact, the Virgin Mar;/, and Sta Agutlia, although 
now especially worshipped by shopkeepers and Pareyar. 
In Tuluva the word means father. 

AMMAT, (&*\) One of the ten kinds of wounds compensated 
by fine, a wound of the head not penetrating the dura-mater. 

AM HI, or UMREE, H. (from A_^>c, life) A grant or the like 
for life, interest for life. 

AM KIT, corruptly, AMREETA, H. &c. (S. Amrita W^rf , from 
a ^T neg. and mrita, dead) Ambrosia, nectar, the beverage 
of immortality ; applied in common use to various items. 
Amril-maluU, H. (A. Jlsr) A term used in Mysore to 
designate a public establishment for rearing cattle for 
military uses. 

Amrit-manodhri, erroneously, Amrit-mandhara, and Amrit- 
mandhi, Uriya (e|?J)9G$>|^) Funds for the support of 
the temple of Jagannatha, allowance to the Brahmans to 
provide sweetmeats for the idol Jaganndth, which, after 
presentation to him, are distributed among all who are 

AMUMAT, A. (ci^vtyj, from J, a mother) In Mohammedan 
law, the condition of being a mother, maternity. 

AMWAL, H. (A. plur. ofmdl JU) Property, goods, chattels, 

personal property. 

Amtvdl-rabmi, A. Property that may be lent at a usurious 

ANA, H. (til, S. WRT, B. 'STfal , Mar. ^(TOT or ^np) The six- 
teenth part of a rupee, commonly, but incorrectly, written 
Annas, it is used either singly or in its multiples to denote 
proportional fractions of any article ; thus, one ana of any 
thing of land or chattels is one-sixteenth ; four anas, a 


quarter ; eight anas a half, &c. In central Hindustan it 
is applied also to land measure. One ana of land is equal 
to sixteen rusis, and sixteen anas to one kanchu. It also 
expresses the divisions of village lands, the minor portions 
of each share being subdivided into anas or sixteenths ; thus, 
one share and eight anas is equivalent to 1-g-, &c. In 
Western India it is also applied to land measure, one 
ana being the sixteenth part of a gonta, or 7.5C25 square 
yards; or it denotes one link of a measuring chain con- 
taining sixteen links. 

And-hara or hunt, corruptly, Annah-khureh, H. (from S. 
liura, RT, tux) A fee of one ana on each rupee of revenue 
levied by the headmen in Asam to cover local charges. 
Ana patt'i, Mar. An extra cess at the rate of one Ana on 
each rupee of the assessment, or a like charge per plough 
or per head, &c. 

(jSf(J iiUI) Land that has been waste from time imme- 
morial (from S. anddi 'anif^, without beginning, and 
H. banjar, waste land). 
Anddi bltiimi, H., used in Mysore. Land transferred by 

mortgage (from S. 1 Wrrf^> and >rf>l, land.) 
Anddi-bidu, Tel. Tarn. (&rt~"&>&l, ^COTrr^Lj) A 
piece of ground that has never been cultivated ; also 
similar terms as, Anddi harambu, Anddi tarisu. 

ANAJ, H. (-Jol, WTT3T) Grain, commonly, but incorrectly, 
pronounced NAJ. 

ANAKALABHRITA, (S. *MI<*lcl>TTT:) One of the fifteen kinds 
of slaves in Hindu law, a man who has become a slave 
voluntarily, for the sake of sustenance at a season of famine. 

ANAN, incorrectly, AIKAN, A. (^Uc) Traffic in partnership, 
in Mohammedan law. 

AXAKAN, Mai. (CS'OffnotftRsfc) A low or inferior person. 

ANANDA, Karn., &c. (& *TR^:, felicity) The 48th year of 
the cycle of sixty years which will fall in the year 1854. 

ANANTA, S. &c. (^Tl'in) Without end, eternal. A cord with 
fourteen knots in it, which the Hindus tie round the arm at 
the festival of Ananta-c/taturdaxi. 

Ananta-chaturdasi, S. The fourteenth of Bhadra (August, 
September), when a festival is held in honour of ' the 
eternal ' Vishnu. 

ANANTARAVAN, less correctly, ANANDRAVAN, Mai. (cS'Soo- 
O^KDOJOfb, from S. SHcl-di., without an interval) An 
heir, the heir apparent or next of kin. the heir of the acting 
head of the family. 


Anantaravan-natu-kdnam, Anandravannadu, &c. (from 

OO, middle, and <ftO<mOo, fee). 

Anantarasthdnam, Mai. (orUDOOOo, S. 3?lTf, place) Suc- 
cession, right of inheritance. 

ANANYASRITA, (S. (^P^ not, anya ^Pil, another, and asrlta 
miftild, dependent) Independent, not supported by or 
dependent on another. In Hindu law, unencumbered 

ANASANA, S. (^ neg., ^T$pf, eating) Fasting. In law, 
fasting of a creditor or of a Brahman employed by him 
to enforce payment of a debt, the debtor incurring the 
guilt of Brahmanicide if the person should die of inanition. 

ANATHA, S. (^1 neg. and ?TTO, a master) Having no pro- 
tector or owner. An orphan. 

Andthi-banjar, S. and H. Waste, or rather unclaimed land. 
Uncultivated land without an owner. See Anddi-banjar. 

ANAVANTU POLAM, Tel. Land of which the ownership is 

ANAVRUSHTI, Kara. Tel. (S. an 'SP^neg. and dvrisliti <ai<|fv:, 
rain) Drought ; want of rain. 

ANAYA, (S. ^rPW) The ceremony of tying on the girdle of 
Munja grass preparatory to investiture with the sacrificial 
string. The rite of investiture. 

ANAYAN, Mai. (CS*3)POOCDJnr&) A cowherd, a shepherd. 

ANBHANTA, UNBHUNTA, (?) Undivided, applied to lands. 

ANCHA, ANCHU, Tel. (e5Ow) ( ANCHE, Kara. (e3O3?) ; 
ANCHAL, Mai. (cS^eraumfc) Tarn. (^(Q&Gb) Public 
conveyance, post, posting, a post-stage, a relay of 
palankin bearers or post-runners. 
Anchalpura, Mai. ((S^eiTQjraka-irt)) A post-office. 
Anche-Jiacheri, Karn. (escafoasQ) The post-office. 
Anche-mane, Kara. (C3O&j-5iOro5) A station for post- 

(esoooS" , f rom S. dnsana ^PT, dividing, apportion- 
ing) An estimate or appraisement of the probable amount 
and value of the crops on a field ; salt in a pile ; hay in 
a stack, and the like. Grant derives it from two Persian 
adverbs, an, there is, chandn, so much ! App. v. Rep. 642. 
Niluvu-anchand, Tel. (^ ej -^) Estimate of the produce 

of a field before the crop is cut. 

Kuppa-anchand, Tel. (J*y2}) Estimate of the produce of a 
field after the crop is gathered, but before it is measured. 


Anchand-ddr or-ddrudu,Tel. An officer employed to survey 
the standing crops and estimate their probable value; an 
estimator, an appraiser. 

Anchand-jdbitd, Tel. (aT^SSw ) Estimate of each Ryot's 
share of the value of the crop. An account of the 
estimated crop kept by the village accountant. 

ANDAI, Tarn. (a|,<3OTT6TOl_) Master of a family, owner of 

ANpADi, Mai. ((6*o6'i~>gosl) A shop, a market-place, a 


Andddivdnibham, Mai. (CS^)6^SOsln_lOsrr>lSo) Mer- 
chandise, goods, wares, articles for sale. 

ANDANA, Mar. (w^'H) Presents made by the bride's father 
to the bridegroom after the celebration of the marriage. 

ANDAnu (?). A Mobed, or officiating priest of the Parsis. 

ANoAz, H. (P. j'jJl) Estimate, valuation, guess. 
Anddz-patti, Mar. Estimate of the value of a growing 

ANDHA-DARBAHU, Karn. (WO7?3a&5~3>&>, from S. andha 
^Py, blind, and P. darbdrjj/d, a court) A public 
office notoriously ill conducted, a bad government. 

ANDHf, ANDHEE, H. (,<aiX)l, from S. ^PT, blind, dark) 
A hurricane, a tempest ; a darkening of the day. 

ANDHHA, or, ANDHRA, S. (^PSt, VHIHlO The country now 
known as Telingana. Andhra more properly denotes a 
native of that country, also a caste of Brahmans in Mysore, 
or a Brahman of Telingana, who is known by the name 
of Andhra Brahman in most parts of India. The name 
was known to the ancients, and Pliny speaks of the Rex 
Andrarum as a powerful Indian prince. 

ANDI, Tarn. ( jgLCTOrU}-) Kara. (esoCS) A religious men- 
dicant of the Saiva sect in the South. 

ANDI, Karn. (e3o>) Bail, bond, security. 

ANDA, Mai. (CS^e*"^,) ANDU, Tarn. (jgJjSCnr) A year. 

ANE, Kara. (O[3)ANAi, Tarn. (.gjjSdBOT) An oath, an adjuration, 
a protestation, a citation on the part of Government ; also 
Karn. Anebhashe, or Anebase (from S. bhdshd, speech). 

ANE, Karn. (es3) An elephant (differing from the pre- 
ceding in the ' n,' which, in the first word, is the cerebral, 
in the second, the dental letter). 

ANE, corruptly, ANI, and ANAY, Kara. (E5), ANAI, Tarn. 
(l|Sbor), ANA, Mai. ((S^ffro) A dam, a dyke, a bank, 
a bridge. Kallane, Kara. ( O^EJ) A dam or embank- 
ment of stone. 





A dam, a dyke, an embankment, a channel to direct 

water into different streams for purposes of irrigation. 
Anaihdl, Tarn. (<l|$5oT<5&3n'&) An embankment of stone. 
AUanai, Tain. ( SLI&soSsoT) A dam or bridge of stone. 
ANEKAGOTRA, S. (^fifapfta) One who is a member of 

more than one Gotra or family. 
ANEYAR, Hindi (<Mlf)i4K) The time of agricultural labour 

in the hot weather, from sunrise till noon. 
A NO, H. (LL>U from S. ^f, a particle of assent) Demand 

on each head of cattle for right of pasture by the pro- 

prietor of the ground. Mode of computing a tax on cattle 
in Hariana, two bullocks making one Ang. 
ANGA, UNGU, S. (^jp) The body, or a part of it; a limb, 
a member. Whence, figuratively, a branch of literature, 
a supplemental portion of the Vedas, &c. 
Aiigani/daa, S. Touching different parts of the body as 

a religious exercise. 

Angaprdyaxchitta, S. Expiation of personal impurity, 
especially the expiatory offering made by the next of kin 
of a person recently deceased, at the first Sraddha after 
his death. 

AxoAi or ANGARKHA, H. (l&l, l^G!) A long tunic, a coat 
worn both by Hindus and Mohammedans : the former tie 
it on the left, the latter on the right breast. 
ANGA, UNGU, Tel. (OoX) A stride or pace of about three 


AngaUla, Tel. (WOA"5" c e;) Measurement by paces. 
ANOADI, Kara. ( esoXft ), ANGADI, Tam. (ajr&jorTi^.) A 
stall or shop in a market where provisions are sold. 
A betel stall. A tax on shops or stalls, a village in 
which there is a market. 

Angadihdr or gar, &c. Karn. (e9OA&o3o) A shopkeeper. 
Angddikaran, Tam. (51|r&jrTl^_c5<5brTCr<S3r) A vender of 

Angadi-pa.fihe, or pasitje, Karn. (oJ<OO, oJoJA) A fee 

or cess upon booths or stalls. 
Angddi-patti,orpattadai, Tam.(ULll^., LJlllCrol )A tax 

upon moveable shops or stalls. 

ANGADIA, orANGAHiYA, Guz. ( a *U3l'il :u U) A person em- 
ployed in the West of India to carry money and jewels, 
which he conceals in his garments. 

ANGAN, H. (j^fil, from S. Wjpr.) A court -yard, an in- 
closed area within or without the house ; also pronounced 

ANGAUNGA, ANGOUNGA, H. (Ifi jjol) Perquisites of grain 

from the threshing-floor distributed to the Brahman, 

Purohit, Guru, grazier, and god of the village. 
ANGAUHIA, H. (b^jjjl) A ploughman. In some places, as 

Benares, the practice of allowing the use of the plough 

as part of the wages of labour. 
ANGDENA, (?) A tax formerly levied by the Portuguese at Bom- 

bay on fishermen and their boats, and on other occupations. 
ANGIRASA, S. &c. (\suf#<.) The sixth year of the cycle. A 

Gotra or family of Brahmans : both are derived from the 

name of the ancient Rishi or Sage ANGIRAS. 
ANGJHAP, Thug, (from H. or S. Ang, body, and H. chlii- 

pana, to hide) Temporary burial of their victims until 

a convenient opportunity of effectually concealing them is 

found (used in the Dekhin). 
ANGUS, (corruption of English An invalided soldier, or 

lands granted to him under Ben. Reg. xliii. 1793; i. 1804. 
ANGUI.A, vernacularly, ANGUL, S. &c. (from WjfijS, a finger) 

A linear measure ; eight barleycorns make an Angula, 

and twelve Angulas a span ; a finger's breadth. 
ANGULI-TORANA, S. (from anguli, a finger, and torana, an 

ornamental archway) Three semicircular lines drawn 

across the forehead, made with sandal or ashes of burnt 

cow-dung, denoting a worshipper of Siva ; more commonly 

termed Tripundra. 
AM; \VARA, H. (from S. ^[Jf, a limb, a part) The proprietor 

of a small share of a village in the Benares district, where 

it also implies mutual help in tillage. 
ANGWATA, Mar. ( i'NI<il) The share of the actual cultivator 

in the produce of a field divided between him and the 

landlord and the owner of the bullocks for ploughing. 
ANHAR, Thug. Any metallic utensil for eating, drinking, 

or cooking. 
AN i, Karn. (CSC)) The comb or reed of a loom, or a 

weaver's lam, or the threads of the woof wound in the 

form of the figure 8. 

ANI, Tam. (j,njl) The month of June. 
ANITYA-DATTA, S. (flfafl, not for ever, and <^, given) 

Temporarily given, as a son adopted for a term ; also 

Anitya dattaka, and Anitya dattrima. 
ANIYA-UTTA, or UTTHA, Mai. (?) Daily meals given to Brah- 

mans at the temples in Malabar. 
ANIYAM, Tam. (^npLULa) A day. 
ANIYITKTA, S. (^J neg. and fa^i, appointed) Not duly 

appointed. In Hindu law, a Brahman who attends a 

court without having been appointed a member of it. 




from S. ^T3ff<:?: < l ' le two hands placed together and carried 
to the forehead as a reverential mode of salutation) A 
respectful mode of salutation. As much grain as can 
be held by the two hands put together. A handful of 
corn given from the threshing-floor ; the same as An- 
rjaunga, q. v. 

ANJAL, Tel. (corruption of AXCHAL, q. v.) The post, the mail. 

ANJAMAN, UNJUMUN, (P. ^.j^ssrl) An assembly. Among 
the Parsis, a constituted council or assembly to which all 
questions regarding- their peculiar customs are referred. 

ANJAN, UNJUN, H. ( ( js:\) A grass which grows in the 
North-West Provinces abundantly, and is used as fodder. 
Commonly, the word (from the S. WVH) denotes a col- 
lyrium, or any application, whether solid or fluid, to the 
eyes, to give them strength and brilliancy. 

ANJANA, UNJANA, H. (Uscl) An inferior sort of rice. 

AXJE, Karn. (C3O23) Clean or dressed cotton ready for 

ANK, or ANK, corruptly, AUK, H. &c. (liJjl, from the S. 
anka WST.'a mark, a cypher) A mark, a number, an 
arithmetical figure, a share. Figures on coins, &c., 
shewing the date of a Raja's accession. In Karnata, Anka 
or Anke is also applied in compounds to the tables or 
statements of relative measures ; as, Khandugadanke, dry 
measure ; Vnriilii'nlii-anlu', money accounts; Manuvisa- 
o,nke, troy and avoirdupois measure, &c. In Cuttack, 
an era commencing with the accession of each Raja, 
and, counting by the year of his Raj, all deeds com- 
mence with the year of the Anh in which they were 

Ankana, S. ('WoR'H) Marking, making a number or cypher, 
especially branding or cauterising the limbs with the 
symbols or names of a divinity. 

Ank-banili, or hiim/i'i; H. (P. (_jiXXJ, binding) An adjust- 
ment of the rents to be paid by the individual collector 
through the person held liable for the realisation of the 
Government demand. 

A nk-dar, corruptly, Aukdar, (P.^'i>, who has) The holder 
of a share in village lands. The person who is responsible 
for a portion of the revenue. 

Ank-kar, H. (S. J6, who makes) An assayer, a stamper, a 
money changer. 

AVKAM, Mai. (S. CS^)863o) In Malabar, A duel, a single 
combat : these were formerly frequent among the Nairs, 

and were a source of revenue to the Raja, each combatant 

paying for the privilege of fighting. The combat was 

sometimes fought by hired champions. 
ANKHEN-WALA, H. (from jfit, from S. ^iftf, the eye) A 

term used in Mysore to denote a class of police employed 

by Hyder All ; a spy, an inspector. 
ANKHAU, H. (jl^Cl, from S. Sjfoj, the eye) Valuation by 

the eye of growing crops. 


ANKARO, Guz. ( a M,l%$l), A bill an account Discount. 

See Ant. 

ANKURA, Thug. A thousand ; the word in S. (sHd-u) sig- 
nifies a shoot, a sprout, a bud or blossom ; also, some- 
times, water.' 
Ankurarpana, S. ( 1 ?I^!j) Offering of water, a preliminary 

offering of water at the beginning of a ceremony. 
ANNA, S. (w^) Food, boiled rice. 

Anna-kuta ydtrd, S. (The festival (ydtrd) of the mountain 
(kuta) of boiled rice). A festival of the Hindus in the 
month of November, when they make a pile of rice as a 
type of the hill Govarddhana in Vraj, near Mathura, 
observed especially by cowherds. 

Anna-prdsana, vernacularly, Annprdtsan, S. &c. (VHdHI^H) 
Putting a little food into the mouth of an infant between 
five and eight months old, accompanied with a religious 

Anna-vyavdhara, S. (H^lt, law) Law or custom relating 
to food, that is, to the practice of eating together or not, as 
followed by different castes. 

ANOLA, commonly pronounced Aoiild, H. (<Jyl, from the S. 
<m<$;) The myrobalan tree, which is worshipped by agri- 
culturists in the West of India on the llth of Phalgun 
(Feb., March) : libations are poured at the root of the 
tree, a yellow or red thread is tied round the trunk, and 
prayers and songs are recited in honour of the plant 
ANS, or ANSA, pronounced ANGSHA, or UNGSHU, also writ- 
ten AMSHA, H. &c. (^1, from the S. ^0 A part, a 
share, a portion. 

Ansdnsa, S. (^tT^t) A subdivision, a share of a share. 
Ananm, S. (q^l) Having no share; excluded from a share, 
as of inheritance, on account of some physical or legal defect. 
Ansapatra, S. (^m) A deed setting forth the shares or 
portions of a property. A deed of partition between the 
members of a Hindu family. 

Amahara, S. (tH^I^O A co-parcener, a co-heir ; one who 
takes a share of an estate or property. 


Ansrvansa, H. (<W>!jJl) A measure of land in Hindustan, 

twenty of which are equal to one Pilwansa. 
ANSAHI, H. (A. <_J\MI\) A tribe of Sheikhs in the North- 
west Provinces who pretend to be descended from the 
original Ansdr, or auxiliaries of Mohammed, who adopted 
his faith at Medina. They appear to have come into 
India from Herat at the time of Firoz Shah. 
ANSU-TORE, Thug, (from the H, yuJ\ ansu, a tear) Any 
shower of rain that falls before the usual rainy season : 
it is regarded as of evil omen, and if it occur during the 
first day or night of an expedition the party must return 
and start again. 

ANT, Guz. (^tU) Credit, transfer. In Guzerat it 
implies a fictitious currency or book-credit, in which 
bills of exchange and dealings in articles of trade 
may be paid at the option of the holder, varying ac- 
cording to the exchange of the day and the value of 
the coin in which the amount is computed. The diffe- 
rence on cashing a bill in Ant is termed Ankara, discount. 
ANTAH-PATA, Mar. (S. ^JSSTC, between, and tf! , a cloth) A 
screen of silk or cloth held up between the bride and 
bridegroom, or between the student who is to receive the 
sacred cord and the spiritual teacher, until the proper 
moment arrives for the parties to see each other. 
ANTAH-PURA, S. (^5T:, inner, and Tit,, city) The inner 

or female apartments. 

ANTARBED, UNTURBED, H. dJjjytil, from S. \HtU, between, 
and ^fjj, an altar, or ground raised to serve for one) The 
old name of the lower portion of the Doab, from Etawa 
to Allahabad : it was sometimes applied to the Doab 

an interval, and TR, after) Applied, in the Upper Pro- 
vinces of Bengal, to lands allowed to lie fallow for one 
year. E. I. Records, iii. 173. 

ANTASSTHA, less correctly, ANTASTA, or ANTASTHI, Mar. 
(S. ^5It^i:, what is or stays within, secret, hidden) 
Secret expenditure. Sums expended in presents or bribes 
to official persons. An item in the Darbar kharch, or 
Court-charges of the Peshwa. 
Antasstha-ki-yddi, Mar. (P. lib, memory) Account of 

secret service expenditure. 

ANTEvAsi, very corruptly, ANTYBASHY, and ANTWASI, H. 
(S. ^T^Tftnr) A disciple, a pupil residing with his 



ANTU, UNTOO, Tel. Kara. (esoaO) Total amount, aggre- 
gate (from the S. anta, end, final sum). 

ANTYESHTI, S. (^nirft?) The final sacrifice or funeral obsequies. 

ANUA,or ANWA, H. (ly\) The place where the men stand who 
throw up water from a lower to a higher level. See Dauri- 

ANUBHAVAM, Mai. ((S'oemrasnJo, from S. ^R, after, ac- 
cording to, and H^, being) Enjoyment : a grant of 
hereditary land in Malabar, either rent-free or at a pepper- 
corn-rent, in reward of service ; also a present of betel, 
or a cocoa-nut, from the proprietor at the time of 
executing a deed of transfer of a garden or plantation to 
the person to whom the transfer is made, as symbolical of 
the character of the land made over ; also Anubhogam. 

ANUBHOOAM, Mai. (C r D6t~e61f50C/)o, S ^Rifoi) Enjoy- 
ment ; usufruct ; a grant of land, &c. ; the same as 
Anubhavam, as above. 

ANUGAMAN, UNOOQUMUN, H. ( l ^j>\, from the S. 1 ^, after, 
and IJT5|, going) The burning of a widow after hearing 
of the death of an absent husband ; also Anu-maranam, 

ANUKSHETRA, corrupted vernacularly to ANUCHHATII, or 
ANRACHUTTUH, S. (Ann W!|, according to, kshetra T%1, 
a sacred shrine or place of pilgrimage) A charitable 
allowance made to the native servants of certain temples 
in Orissa, by the Marathas, and continued by the British 
Government. Ben. Reg. xii. 1815, sec. 30. 

ANULOMAJA, S. (from WT, according to, loma, <jta, the 
hair of the body, and ja H , born, bom with the hair or 
grain, i. e. in due order) The offspring of two persons of 
different classes, of whom the father is of the superior 
class in the regular succession, as of a Brahman father 
and Kshatriya mother. If the woman were of the Brah- 
man and the man of the Kshitriya class, the order is 
inverted, and the progeny is termed Pratilomaja, born 
against the hair. . 

ANUPATAK, or ANOOPATUK, H. (S. ^HMIrt<*) A heinous 

offence short of a capital crime. 

ANUMATIPATRA, S. (from anumati, ^R^fiT, assent, and 
patra m, a leaf) A deed expressive of assent or con- 
currence; especially a deed executed by a husband about 
to die, authorising his widow to adopt a son. 
ANUPU'RVAJA, S. ('SITf, after, Tft, before, ja, born) Off- 
spring born of parents in the regular sequence of the 
castes. See Anulomaja. 



ANWADHEYA, or -DHEYIKA, S. (^PT, after, ?ninT, to be 
received) A class of woman's property (in law) ; what 
has been given to her by her husband or relations after 

ANWASARYA-SRADDHA, S. (^MI^I^'MId) Funeral obsequies 

in honour of deceased ancestors performed monthly on the 

day of new moon. 
ANWAHITA, S. (i!Ml(Vii), also ANWADHI, S. (from ^T*J, after, 

and 'Sift, a pledge) A pledge or deposit placed with a 

third party. 
AN WAN, Mar. fafarij) The first field of rice, that in which 

the plants have grown from seed. 
Anwanu, Mar. ( 'HhTCr) Transplanted, as rice plants, from 

the first field. 
AN WASHTA KA, S. OBHSoht) Funeral obsequies performed on the 

ninth day of the months Pausli, Mdgh, Phdlgun, and Asrvin. 
ANYAGOTRA, S. (from anya ^raj, other, and gotra ffa, 

family) Of a different lineage. 
ANYAKUDI, Tarn. (ajOTfJoflUJe&gjlq-, from S. anya, other, 

and kudi, house ; corruptly, ANICOODY, Gl. 5th Rep.) 

A cultivator or other person who is an inhabitant of a 

different village from that in which he labours or trades. 
ANYAPURVA, S. faai and TTJJ, before) A woman who has 

been previously married. 
ANYAYAM, S., but used in the dialects fa neg., ^ITO, judicial 

inquiry) Injustice. A complaint of injustice. ; a plaint 

in a civil suit 
AODI, or AOODI, H. (,_^!) A tribe of Jats in the divisions 

of Soneput and Paniput 
AODIYA, H. (probably for Ayodhia, or native of Ayodh or 

Oude) A thief of a tribe of thieves inhabiting villages 

in the Cawnpore and Fattehpur districts. They make 

remote excursions at particular seasons, in different dis- 

guises, and sometimes plunder on a large scale. 
AOOAHI, H. ( ( _ s ali,l) Collection of rent or revenue from a 


AoKAx, H. ((y&jl) Straw and grain heaped up (Benares). 
AOKHAL, AOKHUL, H. (J^jl) Land reclaimed from waste 

and brought under cultivation. 
AoiANiA, H. (<OJ)ljl) A tribe of Jats residing in the Paniput 

district. Although Hindus, they claim the appellation of 

Malik or King conferred upon them, they affirm, by some 

ancient prince, to denote their sovereignty over other Jdt 

AOLI, AOLEE, H. (^jl) Mode of estimating the produce of 

a larger extent of land by the ascertained produce of a 

smaller quantity. 
AONT, H. (?) Accommodation bills (the term is used in Central 

India, and is probably the Ant of Guzerat, q. v. 
AORI, or AWAHI, H. (t_?;jD Bank of a pond or rivulet to 

the water's edge ; a piece of dry land left uncultivated. 
AOSAT, or AOSUT, H. (no doubt a corruption for Arsat, q. v.) 

An average. 
ApA, or ApA, Mar. (^HH, V JUMT) A term of respectful address 

to a senior ; also of affection to a son or junior. It is 

often affixed to a proper name ; as, Govind-pant-dpd. 

See also APPA. 

fsTiT:) One who has lost caste, and with whom his kindred 

will not eat and drink : he is thereby incapacitated from 

inheritance (from Apa, particle implying severance, off, 

from, and pdtra, a dish, or i/dtrd, intercourse). 

in most dialects (S. ^RtHJ) Fault, offence. The punish- 

ment of offence, fine, penalty. This latter meaning is 

peculiar to the South of India. 
Aparddha kshame, Karn. (from S. Tipn) Pardoning an 

offence, remitting a fine. 
APARALU, Tel. (eS^eo) jyj k ; nds O f pulse or g^ in 

pods, also APAHAJINSULU. 

APAVIDDHA PUTRA, S. (^nrfag 1 , rejected, and T3, a son) 
A son deserted by his parents and adopted by strangers. 
One of the kinds of affiliation formerly permitted by the 
Hindu law. 

APHAHIA, H. (^jl) A subdivision of the Ahir or cowherd 

AriL, Beng. ('^Ttf'tef) The English word Appeal. So 
also Apilant, (^Ttf'W^) Appellant. 

APPA, UPPTJ, Tel. Karn. (&^) A father, a term com- 
monly added to proper names as a mark of respect ; as, 
Ranga-appa, or Ranrjappa. The word in Mar. is APA, 
or ApA, q. v. : it also occurs in Tel. as APPAYA, and in 
Tamil, APPAN. In Tuluva, APPA, means mother. 

APPANAM, UPPANUM, Tel. (e>^r\$5x>) Tax, tribute. 
Rent revenue. Rack-rent Any taxed lands, especially 
lands highly assessed, which are required to be held by 
cultivators who, as an equivalent, hold other lands on 
favourable terms, or rent-free. Usufruct 

APPASAM, Tel. (In the northern Circars) A cut or channel for 



APRATIBANDHA, S. (^t neg., and TrfiWK, obstruction) Un- 
disputed inheritance. 

ApTA-PUNJAif, Mar. (wnr^'TO, from S. dpta, fit, and punja, 
a heap) Presents made at the Dasahara festival to the 
Patel or head of a village. 

APTA-KAKAKKU, Tarn, (ajusrrse&fionrsg)) A weekly 
account (from P. HaftaK). 

APTI, Mar. (^mft, from S. apat, calamity) Distress from 
failure of the harvest, from either excess or deficiency of 

APUTRA, S. (^ neg., and TO, a son) A man who has no 
son, who has never had, or who has lost an only son, 
and may therefore adopt one. 

AR, H. (jl, the final being the hard d or r) Stop, hindrance, 
whence, fig., a mound or bank forming the boundary of a 
field ; a well : also an abbreviation of Ardra, the bank 
of a river. In composition it denotes also inferiority or 
deviation, being the same, essentially, as the Maratha 
particle Ad, or Ad (*nf, ^TR), q. v. 
Ar-gir, H. A strip of sward encompassing a field. 

AR, II. (jl) A ladle used in the sugar factories (Oudh) : it 
more usually signifies a sharp spike, a goad. 

ARA, H. (yl) A saw, a large saw, a shoemaker's knife. ART, 
(i^fjl) a small saw. 

ARA, Mai. (QSfyO) A river. 
Arrukdl, Mai. (cS'SjOCidSjOrtst)) A channel from a river. 

ARA, (?) A ford or ferry. Gl. 5th Rep. 

ARA, (with a soft 7-) Total, aggregate. 

ARABA, H. (P. &\j}) A cart. 

ARAD, H. (J^l) Flour-meal. 

ARADHYA, S. (^THIUT., venerable) In the South of India the 
term is applied especially to a Brahman who professes 
the Jangama worship of Siva, but is not acknowleged 
by other members of the sect, from his retaining the dis- 
tinction of caste. Among the Marathas, a tutelary divinity. I 

AHAGU, Karn., ARAKKU, Tel. (^jp, from the S. laksha, \ 
^5f ) The resin of the nest of the Lac insect ; Shel-lac. 

ARAK, URUK, H. (A. ^je.) Spirit, juice, essence. 

ARAKU, or ARUKI, Tarn. (aj(7<S.@, =H(nj<5<El) A fer- 
mented liquor from the juice of the palm : Tdri, or 
Arrack, which is probably derived from the Tamil, which 
again may be a dialectical modification of the Arabic 
ARAK, as above. 

ARAKA, Tel. (o) A plough, with oxen and implements 
of husbandry complete. 

Arakala-jdbitd, Tel. Per. An account shewing the number 

of ploughs belonging to each Ryot (northern Circars). 
Arakattaraka, Tel. A plough with a pair of bullocks. 

ARAKAL-PALISHA, Mai. (from ara, half, kdl, quarter, and 
palisha, interest) Interest at 1^; per cent., or one-eighth of 
the highest legal rate in Malabar, or 10 per cent, per annum. 

ARALE, Kara, (etff ) Cotton. 

AHALU, Earn. (wTTcXjG) Haifa day's labour. 

Ardlukuli, Karn. (eO-a^J&To)?)) Half a day's hire. 

ARAMAISHI PARAMAISHI, Karn. (esS^XTSaxroli, &5 1 
oJ~9CXXr~<x} > dialective derivatives from the P. aram and 
firman) Gratuitous assistance given by the Government 
to a respectable person in the cultivation of rent-free lands. 

ARAMANE, Karn. (OOO3co) A royal palace. Government. 
Aramane sambala, Karn. Dependant upon Government, 

in Government pay. 

Aramaneyavaru, Karn. (oOt\jo!x>^XX>) The officers of 
Government, or the Government collectively. 

(e>#o5, etfoeS, 3. *TCW, beginning, undertaking) 
Agriculture, farming, cultivating land. 
Kdd-dramba, Karn. (Dc)~<3~c>>o>) i> r y cultivation. 
Nir-dramba, Karn. ()CO~c)#o>) Wet cultivation. 
Aramba-gdr, Karn. (estfoeS-TTStf, from S. kura gnt, 

who makes) A farmer, a cultivator. 
Arambada-sdmdnu, Karn. (e3So>&F3B,o3-3,-&) i m _ 

plements of husbandry. 

Aramvathd, Mar. (<IKM<!l) A rice field after clearing, 
ready for the next year's crop. 

ARA, or ARAI-NIR, Tarn. (a|<3cT5Ur^cr) Water for irriga- 
tion which may be drawn freely from the public reservoir 
during a certain period of the year. 

ARA-PALISHA, Mai. Half interest, or 5 per cent in Malabar ; 
also interest that absorbs half the rent of mortgaged lands. 

ARAPALH, Tarn. (?) A crop entirely blighted and withered 
before the time of reaping. 

ARAR, URAR, or ADAD, UIJAD, H. (j'H', or ^JSIS) Outhouses 
for cattle. Harvest floor for the blossoms of the Mahwa. 

ARARA, or ADADA, URARU, or UDADU, H. (jljfl, ^HiCi) The 
steep bank of a pond or river. 

ARARI', or ADADI, or URAREE, or UDADEE, H. (<_?;H''> or 
wsisl) The old established measure of a field to which 
the occupant appeals, in preference to actual measure- 


ARANYA, S. (^JTOPf) A forest. 
Aranya-sdbhd, S. A court for a community of hermits ; 

a forest-court. 

Aranya-shashthi, S. A Hindu festival on the 6th (shashthi) 
of Jyeshth (May, June), observed by women in the hope 
of obtaining handsome children : part of the ceremonial 
is walking in a wood. 

ARASA, or ARASU, URUSU, URUSOO, corruptly URSOO, Karn. 
(es&Cx)), ARACHAN, Mai. (CS^ro^Jot). ARASU, or 
ARASAN, Tarn. (SHU<5t, =i| [JcEPOT , from S. Rdjd, or, as 
pronounced sometimes in the Southern dialects, Rdtstt) 
A king, a ruler; so, ARASI, or ARASATI, Karn., A queen ; 
also, governing, ruling ; also, privileges allowed for watch- 
Arasukdran, Tarn. ( a|rT<a<E6OfTrJ<3OT) A person holding 

certain privileges for performing police duty. 
ARASU, Tarn. The Pipal, or sacred fig-tree. 
Arasdni, or Aramni-stambha, Tarn. A branch of the 
Pipal tree placed in the middle, under the canopy erected 
for a marriage, as a type of Vishnu, round which all 
the parties walk, worshipping and performing ceremonies. 
ARASINAGE-INAM, Karn. (from Karn. Arasina, turmeric, and 
A. Indm, grant of land) Land granted in dower, or as 
pin-money ; literally, for turmeric, which enters largely 
into the materials of a Hindu lady's toilet in the South 
of India,- being applied to stain her forehead, finger-nails, 
soles of her feet, &c. 

ARATI, or ARTI, H. ( -J; I , vi i ,n1 , occurring in most dialects, 
from the S. SHKlf^oj, nocturnal ceremony) Waving lights 
circularly in front of an idol or object of worship, part of 
the usual evening ceremonial. In the South of India it is 
performed in honour of individuals at marriages and 
ARAITUKI, Tarn. (Sl^amrj &,&!&><&, A Madras phrase) The 

pillory, lit. half-hanging. 

ARAVA. ARAVI, or ARAVU, Tel. Kara. People and language 
of Dravira, or the country from the North of Madras to 
Cape Comorin, along the Coromandel Coast. 
ARAVAR, Karn. (esOoO oO) I n Canara, a mortgage in which 
the mortgagee retains possession of the property, in lieu of 
interest, until the debt is paid ; also called Udravdr and 
lldddravdr, from the S. lid, the earth. 
Avadhi-aravdr, Karn. (from S. avadhi, limit) Usufruct, 
as before, with a stipulation that the mortgagee shall not 
be dispossessed before a given term. 


ARA-VARI, Tarn, (from ajaosrj arai, half) Half revenue, 
applied to a village or lands assessed at half the usual rate. 
ARAZI, UHAZEE, H. (A. from the plur. of (jaf., or \j&p, 
lands) Applied especially to detached portions of land 
which are either rent-free or have been recovered from the 
retrocession of rivers. 

ARBAB, H. (A. i-jlfjl, plur. of uj;) Masters, lords, possessors. 
Arbdb-ul-mdl, H. Officers of the treasury. Extra allow- 
ance to the officers of account. Gl. 5th Rep. 
Arbdb-i-shara, H. A. (fj) Law officers. 
ARDAL, Thug. A person who has separated from his party, 
and has, in consequence, escaped the fate of his companions. 
ARDAWA, H. (gyjjl) Ground meal, coarse flour; ground 
pulse. The term more commonly denotes a mixture of 
the meal of chick-pea and barley, which is given to the 
horses of Europeans, or barley parched and ground, and 
similarly employed. 

ARDDHA, S. &c. fari?, a moiety) Half, or a part in general. 
Arddha-khil, Ben. (^J^ff^f) Land only partially in cul- 
tivation (from S. arddha, part, and khil, B. fallow land). 
Ardhal, or Ardhola, Mar. (from S. Rf, half) A half share, 

either of the produce of land or profits of trade. 
Ardheli, or Ardheliya, Mar. (S. wf , a half) In the 
Konkan, a temporary cultivator, one who undertakes the 
cultivation of the land for a share, generally a half, of 
the produce. 

Ardda-mdniyam, Tarn. (.ajCTS^LQrrflOflLLJLA) Land partly 

or half rent-free, being assessed at half the usual rate ; also 

a grant of the Government share of the rent to one who 

does not enjoy the share of the hereditary proprietor. 

Arddha-siri, Beng. (from TT5T, ploughing) Cultivating the 

land on condition of receiving half the crop. 
Arddhdya, Karn. ( C5^c)f~CXX5 ) An incomplete heap of 

Artole, or Arthole, Karn. (&o-f~V) A. weight of half 

a rupee. 

ARE, Karn. The Karnataka name of a Maratha. 
ARFA, A. (&i,c) The eve of a festival on which preliminary 
religious rites are practised, especially on the days pre- 
ceding the two great Mohammedan festivals, the Shab-i- 
Bardt, and the Bakr-id. 

ARGH, ARGHA, or ARGHYA, H. (/, from the S. ^rih) A 
respectful offering, chiefly of fruit and flowers, or water, 
or milk and honey, to an idol, a Brahman, any venerable 
person, or a bridegroom at the marriage ceremony. A 



libation of water between the threshold and the spot where 
the first bundle of corn is deposited after it is brought 
home from the threshing-floor ; or, the ceremony of placing 
on the threshold, at seed time, cowdung, dried and formed 
into a cup, filling it with seed, and pouring water upon 
it : both these ceremonies are intended to secure prosperity. 
Argha, or Arghya, also signifies the boat-shaped earthen 
or metallic vessel in which the offering or libation is 

ARHAR, Hindi, &c. (VC.^1, S. Wlli'ihl) A kind of pulse very 
generally cultivated throughout India (Cytisus cajan). 

AHHAT, URHUT, or ARHUT, H. (^TT^^Wg'ff , W?rf) Agency, 

brokerage, commission. 

Arhatiya, H. An agent, a broker, a correspondent. See 

ARHAT, URHUT, H. (e^>fc^) A revolving wheel for raising 
water when the water is near the surface, or from a river ; 
also Jtahat, and Rahdt. 

ARHWAL, H. (Jybj') A day labourer. Benares. 

AHI, Tarn. (ajcFl, S. ?ft and ^ftif, green) A bunch or 
bundle, a bundle of corn, a cornstack, a heap of grain 
before the straw is separated from it, a handful ; also 
raw rice. 
Ar-iddla, or Aridaran, Tam. 


Aridaluku, or Ariyedupv, Tam. 
GlULJl_|) A handful of corn, or as much as can be held 
by both hands put together, as the perquisite or fee of 
certain village servants. 
Ariddla-billi, Tam. An estimate of the produce of a field 

from the appearance of the stubble. 
Aritihttu, Tam. (ajl^lssu) A sheaf of corn. 

AHINA-PATTI, or PATTE, Karn. (e38)Sj>3 ? f r0 m dru 

a plough) An account of the number of ploughs belonging 
to each cultivator in a village. 

AHINDI, H. (P. xjjj, lit. a bringer) An agent, a broker. 

ARINI KATTU, Tel. (e"8<S&X)) ) ams ; n a sa i t pan . 


ARISH, A. ( [J*jZ ) Damages, fine for injury done to person 

or property, particularly for bloodshed not causing loss 

of life. Mohammedan Law. 
ARISI, Tam. (qrfl<#1) Any kind of grain, but especially 

rice freed from chaff. 
ARI'YAT, H. (A. e^Jjlc) Loan of any thing which is itself 

to be returned. Land or orchards of which the owner 

allows others to have the use, under certain stipulations. 
Mohammedan Law. 

ARIYAT, H. fercrfanO Land recently recovered from jungle. 

ARJANNA, H. A tribe of Kunbis, or cultivators, in Western 

ARjA, H. (S. SHIUJI, fern of SH1U), respectable, venerable) A 
female mendicant, so termed in central Hindustan. 

ARJU, or ARDZU, URDZOO, or URJOO, Tel. ( & ^i cor- 
ruption of P. Jj') Price, value. 
Arju-bdjdri dhdrd, Tel. Price-current, or market price. 

ARJU, URJOO, Tel. ( g^ corruption of A. (jof , breadth) 
The measurement of a heap of grain from the bottom to 
the top, as opposed to Tula, a measurement of the cir- 

AROLA, Hindi (^BIlTl^s) A sweet grass growing in short tufts, 
the seeds of which, when ripe, are often used as food by 
the poorer classes. 

AHOI.AT, (?) In the Dekhin, land held at a quit-rent by 
the Mchr, who acts as the village watchman and messenger, 
in compensation of his services. 

AHOPANAM, Mai. (S. OS^ewoOo-jevoo) An accusation, a 
false charge. 

AHRU, URROO, Tel. ( ^^ ) Sore on a bullock's neck, made 
by the yoke of the plough. 

AHSAL, URSAL, or more correctly, IRSAI., H. (A. Jl^l) Send- 
ing, mission, despatch, especially of treasure or of revenue- 
collections to the treasury. 

Arz-i-Irsdl, H. Invoice. Particulars of the despatch of 

AHSATH, URSUTH, H. (/Xi'y!) A monthly account of receipts 
and disbursements. 

ruptly, ARSOTTA, and ATOSATTA, possibly also a modifi- 
cation of the preceding, or ARSUTH, H. Mar., but it occurs 
in other dialects also ( Uuj : ! , '-SitljJl) Estimate, guess, a 
rough calculation ; a monthly treasury account of receipts 
and disbursements made up from the daily entries. 
Arsattd navin, H. Per. The clerk or accountant who keeps 
the monthly account. 

ARSHA, S. (wHh , from ^ffa, an inspired sage) One of the 
modes of marriage according to Hindu law : the gift 
of a girl, by her father, on receiving one or two pairs of 
oxen from the bridegroom. Scriptural, any thing for 
which a Rishi is an authority. 

ARTHA, S. (^n?0 Object, purpose, meaning, wealth. 



ARTHI, H. (S. ^rfzfH, one who has an object, &c.) A suppliant, 

a plaintiff, a prosecutor, a petitioner. 

Arthydvedana, S. The complaint of a plaintiff taken ver- j 
bally by the officers of a Court before the filing of the 
written plaint recorded by them in writing. 
Vidydrthi, or Bidydrthl, S. Ben. (from vidyd, knowledge, 
and arthl, who seeks for) A student, a pupil, a school- 
boy or collegian. 

ARTHI, ARTHIYA, URTHEE, URTHIYA, H. ( l _^p)^> Ij-f^') A 
broker, a commissioner, an agent, a salesman, a com- 
mercial correspondent, one who conducts business on com- 
mission for a principal at a distance ; a banker who 
grants and accepts bills on other bankers or correspondents. ' 
See also Adat, Arhat, Adatya, and Arhatiya, as spelled ' 
with the hard d "3, or hard r J, and with a soft or hard 
t, IT or 7, also with or without the aspirate. 

ARU, or ARUKARU, Kara. (&>, es&>O"35j) A plough 
with oxen and implements of husbandry complete. 

Aru bhatta, Kara. A tax on grain at so much per plough, 

afterwards commuted to a fixed money rate. 
Arugidgdval, Kara. A tax on the Ryots for leave to cut 

timber from the jungle, for the fabric of their ploughs. 
Aru-kdnike, Karn. A tax on ploughs. 

ARU, Tarn. Cgj,,pj) AHA, Mai. (CS'QiO) A river, a rivulet, a 
watercourse. See Attukal. 

ARUDI-KAHAI, Tarn. (<l| ; QpJ^l&<5<3CDI3', from aruthi, or 
arudi, fixed or final, and karat, boundary) One of the three 
kinds of tenures under which land is held in the Tamil pro- 
vinces ; that in which the distribution is final or absolute, 
that is to say, the occupant holds a defined portion of 
the village lands, of which he has the entire disposal, 
and may let or sell them : his other rights and privileges, 
which he holds in common with the other proprietors, 
are transferable along with his share of the land. This 
is corrupted to Ard-karry, and Audi-caret, in the Fifth 
Report, and as the Adhikdri, of the more recent returns. 
It is also called Pdla-bhogam, q. v. Selections from the 
Records, i. 904, 905. 

Arudi-kraya, corruptly, Urdi, or Urdee-krayum, Tarn. 

(SJ^pJf^ld&eflCnjJLQ, S. 'aw, sale) A final or permanent 

sale ; sale of a share held under the Arudi-karai tenure. 

Arudi pangu, Tarn. (ai^^lLJI IITi_(g)) Final settlement 

or allotment. What is given in. full of all demands 

ARTJOU, Tarn. (XjrpJ@) A raised platform or terrace 
covered over and forming a veranda or porch on the 

outside of a native house ; also termed a Pial, a screen 
to shade persons of respectability from the sun. 

ARULU, or ARLU, Karn. (e>SjU, eewe~) Mud, clay, 
or miry soil. 

ARUMBU, Tarn. (SL|^JLQI_]) Scarcity, dearth. 

ARUPPU, Tarn. (aj^LJL-O Cutting, harvest, cutting the 

crop, the act of reaping. 
Aruppu-chitt/u, Tarn. (=H < ^JLJl_|<EF'<^Ll) An order or 

permission to cut the standing crop. 
Aruppu-kdlam, Tarn. (5H^JLJL_|<5iESrTSDLQ) Season of 

Aruppu-kuli, Tarn. (a|^JLJI_l(Eb@6iSl) Wages of reaping. 

ARUWA, Uriya. (8|Q2j|) Rice cleaned from unboiled paddy. 

ARUVARI, Tarn, (aj^jsurfl) A tax paid at fixed times. 

ARUZ, UROOZ, A. ((^v^) I n Mohammedan law, Personal 
property, exclusive of money, goods and chattels. 

ARVELA, Karn.(?5~'F~ ej ) A caste of Smartha Brahmans 
in Mysore. 

ARWADIYA-GHARENIYA, Guz. In Guzerat, Lands mortgaged 
by the village authorities for a definite period. 

ARWAN, ARWUN, H. (j.y^') The first cuttings of the harvest, 
not taken to the threshing-floor, but brought home to be eaten 
by the family and presented to the household gods and to 
Brahmans. The corn is taken out of the ear and eaten with 
milk and sugar : the term is chiefly current in Rohilkhand 
and the Upper Doab. The more usual and intelligible term is 
Narcdn, from the S. nava, new, and anna, rice or 

AHWAR, Karn. (?) A kind of mortgage, in Mysore, in which 
the land is made over to the lender until the produce 
has discharged the debt. 

! ARZ, UHZ, H. (P. jj\) Price, value. Arz-i-bazar, Current 
or market rate. 

ARZ, URZ, H. (A. ^0 Land, earth, landed property. 

ARZ, URZ, vernacularly ARJ, URJ, ARJI, URJEE, H. &c. (A. 
(jof- , 4IM, ^f) Petition, representation. In Moham- 
medan law, personal property except money. See Aruz. 
Arzi, Ur?ee, H. &c. (^Cjt, ^?*ff, ^^j) A petition, an 
address, a memorial, a respectful statement or representa- 
tion, whether oral or written. 

Arz-begi, H. (T. tfXio, a lord) An officer who, under the 
Mogul Government, was appointed to receive and present 
petitions, &c. 

Arzi-ddrvd, H. (A. t_$y:t}) A petition of complaint, the 
plaint, the first pleading in a suit. 



Arz-ddsht, H. (P. tS-^tb, what contains) A written peti- 
tion or memorial. 


Arz-i-marammat, H. (from A. marammat, O^Of* , repair- 
ing) A petition to amend or amplify a preceding petition 
or complaint. 

Arz-i-mujibdt, H. (from A. mujibdt C-jUo-yo , reasons) A 
representation of reasons or pleas, a petition of appeal 
setting forth the grounds of it 

Arz-i-multarrar, H. (from muharrar jjit , established) A 
petition or memorial representing the circumstances of a 
case, a representation to the royal authority of the pro- 
ceedings taken in respect of a grant of revenue or a 
Zemindari. Har. Anal. iii. 407. 

Ardychi, Tain. (.g) ) CrrriU<!5'<#l, perhaps from A Arz) An 
officer under the magistrates, head of the police, a sheriff. 

ARZAL, II. (A. J^K for Jj^, plur. of Jj;, vile) Low castes 
located on the estates of Zemindars, in some parts of 
Hindustan, as tenants at will, partly paying rent and partly 
rendering personal services, considered, in some measure, as 
adscripti glebae, and not entitled to remove off the lands 
except by the landlord's pleasure ; dependent also upon him 
for support in unfavourable seasons. 

AnzAMiNi, or ApzlMiNi, H. (from ar, ad, H. M. <3l,j^, 
WT, or ^STJ, q. v., implying protection or screening, and 
zdmini, A. J _/-cU , security) Counter security. Surety 
for a surety, mutual surety or responsibility. 

ARZI'Z, UHZEEZ, A. (j>.jj, lit. tin) Base or light money. 

ASA, H. (A. Lac) A staff, a stick, a long stick or mace, 
usually coated with a thin plate of silver, carried by a 
personal attendant as a mark of rank. 


Asd-barddr, H. A staff or mace bearer. 
ASAB, A. (L_^ai) Incidental or indirect heir. Residuary- 

heir (in Mohammedan law). 
Axubat, Asoobut, A. Inheritance in the male line from 

incidental contingencies. 
A.SADHARANA, S. (from ^, neg., and 4IIIII4.4U, common, 

special, individual) In Hindu law applied to property 

held by one person without the participation of another, 

as opposed to co-heirship or co-parcenary. 
ASAGA, Kara. (K>=OA) The washerman of the village, one 

of the village servants. 
ASAGOTRA, S. (from 'B , neg., and H'fH, of kin) In Hindu 

law, A kinsman by the female line only, one not of the 

same lineage or descent. 

ASAL, USUL, corruptly, ASIL, ASOOL, ASSIL, AZIL, ArsiL, 

AWSIL, H., but occurring in all the dialects, sometimes 

slightly modified, as Tel. ASULU, and the like (A. 
Root, origin, foundation. Principal, capital, original 
property or estate, also the original of a document. As 
a revenue term it is applied especially to the original or 
established rate of assessment without any extra cess. 
In Mohammedan law, a principle or ground of decision. 

Ayil-beriz, H. In the Northern Circars and the Carnatic, 
the standard or original assessment of the land revenue^ 
without any extra cess. Also Ami-jama. 

Ax{il-c/iittn, Tarn. (SH&60&L- ) The original or first 
copy of a bond. 

Asal dastdwez, H. An original document or record, in con- 
tradistinction to a copy. 

Asal-jamd, H. (A. * , total) The original rent or revrnue 
charged upon the lands of an estate, or village, or district, 
without any Abrvdb or extra cesses ; also the amount 
taken as the basis of a revenue settlement 

Asalwiukaddama, H. The original suit, in distinction to 
one appealed. 

Ami-tan, H. (from Pers. tan ^ , a person) A party plead- 
ing his own cause, the principal party in a suit. 

Asdlatan, H. (A. ci^JLe' ) In person, personally (appearing or 
pleading), in antithesis to Wak'dlatan, pleading by a Vakil. 
These are both adverbs from the substantives Asdlat and 
Wakdlat, with the Arabic syllable an added. 

Asal-tumar-jamu, H. The original rent-roll of the assessment 
of the land revenue in the Mogul provinces according to 
the register of Raja TODAR MAL, in the reign of AKBAR. 
Also the same as subsequently modified. 
ASLI, USLEE, or ASALI, USULEE, H. (formed from asal, de- 
nominative) Primary, original, applied to a registered village 
under the Mohammedan system, in opposition to the 
Dakhili one subsequently occupied. In the directions to 
Settlement officers in the N. W. provinces, 1844, par. 45, 
the application of these terms was modified, and thence- 
forward those Mauzas only which were numbered in the 
Settlement lists were to be called Asali, while Dakhili 
was to be confined to such smaller mauzas as might be 
afterwards formed. 

Asli-gaon, H. A principal or original village, one from 
which others have branched out, that on which the revenue 
was originally assessed. 

Asli-maiizd, H. An original village. See the preceding. 

Asli-zamin, H. Original land, that forming part of the 



originally assessed estate, exclusive of subsequent additions, 
as from alluvial deposits, &c. 

Ami, Useel, H. A female servant among Mohammedans 
who is a free woman, and therefore superior to the Laundl, 
or purchased slave. It is sometimes, but incorrectly, 
applied to any female slave. 

(A. ^^cUwl, vmi*TI, plur. of ism, a name, sometimes 
derived from isdm Jjl , a criminal) A cultivator, a 
tenant, a renter, a non-proprietary cultivator ; also a 
dependant ; also a debtor, a culprit, a criminal, a defendant 
in a suit Mr. Elliot (Supplement to the Glossary) con- 
jectures, with every appearance of probability, that Asdmi 
has come to signify ' an individual,' from the heading of 
the register in which the appellations of the villagers, &c. 
were recorded, as, Asdm, ' names,' each item then 
becoming an Asdm-i, or one of the names, or an individual 
person. The term is adopted in most of the dialects. 
Asdmi-ch'happer band, H. A resident cultivator, one who 
occupies his own ch'happer band, or thatched cottage ; 
one who holds at a fixed rent. 

Asdmi-jdi-bdki kdyaj, Ben. A record kept by a Zamindar 

in which the names of the tenants, and the balances due ] 

by them, are registered. 

Asdmi maurusi, H. An hereditary cultivator, one who, 
although not a proprietor, cannot be dispossessed as long 
as he pays a stipulated rent. 

Asdmi-paikdsht, H. A man who cultivates land in a 
village without any hereditary right, a tenant at will. 

Asdmi-shikami, H. One who cultivates the land of another 
person and pays him a fixed rent : a sub-tenant ; one j 
who labours for his support (shikam, lit. belly). 

Asdmi-ivdr, H. Individually, personally, according to name ; 
applied to a revenue settlement with each individual 
cultivator, the same as Ryot-war. 

Asdmirvdr-gutta, Tel. (from gutta ('" v - )e l ) rent) The rent 
or revenue to be levied from each cultivator. A Ryot- 
war settlement 

Asdmmdr-hisdb, H., -hissebu, Tel. (from P. kisdb, an ac- 
count), An account, kept in the Madras provinces, shewing 
the particulars of each Ryot's produce, assessment, pay- 
ments and balance as it stands at the end of the year. 

Asdmiivdri, Tel. Individually, according to name. A 
settlement or assessment made on each. 

Asdmimdr or -rvdri mdkta, H. Mar. Tel. (from the A. 

mukata gail*, divided) The rent or revenue payable by 
each individual cultivator. An account shewing the distri- 

Asdmiwdr or -rvdri mufrid, (from A. miifrid iXLc, single) 
In the northern Circars, an account shewing the amount of 
each cultivator's produce, both by estimate and measurement. 

ASAPINDA, S. (from ^T, neg. and Tjfoljs) One not connected 
by offerings of the funeral cake to the same ancestors ; a 
distant kinsman. 

ASAPUTRA, S. (from W, neg., *J, with, and XR, a son) In 
Hindu law, A son adopted from a different family, not 
descended from a common ancestor. 

ASARH, ASADH, more correctly, ASHADH, H. (aj-LJ, from S. 
WTT!?:), also vernacularly, AKHAR, Mar. &c. (^n^T?) 
The fourth month of the Hindu solar year (June July), 
considered the first of the rainy season, and beginning of 
the rice cultivation. 

Asdrki, Asdrhee, H. (jJ&J'UJ) The harvest of Asarh, but 
differently applied to the harvest that springs from plough- 
ing or from sowing in that month. In the former case 
it denotes the spring harvest, and is so used in the North- 
west. In the Benares district and Eastern Oude it is 
applied to the latter, and then imports the autumnal harvest. 

AsARi, H. (?) In the northern Circars, Lands of which the 
revenues are paid in kind, also lands which are not dependent 
on the rains, but may be irrigated from a tank or river. 

ASARA, or ASRA, H. (1^1, from S. WBPIJ) A place of pro- 
tection, a shelter, a home, a sanctuary. 

ASAHA-SISTU, Tel. Fixed, unfluctuating amount 

ASARI, Mai. ((S^SjC/aOfOl) A carpenter. 

AsAgi H. (A. i^j'j!) Property, wealth, effects. 
Axdx ul bait, H. Household furniture. 

ASACH, ASAUCHA, H. Ben. (-.ya\, from the S. ^ffa:) 
Social or legal uncleanness, as from the death of a relation 
or the like. 

ASBAB, H. (A. plur. of (^^%-j*>) Goods, effects, materials, 
implements, &c. 

ASEDHA, S. (^n%n:) Legal arrest, restraint; which may 
be of four kinds, Kdldsedlia, confinement for a time, by 
the end of which the affair must be settled ; Karmdsedha, 
restraint from any particular act, restriction from religious 
rites ; Pravdsdsedha, prohibition of removal, a writ of 
' ne exeat ;' Sthdndsedha, confinement in any given place. 

ASHHAD, H. (A. plur. of shahid) Witnesses, eyewitnesses. 
In Mohammedan law. 



ASHAR, USHUR, A. (from X^c, ten) A tenth, tithe. In Mo- 
hammedan law, the tithe assessed on lands occupied by 
Mohammedans, or which have been divided among-st a 
victorious army from the possessions of infidels. 

Ashari, H. Subject to tithe. 

Ashir, A. An officer appointed to collect the tithes. 

A A A 

Ashara, also Adshura, or Ushoura, H. (A. fjiut , s^ytle) The 
first ten days of the month Moharram, which, by the 
Shias, are dedicated to the commemoration of the death 
of All and his sons. 

Ashur-khdna, H. A building in which the bier, the ban- 
ners, and isignia used at the ceremonies of the Moharram 
are set up. 

ASHRABAT, A. (plur. of k_ jl^i, drink) Drinks, but in law 
applied especially to wines or spirituous liquors produced 
from the fermentation of grapes, raisins, or dates, the 
drinking of which is prohibited. 

AS-HAH, A. (jl^el, plur. ofjf^i) Relations by marriage 
within the degree in which marriage is prohibited. 

ASHHAF, corruptly, ASHROF, H. (A. u_ jl^l, plur. of _ ft^i, 
noble) Noblemen, persons of rank. In Behar and other 
provinces of Hindustan, the designation is assumed by the 
more respectable classes of both Mohammedans and Hindus, 
most of whom rent and cultivate lands, although they 
consider themselves soldiers and gentlemen and as de- 
graded by personal labour, to which, nevertheless, they 
are frequently reduced, performing all kinds of agricul- 
tural work except driving the plough. In some places 
they hold their lands under more favourable terms than 
other cultivators : " the Government Revenue (in Aligerh), 
when settled by a division of the crop, was one-third from 
Zemindars, one-fourth from Ashrofs, and one-half from 
ordinary cultivators." App. Revenue Report. 

ASHRAFI, USHRUFEE. corruptly, USHUHFEE, H. (from the 
A. <_ &>j , noble) A gold coin ; a mohur, rated at six- 
teen rupees silver. 

ASHTA, S. (^n^) Eight. 

Ashta bhdga mdnyam, S. An estate, in the south of India, 
held on favourable terms, paying only an eighth of a 
share of the produce as revenue. 

Ashta-bhoyam, S. Enjoyment of the whole, or the eight 
products of an estate ; or the land cultivated, Siddhi ; the 
produce of such land, Sddhya; uncultivable or rocky land 
and its products, as minerals, &c., Pdshdna ; property de- 
posited on the land, Nihshepa, : treasure-trove, Nidhi ; 

waters and their produce, Jaldmritam ; actual privileges, 


Akshini ; prospective rights and privileges, Agdmi. 
Ashtakd, S. Eighth ; the 8th day of the moon in certain 

months, when progenitors are to be worshipped. 
Ashtami, S. The eighth day of the lunar fortnight. 
Ashta-pradhdna, S. The eight chief ministers of the 

Maratha principality. See Duff. i. 230, '265. 
ASICHA, USEKCHA, H. (UcuJ, from S. ^T, neg., and f^, 

to sprinkle) Unwatered, unirrigated, as land. 
ASIN, corruptly, AssiN, more correctly, ASWIN, H. (lO"*", 

from S. yNlflMl asn'int, the constellation in which the 

moon is full) The seventh month of the Hindu luni-solar 

year (Septembei October). 

Aflffe, or, in the crude form, Asi*, S. (^n^ffaj) A blessing. 
As'ir-lxiil. H., but used in most dialects (from dsir and bad, 

or vdda, speech) The benedictive address of a Brahman 

or religious teacher. 

ASIYA, H. (P. U-'l) A mill, a water-mill. 
ASIYANA, H. (<uUJ) A whetstone. 
ASMANI-FARMANI, H. (P. jjUoJ , heaven, and ^.J^^> com- 

mand) A term used formerly in deeds and leases, providing 

for any incidents or injuries arising from calamitous 

seasons or unjust exactions of the Government, which, if 

affecting the Zemindar, the Ryots engaged to make good. 

In Garwhal, estimated fines and forfeitures, as part of the 

ASNAN, H. (^liuJ, corruption of S. stidnu ^T?t) Bathing, 

ASON, H. (y^l) The current year. 

ASOKASHTAMI, S. (from Asoka ^tyhfR'., the tree so called, 
Jonesia asoea, and ajthtami, eighth) The eighth of the 
light fortnight of Chaitra (April May), when a festival 
in honour of Vishnu is observed, part of the ceremonial 
of which consists in drinking water with the buds of the 
Asoka in it. 

ASR, USR, H. (A.^ac) The afternoon. 
Asr-namdz, The afternoon prayer of the Mohammedans, 
to be repeated at any time from half-past four until sunset. 

ASH, plur. A*AR, A. (y!, iljl) Signs, marks, traditions; the 
traditional law of the Mohammedans based on the sayings 
and doings of Mohammed. 

ASRAMA, S. (^rPSnrO A condition or order of life of which 
four should be passed through in succession by Hindus of 
the three superior castes, viz. that of the Brahmachdri, 
or religious student ; of the Grihastha, or householder ; 



of the Vdnaprastha, or hermit ; and Bhikshuka, or 
Sanyasi, religious mendicant. Also a hermitage, the 
abode of persons leading a religious or contemplative life. 
A name borne in addition to their own proper name by 
one of the orders of Dandi Gosains. 

ASRITA, S. ('errPsTin lit., protected, supported) A dependant. 
A Brahman maintained by an opulent householder. 

AST, H. (e^-J, S. "3ren) Setting of the sun. Place of sun- 
set. West. 

ASTACHAL, H. (S. ?rer and ^1^5:, a mountain) The moun- 
tains of the west, behind which the sun is supposed 
to set. 

AsTHAL,UsTHUL, H. &c., (J^iJ, from S. W(, place) Place 
of residence or abiding, especially the kind of free mo- 
nastery in which communities of religious mendicants 
reside together under a Mahant, a chief or abbot. 

ASTHAN, USTHAN, inaccurately, ASTAN, H. &c., (^UiLJ, 
from S. miff, a place) Abode, place of abiding, a hall 
of audience, a king's court or palace. The residence of a 
Mohammedan fakir. The shrine of a Mohammedan saint. 
Asthanaltaran, Tarn. (,21L6nJGjrT<5OT<SrTI'JOT) A speaker in 
court, a pleader, an advocate 

ASTHI-SINCHANA, S. from asthl ^ffiw, a bone, and sinchana 
f^l^H, sprinkling) The ceremony of sprinkling the re- 
maining bones of a corpse that has been burnt, a few 
days afterwards. 

ASTI, Tel. (5^, from the S. wfttT, what is), ASTI or 
ASTE, or ASTIPASTI, Karn. (>,, &~&B, CS^^^D, 
also Tarn. (gjjSnJfjl, a^erU^UrrsnJ^l) Real or per- 
sonal goods, riches. Estate. Property, possessions. That 
which is of, or belongs to, an individual. 
Astihdr or -gar, Karn. (&3) n O"5o') > Astikdran, Tarn. 

(.a^erO^lanrrjcnr) A rich man, a man of property. 
Astigevadeya, Karn. (es^, A$So&) The proprietor of 

an estate. 

Asti-viparam, or -vivaram, Tarn. (.gjjSnJ^laJlLJrjlL) 
An account or detailed statement of assets. 

ASUR, USOOR, H. &c., (JM\, from the S. ^m*:) An evil spirit, 
a demon, an enemy of the gods. 

/ r 

Asura, or Asuri, S. Demoniacal, applied especially to one 
form of marriage formerly recognised by Hindu law ; 
that in which the bridegroom gives as much wealth as 
he can afford to the bride, her parents, and relations. 
ASWADHYAYA, S. (^1 neg., and WimTO, sacred study) 
Days or seasons on which it is prohibited to read the 

Vedas. A Brahman who has not gone through his 
study of the Vedas. 

ASWAMEDHA, S. (^PEf, a horse, and medha, sacrifice) The 
actual or typical sacrifice of a horse. If performed a 
hundred times, the sacrificer obtains the rank of Indra, 
or king of Swarga. 

ASWAMI-BABAT, H. (from S. asrvdmi -tfy ifHH, and bd- 
bat C^ob, account) A term used in Kattiwar to sig- 
nify extra and unauthorized charges levied by the revenue 
officers for their own emolument not the demand of the 
Srvdmi, the lord, or Government. 

Asrcdmi-b'ikri, or -vikri, H. (S. ^T neg., *<n>ft, a master, 
and vikraya f<4 rfiMt , sale) Sale without ownership, one 
form of illegal sale. 

ASWANSI', H. (^juJl^J ) A land measure, one twelfth of a 

ASWAPATI, S. (WB, a horse, and ilfir, lord) A title borne 
by some of the ancient Rajas of the South of India. 

ASWARI, Karn. An extra levy on a village. 

ASWATTHA, S. current in most dialects, (^"JrVJ*.) The Pip- 

al-tree Ficus religiosa. 

Asrvatthodydpana, or A-pratishthd, (S. Aswattha and 
Udydpana, setting up; or pratishthd, consecrating) The 
setting up of an Aswattha-tree, or a branch of it, as a 
part of various religious ceremonies. 

ATA, corruptly, OTTA, H. (Ul) Flour, meal. 

AT!, A. (j^l, lit., giving) In law, an appointed allowance 
or gratuity to soldiers and ministers of law or religion. 

ATA, or ATARI, H. (U), tjtj&, from S. SHgl^l) An upper- 
roomed house, an upper story. 

ATA-GORRU, Tel. (ef>b/T D ||p) A kind of rake used in 

ATAI, Uriya, A cattle pound. 

A ...I.. 

ATAK, or ATAKAT, A. (^JfUc, <xsilc) Manumission of slaves 

in Mohammedan law. 
Atik, A. (^JJub) Emancipated, manumitted (a slave). 

AT^L, H. (Jlil) A stack, a rick, a heap, or pile of any- 

ATAMANAM, Mai. (CS^saOfDo) A pledge, a mortgage, 
a security. 

ATARPAX, UTURPAL, H. ( J'o^jl) Land which has been for- 
merly cultivated, but has been subsequently abandoned 
(more correctly, Antar-pdl, from S. antar, an interval, 
and pdla, cherishing. The word is current in the cen- 
tral and lower Doab. Elliot. 

Revenue de- 

A revenue 



ATATAYI, S. (^nirniq}) In Hindu law, one guilty of a 
heinous offence. 

ATCHI, Tarn. (aj,ll<#l) A heritage, inheritance. It is 
most usually compounded as Kdniydtchi, q. v. A domain or 
lordship obtained by inheritance. A right, a privilege. 
Arasdlchi, Royalty. See Araga. 

ATHAL, (?) Land farmed or rented (perhaps for Asthat). 
Gl. 5th Rep. 

ATHAVANI orATHAVANE,also ATHTHAVANE, or, with the un- 
aspirated t doubled, ATTAVANE, or ATTAVANI, q. v. Kara ., 
(es5ft) ) e>o O^ ejejSS) Revenue. An armed mes- 
senger or peon employed in revenue affairs. 
Atftavani-kacheri, Kara. (O3J5) Office for revenue ac- 
counts. A Collector's kacheri. 
AtlMvanuildkhe, Kara. 


Athavaneyalekhklia, Kara 

ATHMAS, H. ( (jwli^J I , from &1 , the vernacular form of S. 
W ashta, eight, and tndsa, a month) Lands constantly 
ploughed for eight months for sugar-cane ; or, from 
Ashdrh to Mdgh, both inclusive. 

ATHMANA, H. (Uu^T, from S. SS^n) The west, in oppo- 
sition to Agmand, the east. ATHAYE (wra) is used in 
the same sense, but more commonly to signify ' evening.' 

ATH-PAHARI, ATH-PUHUREE, H. (cJ/yJ &D One who is 
always on duty (lit, an eight-watch man), applied espe- 
cially to a servant employed to collect rents ; or, in 
Bengal, to one who is set to watch the crop, and acts 
as a messenger for the rest of the villagers. 

ATHWARA, corruptly, Athvydra, H. (l^Lyil, from^j, eight) 
A money-lender who advances money on condition that 
the borrower shall pay by weekly instalments a larger 
sum than he receives. A cultivator who, for the use of 
agricultural implements on his own account for eight 
days, works the rest of the month for the benefit of the 

ATI, Hindi (SNIl) A sheaf, a handful of stalks of any kind 
corn given to the reapers for cutting a bojha, or load, 
usually about one-sixteenth. 

ATIPATAK, H. (from S. ^rfif, implying much, exceeding, 
and Hindi, crime) Heinous or capital offence. 

ATIT, UTEET, H. (from the S. *nrhr, passed away, by 
whom worldly interests are discarded) A religious men- 
dicant of the Hindus, usually a Vaishnava. 


ATITH, ATITHI, H. but used in most dialects, (S. 

A guest, any stranger entitled to hospitality. 
Atithi-pujd, S. (tTiff, worship) Hospitality, reverence of 


Atithyam, S. (wfirsai) Hospitality. 

ATASH-BEHRAM, Pers. (from Atash (jt^\ , fire) A chief 
temple of the Parsis, the sacred fire in which is said to 
be composed of 1001 kinds. Six such temples exist in 

Atash-kada, or -khdna, P. (5iX, <bU>-) A fire-temple. 
ATIVASA, S. (wfrHUT,) The fast observed on the day 

preceding a Srdddha, or obsequial ceremony. 
ATKAO, H. (j\) Arrest. Sequestration. 

I, H. (^tel) A caste of silk weavers in the Dekhin. 
, S. (^TTWr) The soul, the self. PARAMATMA, The 
Supreme Soul God. 
Atma-bandhv, S. (wWTVt) A person's own or cognate 


Atmaja, S. (<l|rWi:) A son. 
Atmaghdtah, Ben. (from S. 3Hi*JVIri: , a self-destroyer) One 

who commits suicide. 
Atmavikrayi, S.(vsilrWfajMn) Onewho sells himself as a slave. 

ATH, Urn, or, more correctly, ITR, corruptly Ottar and Otto, 

A. ^lac) Fragrance, perfume, essence, especially of roses. 
Atr-ddn, H. (P. ^b, holding) An ornamental box or phial 

containing essence of roses. 
Atdr, H. (A. J\3C- ) A perfumer, a maker of perfumes and 

essences, a druggist, a chemist. 
ATRAF, UTRAF, H. (A. <f\Ja\, plur. of i-J^s) Limits, 

Atrdfi-rawana, H. (P. &>\)j) A pass for the transit of 

goods beyond the limits of the custom-stations. 
ATTATCHI, Tarn. (aj4QrTll<#l) Proof, evidence, attestation. 
ATTA-TARISU, Tarn. (?) Land which has laid waste for a 

long time. 
ATTAVANAI, Tarn. (^lll_61J<3OTT) An index, a register. 

A cash-book, a statement in figures ; also an accountant 

or writer. When prefixed to any official designation, it 

implies that the person is duly registered as holding the 

office. In Mysore, Revenue, &c. See ATHAVANI. 
ATTAVANAI-KANAKAN, Tarn. (Sl|lll_6uSflBnT<3<5OTBTS- 

3COT ) An accountant, a book-keeper, a registrar. 
ATTIPER, Mai. ((S^)l6io_lO) Freehold property. (Atti is 

here a various and apparently less accurate reading of 

Otti, q. v.). 



6>o_l6K>OOj) Title deeds of freehold property. See 

the last. 
ATTU, Tarn. (a|3^j, from A. Jo-) A boundary a limit. 

ATTU, Karn. 

A shelf, a platform in corn-fields on 

which persons are stationed to watch the crop. 
ATTU-KAL, Tarn, (^^^jssrrd), from Jgj,^. a river, and 

kdl, a channel, the double nj pronounced as tf) A rivulet. 

A channel for conducting water from a river for the pur- 

pose of irrigation. 
Attukdl-eri, Tarn. (CTCfl, a tank) A pond or tank filled 

from a river by a water-course. 
Attu-pdchal,oT-pdyachal,T&m. (Q ) rr)rf))LJLJniU&&6C>) 

In S. India, River irrigation, lands watered from a river. 
Aftu-veppa, Mai. ((S*B)OCi6)OJo_l) New land left by the 

retiring of a river, or gained from the sea. Plantations 

by the sea-shore. 
ATUKD BADI, or -ABADI, Tel. (?) Giving waste or unoccupied 

land to a cultivator at a low rate of assessment on con- 

dition of his bringing it into cultivation. 
ATTUPU, Tarn. ( =HllLJL_| ) Boiled salt. Earth-salt. 
AUKAS, A. (plur. of Wahax yA>}) In Mohammedan law, 

any number of cattle intermediate between two numbers 

which are liable to Zakat, and on which additional payment 

is not levied ; thus, the numbers from 40 to 60 are 

Aukds, being charged as 40, from 50 to 60 as 50, and 

so on. 
Aut, or AOL, A. ( JyO Increase. In Mohammedan law, 

The distribution of a fractional proportion of inherited 

property more than the amount of the legal shares of the 

respective heirs : thus, if a woman deceased have left a 

husband and two sisters, the first is entitled by law to a 

3 2 

half or -gths of her wealth, and the two last to -jths 
each ; making, therefore, -jths, or one more than the 
whole. In such case the denominator of the fraction is 
made equal to that of all the shares, or to seven, and the 


numerator remains unaltered, forming the fractions ~, 

no 3 

y, 7", or giving to the husband yths, and to the sisters 

yths each. 
AULAD, H. (A. lilljl , plur. of JJ^ ) Children, progeny, de- 

AULAI, Thug. A person who is a Thug, as opposed to one 

who is not. 
AULIA, A. (plur. of ^j) In law, The nearest of kin, and 

therefore entitled to demand the fine of blood, or com- 



mutation for murder. In ordinary use, holy men, reputed 

AURASA, S., but adopted in most dialects, (^sfa^TC) Uterine, 
as a son by a wife. A maternal brother, or son of the 
same mother. 

AURANG, AURUNG, H. (tiftyl) A place where any article 
of trade is manufactured and collected for wholesale dis- 
posal or export. During the Company's commerce, it 
was applied to the factories for piece goods, &c. 

Aiis, more correctly Asu, corruptly, OUSE, Beng. (^MlH, or 
<3Tt"l) Rice ripening early, being sown in Chaitra or 
Vaisakh (February, March), and ripening in Sravana or 
Bhadra (August, September), growing rapidly through 
the rainy season. The same word Asu occurs in other 
dialects, as in Mai. Asu, (oyO)C/d) ) Rice ripening in the 
rainy season ; being from the S. Asu, (^T^j) Quick, quickly. 

AUT, AOOT, Mar. (^TCfiT, from S. Wpl, a weapon) An 
implement, a tool, especially one used in agriculture, as a 
plough. As much land as may be ploughed by a pair 
of bullocks, usually considered equal to 80 bighas. 
Aiit-bandi, Aoot-bundee, corruptly, Out-bundee, Mar. 
Assessment of revenue calculated at a fixed 

rate per plough. Engagement to pay a fixed charge for 
the use of a plough and pair of bulloeks. 
Aut-patti, Aoot-puttee, Mar. (OT9RTOt) The tax on 

ploughs ; also any extra cess, whether authorised or 

unauthorised, upon each owner of a plough. 
AVADHI, S. (^reftt:) Limit, term, period. 
Avadhi-aravdr, Karn. (esS^UO) In Kanara, A kind of 

mortgage, in which the land is held for a term in lieu of 

interest. See Aravdr. 
Avadi-kraya, or Avadirana-kraye, Tarn, (from S. ^Rfv, 

and JfR> sale) In Southern India, a conditional sale, to 

become absolute if the purchase-money be not repaid 

within a stipulated time. 
AVADHUTA, S. (^T^jf*., liberated) A religious mendicant 

in the South of India, of the Saiva and Sakta sects, one 

who is exempt from ceremonial observances and worldly 

restraints. See Abdhut. Among the Saktas there are two 

classes of such devotees. 
Vyaktdvadhuta, (from S. vyakta, manifested) One who 

openly professes religious emancipation. 
Guptdvadhuta, (from S. gupta, hidden) One who throws 

off the usual restrictions of caste, &c., unavowedly and 

in private. 



AVAKASAM, Mai. (5anJo&>OC/ao, from S. VSNdil^i, oppor- 

tunity) Right, title, privilege. Inheritance. 
Avakdsam-muri, Mai. 0?)O\ a written agreement) A deed 
of partition, a deed declaring the several rights and privi- 
leges of persons having a joint interest in property. 
Avakdsi, Mai. ((6*oaJcftOO3l) An heir, a rightful owner. 

AVALAKKI, Kara. (^^S) Rice bruised or flattened by 
beating the paddy after being scaled in the husk, some- 
times eaten without being boiled. 

AVANEJANA, S. (^T^jR) Washing, ablution. A ceremony 
prior to offering the funeral cake, pouring water in 
which white flowers and sandal paste are immersed upon 
the bed of kusa grass placed to receive the cake. 

AVATARA, S. (MMKK:, a descent) The descent or incarna- 
tion of a deity, his appearance or birth upon earth for 
some important purpose. The principal Avatars of 
Vishnu are ten : 1. the Matsya, or fish ; 2. Kurma, or 
tortoise ; 3. Varuha, boar ; 4. Nrisinha, or man-lion ; 
5. Vdmana, dwarf ; 6. Parasurdma ; 7. RamacJiandra, 
or Rama ; 8. Balarama ; 9. Buddha ; and 10. yet 
to come, Kalki. Krishna is usually considered not 
as a mere avatdr, but as Vishnu himself. A number of 
other descents or incarnations, both of Vishnu and Siva, 
are specified by modern sectaries. 

AVATI, or Aim, Mahr. ('H^Tt) A goldsmith's stamp. The 
officer of a town who has charge of the standard mea- 
sures, and measures all the grain that is brought to market. 

AviBHAjYA, S. (^ neg., f^TTsT, to be divided) Indivisible, 
as property. 

AVIBHAKTA, S. 'H neg., f^M*, divided, partitioned) Undi- 
vided, as property held in common, or as joint property. 
One who is unseparated from his family, a co-parcener. 

AviRA, S. (^1 neg., and ^fa, vir, a man) A childless 
widow, a woman who has neither husband nor son. 

AVRO or AVARO, Guz. (^IH^l) In Surat, One of the 
account-books kept by merchants a waste book. 

AwA, H. (Ijl) A potter's kiln or furnace. 

AWAI, H. (t^)') A pick-axe 

A WAR, H. (tiJjl, ^'Rofi) Insurance. In Western India, 
Respondentia, an advance of money to a merchant upon the 
goods or merchandise in a ship before sailing, under the 
condition that if the voyage be profitable the loan is to 
be repaid with an extra rate of interest or per centage. 
Awaft-vydju, or -bidju, H. (from 'srj'iT, principal) A trans- 
action in which a person who has made a respondentia 

advance enters into an engagement with some third 
person, who, for a bonus or stipulated interest, insures 
him against loss. 

AwAn, Mar. (S. -WMK) A fence, &c., enclosing a yard 
round a house. 

AwAt, Hind. (S. <S^T<5) An enclosed space formed by a 
cluster of Ryots' houses. 

AWAN, or, more correctly, ANWAN, q. v., the nasal being 
blended with the vowel, Mar. (^jfa7!l) The first field of rice, 
that in which it has been raised from seed. 
Anwami, Mar. (wfalj) The part of the field into which the 
young shoots of rice are transplanted from the Annan. 
Transplanted, applied to the young rice-stalks from the 
first growth. 

Awangilli, H. (?) A mode of torture, compelling a man 
to stand with each foot upon an inverted earthen vessel, 
the shape and position of which endanger his falling ; a 
Chaprasi stands by to flog him if he loses footing. 

AWA RDAH-N AVIS, H. (from P. aroardah x^T, what is 
brought, and navit \j~>j , a writer) A writer or registrar 
of accounts as delivered, applied to a class of accountants 
in the ceded districts. 

AwARijA, UWARIJU, or AWARIJA, UWURIJU, corruptly, 
AWERJA, H. &c. (P. *fy'j'j W^lfO!, supposed to be de- 
rived from A ivdrd Uy , scattered, and occurring in Persian 
also, as Abdr, Abdra, and Award) A diary, a day-book, a 
ledger, a rough note-book, an abstract account of re- 
ceipts and disbursements. The word occurs in most 
dialects, somewhat modified occasionally in spelling and 
in meaning, as in Cuttack, it denotes a revenue account, 
specifying, first, the unproductive lands of a village, and 
then those paying revenue, field by field, arranged under 
the names of the occupants, with a specification in sepa- 
rate columns of the number of each field in the Bhau- 
riya or field-book, the quantity of land and kind of 
cultivation ; the total rent by each occupant being also 
summed up. Mar. AWARJA, corruptly, Awuzz A, (wqt*n ) 
A particular and distinct head of account abstracted from 
the day-book, or a separate account of each cultivator's 
land revenue and charges upon it. Tel. AwARjA, ( ^^^T") 
A distribution of items of account under appropriate 
heads. Posting an account 

Awdrijd-jamfi kharch, H. An account of receipts and 

AwAsi,UwAsEE, H. (V , S. ^SHW)) Unripe corn cut from 


time to time, and brought home to be eaten without being 
threshed. Benares. See DADRI. 

AWASTA, corruptly, AVESTA, Pehlevi. Literally, ' word ;' but 
used by the Parsis to denote a mystical prayer or incan- 
tation. Wilson, Religion of the Parsis, pp. 14. 167. 

AWASTHI, H. One of the subdivisions of the Kanauj 

AWKHAH, Thug. Dakhini. Any person maimed or deprived 
of the use of his limbs. 

AYA, S. (WR:) Income, profit. 

AYA, or AYAM, Karn. Tarn. (e3O& , ajjLUUl.S. ^fTO, in- 
come, profit) Toll, tax, tribute, custom, measurement. In 
the Dakhin, the portion of the crop formerly paid to the 
hereditary village officers and servants. 

Ayandya or Ayandmya, Tarn. (?) Fees in kind paid to the 

village officer : perhaps an error for Ayasdya, q. v. 
Ayakdr, orAyagdr, Karn. (eo&ODS, e3O&~7T3^) A vil- 
lage servant or officer, one entitled to the Aya, or pro- 
portion of the crop, for his services to the community. 
(Plur. Ayaydrru, or Ayengandlu, also written, but either 
locally or incorrectly, Ayengade, Ayengadlu, and Ayen- 
gandea.) The officers and servants of a village, the whole 
establishment, the Salute of the Maratha countries, q. v. 
Ayakattv, or Ayukuttoo, corruptly, Ayacut, Karn. Tarn. 
(e30&&X> ( ayjDSSll) Regulation, settlement. 
Measurement of lands, determining the boundaries of a 
village. An account of the total land belonging to a vil- 
lage, including houses, wells, &c., and particulars of its 
distribution and condition, to be kept by the village 

Ayaketta, Mai. (CS*3)OD6)oe>) Register of assessed land. 
Land prepared for cultivation. (In Malabar) the same also 

* / 

as Ayahattii, q. v. 
Ayakrit, (?) (probably an error for Ayakattv., or Ayacut) 

Total cultivable land. Gl. 5th Rep. 

Ayakallu, (?) Mar. Rent on Government lands in cultivation. 
Ayatdya, also Ayasdmya, Karn. (tScfol^cJoSb, esoSb. 

^JcloJg) The share of the crop paid to village servants. 
AyapdsaU, Karn. (e3O&^>o) Fees in kind paid 

to the village servants. 
Ayati, or Ayoti, (?) Karn. An officer in towns in the 

Dakhin, whose duty it is to examine, adjust, and mark 

the weights and measures, charging a fee for so doing. 
Ayatturai, Tarn. (fl^UJffia&rr)) A custom-house, a place 

where tolls and taxes are collected. 


Ayavydya, H. S. (Hm'*nm) Income and expenditure, 
receipts and disbursements, profit and loss. 

AYA, or AYYA, (from S. ^n^, respectable) A common ad- 
junct in the south of India to the names of Brahmans 
or spiritual guides, especially to the religious teachers of 
the Lingayits. 

AYAN, Tarn. Mai. (.gjjLLJCOT) A shepherd. 
Ayarpddi, Tarn. (SLLLJITLJITUj.) A village of shepherds. 

AYAX, Tarn. (,gLUU<S3T) A general term for the revenue col- 
lected on six kinds of produce. See Am. 

AYAN-I-MAZMUN, A. (^yt^a* c/^) Things lent or pledged, 
to be restored, when redeemed, in the same condition as 
when deposited. 

AYIN, or AYEEN, H., but current in most dialects, See Ain, 
Rule, statute, ordinance. 

AYATNIRGAT, Mar. (from H. dyd 1>I , what has come, and 
S. nirgata fffnTK , what is gone out) Customs levied on im- 
ports and exports. 

AZAD, H. (P. i)|;l ) Free, liberated. A Mohammedan de- 
votee who shaves his beard and eyelashes, and takes a vow 
of continence, but considers himself exempt from the 
usual observances of religion. 

AZAN, H. (A. ijjWl) The cry or summons to prayer. 

AZHI, or AZHIVA, also written ARI, Mai. (?) Expense, the 

expense of improving and cultivating land. 
Azhi-kuzhi-kdnam,Ta.m.(SQ ) LpS LpsarTcTJOTlL) A kind 
of mortgage, in Malabar, in which the proprietor transfers 
the lands to the mortgagee on condition of his bringing 
them into cultivation or improving them, engaging to 
reimburse him all expenses incurred for that purpose 
when the mortgage is redeemed. 

AZHIYA-PADAM, ALIYA-PADAM, Mai. Tam. (from dzham or 
dlam, depth, KoApadam, place, j^SuJULJcJLO, <SBip1<2J- 
o-lOSo) Land in a low situation, capable of irrigation, 
and especially favourable for rice cultivation. 

AZMAISH, H. (P. ,jjU;'l, literally, trial, examination) 
Estimate of the crop while standing made by the subor- 
dinate revenue officer. Re-measurement or repetition of 
survey. Among the Marathas, an anticipatory state- 
ment or estimate of the receipts, expenses, and nett balance 
of a district made up at the beginning of the revenue year. 
Azmaish gomashta, H. A revenue officer, one who com- 
putes the crop. A native surveyor, a measurer. Also 
Azmmsh mutasaddi. 

AZUBAG, (?) Abstract of an account (Ganjam). MSS. 





BAB, corruptly, BAUB, H. (A. M^X BABU, Tel. Karn. 
(EytJJ) A section, a chapter, a title, a head of accounts. 
A tax, a cess. See ABWAB. 

Bdb-rvdr, H. (j^ty Arranged, classified, as fields or 
items of account ; whence Bdb-wdri, classification. 

Bdb-ydft, H. (P. Ui~>> > found) Classified, entered under 

its proper head. 
BABA H. (Turkish, bb) A father, but addressed as a term 

of kindness to young; as well as to old persons. 
BABAT, BABUT, corruptly, BAUBUT, H. ( but used in most 
dialects, (A. LS^V ) Account, statement. Head of an 
account. Article or item of an account. Matter, business 
affair ; also adverbially in some places, as in Pura- 
niya, to signify, from the account of, or by the relinquish- 
ment of. 

Bdbatdn, (P. plur. of Ci-ob) Sundries, miscellaneous items 
of an account 

Bdbat-wdr, H. (Jj C^ol>) According to entry, agreeably 
to the particulars of any account or statement. 

Bdbat-wdri, H. (i_fj>) ^^h, <4l1iHKl) Any thing which 
is registered or entered in a general statement or account, 
as lands belonging to a village not actually cultivated, 
but entered in the village accounts, or as land held by a 
tenant at a registered rate. In Puraniya the term is 
applied to lands which have fallen into the renter's hands 
when taken up by another Ryot, and held at rates fixed 
by the renter. 

Babat-wdri jama, H. (A. **=>-) The revenue of an estate 
according to a registered amount. 

Bdbat-wdri zamin, H. (P. ^^x*;') Lands registered in the 
statements of a village or Zamindari. In Puraniya this 
and the preceding are also applied to two columns in 
the general account shewing the quantity of land which 
had been relinquished, retaken, and the rent derived from 

Bdbat-ydft, H. (P. e^Jb , what has found entry) The par- 
ticular items of any charge, applied especially to a state- 
ment of fees and perquisites under the government of the 
Nawab of Bengal. The fees and perquisites so registered. 

Bdbati, corruptly, Babti, Babtee, or Baubtee, Mar. (^p?ift, 

that which is according to the bdbat, or account) The 

shares of the public revenue, especially those arising from 

the Chauth, which were appropriated to the chief ofli- 


cers of the Maratha State. H. (<job) Any cess or item 
of revenue, particularly when imposed in addition to 
the ordinary revenue. 


A hanger-on about 

courts of law, ready to give false testimony, or to bring 
false and malicious charges against a person for hire. 
BABU, BABOO, Beng.,&c. (3t|\ S.wra) A title ofrespect attached 
to a name, as "Mr.," or " Esq." In Bengal it has lost 
something of its respectability, and is commonly given 
to natives who manage the pecuniary concerns of the En- 
glish, and to native clerks who write English. In Go- 
rakhpur, it is applied to any man of family or influence. 
In Benares it was formerly assigned to younger brothers 
or near relatives of a Raja. In Beng. Reg. viii. of 1795 
Baboos are defined " persons of the blood and family of 
the Raja of Benares." Bdbu, in Karn. (20 d&X>) ; s a syno- 
nym of father." 

name of a tree (Acacia arabica), the wood of which is 
much used in making agricultural implements ; the bark 
is employed in tanning leather, and, in the north-west, 
in the manufacture of a spirituous liquor. 
BACH, BUCH, H. ( g, , ^^) An inferior tribe of Rajputs in 

the district of Jonpur. 

BACH-GOTI, BUCH-GOTEE, H. (^jy^, 4H'flrfl) A tribe of 
Rajputs, said to be a branch of the great family ofChau- 
hans, chiefly settled on the borders of Jonpur, Gorakhpur, 
and Oudh. 

BACH'H, BAACH, BATCH, and, corruptly, BUCH, H. (^-(>, 
^TT5> lit., selection, from S. "<dAl, wish, desire) The 
proportionate rate or division either of lands or liabilities 
attached to them. The apportionment of a village or 
estate, or of the produce in separate portions among asso- 
ciated or coparceny occupants, especially in the case of 
mixed Pattidari tenures: where partis held in common, 
and part in severally, the Government rent and village 
expenses are paid from the land held in common, and 
any overplus is distributed, or any deficit made good, by 
a bdch'h, or rate levied on the several holdings. The rate 
is sometimes levied according to the number of ploughs 
employed by the cultivators. In some parts of India the 
term implies, a share of the village lands, which consists, 
in general, of as much as may be ploughed with one plough. 
Bdch'h-bardr, H. (j]ji "^J-V^ -A- tenure, common in Bun- 
delhhand, in which the shares of the revenue payable by 


the joint proprietors of a village are liable to occasional 
re-adjustment and alteration ; also, Bhcj-bardr, q. v. 
Bad-bdch'h, Bud-bach'h, H. (P. Jo bad) A fraudulent di- 
vision or apportionment of the assessment. 
Bach'hontd, -Bc/t J Aon?a,H.(UJj$s?,S. ^ratfel) Distribution 
of an aggregate sum among several individuals (Upper 

BACHHAL, BACHHUL, H. (<J>$-b, 1I<4(#) A tribe of Raj- 
puts who claim a descent from the Lunar race, formerly 
Zamindars of Farida and Shah-jehan-pur, now settled in 
Aligerh, and in different parts of Badaon, Mathura, and 

BACHRA, (^lt>i) Land formerly cultivated, but now neg- 

BAD, H. (P. t>b) Remission of revenue on account of defi- 
cient crops. (North- West provinces. Mr. Elliot derives the 
term from the P. Bad, which, in theJ3urhdn-i-kdrt, has, 
for one meaning, Nd-bud (ityli), not existing). 

BAD, corruptly, BUDH, Mar. (Tt^) Deducted. Excluded from 
a number, a list, or collection. 

BADA, Kara. (&&) A ridge. 
Gaddebada, Karn. (XO&3Q) A ridge between rice-beds. 

BADAGALEYAVARU, Kara. (>&Xe?o&3&>, from &&X, 
north) Brahmans, followers of Vishnu, wearing a mark of 
three perpendicular lines. (Mysore). 

BADAGE, (?) A tribe of slaves in Kurg. 

BADAGI, or BADIGA, Karn. (Oo^, 20&A) A. carpenter. A 
man who supplies travellers with water. 

BADAHAND, H. P. (3d pers. plur. imp. of the Persian verb 
dddan, to give; JofcJJ, lit, let them give) A superscrip- 
tion of assent by the Emperor on a petition for an assign- 
ment of revenue. 

BADAL, BUDUL, or BUDL, H. (A. Jjy, |(J<$), Tel. Karn. 
BADALU, BADULU, ( &&VJ,&&)V3) Exchange, substi- 
stution, equivalent Change of money. Pledge,loan. Rejoinder. 
Badald, or Badali, or Badld, Badli, or Budla, Budlee, 
H., and in other dialects, (jJjo, =)^(J1I, ^stf) A substi- 
tute, a person or thing taken in representation or ex- 
change of some other person or thing. 
Badal-muahdliara, less correctly, Budul-mooskara, H. 
(A. JSjftliiMi) Stipend given in money or kind to public 
or private servants. 

BADAR-NAWISI, H. (PyJo, lit, to the door, j*jjjS , writing) 
Writing off items of an account which are objectionable or 
excessive. Audit of an account. 


Hindi faT^TC) A large house-granary raised on piles. 

BADAvA-HRiTA, S. 0$T3<JT, lit, a mare, a female slave, 1T, 
taken) One of the fifteen kinds of slaves. In Hindu law, 
A man who becomes a slave that he may marry a female 
slave in the family. 

BADAVA-POLAMU, Tel. (?y&3s3*e>x)) Lo W) swampy 
ground, a bog, a marsh. 

BADDI, Kara. ( u , S. ^fg) Interest of money. 
Baddigantu, Kara. (^g^XoUj) Interest and principal. 
Mdrbaddi, Kara. (*XJ~3eos^g) Compound interest 

BADEGACHI, Tarn. (?) A low caste in Travancore, but supe- 
rior to the Pariahs. 

BADH, H. (fTV) A lesser division of an estate. A plain, a 

BADHA, S. favO Killing, slaughter ; also, striking, wounding. 
In law, Corporal punishment, which may be of three 
kinds : 1. Tdrana, Beating, caning, flogging; 2. Chhed- 
dana, Cutting, mutilation ; 3. Mdrana, Putting to 
death : the second is abolished by the British Government. 
Bad/tak, Budhuh, corruptly, Badhik, Budducli, Buddich, 
H. (CAfcJo, ^T5K, from the S. *M) A killer, a mur- 
derer. A robber of a particular tribe associated with 
Thugs, and, like them, murdering those they rob, resid- 
ing chiefly on the borders of Oudh, but carrying on 
their depredations usually at a distance. 
Badhya, S. (TO) One who ought to be punished or put 
to death ; fit for, or deserving death. 

BADHAWA, Hindi (^vm) Presents to a woman after lying in. 

BADHIA, BUDHIA, H. (UftJj) A disease affecting Jaroar, 
Bdjrd, Indian corn, and sugar-cane, which prevents the 
head from shooting. 

BADHYA, Karn. (STclQg) Relationship. An obligatory 

duty. A right or claim of possessson. 
Bddhyanu, Bddhyasta, Kara. (2Jc)$S^, STe^g^,) An 

BADI, more correctly, VADI, S., but adopted in most dialects, 
fanft from Bdda or Vdda, a dispute, a discourse) A plain- 
tiff, a complainant, a suitor. An advocate, one who states 
a plaint, whether for himself or another. 

Prattbddt, or Prativddi, S. &c. (irfsiTI^) Defendant, re- 
spondent. Opponent or replicant 

BADI-CHOR, H. (^ys-^jU) A determined thief 

BADI, BUDEE, H. (t^Jo, S. ^t) The dark fortnight, that 
of the moon's wane from full to new moon. 


BADIOA, Tel. ("SP^X), BADIQE, Kara. (S5~3f7?) R en t, 
hire, quit-rent, or a low rent on lands granted in Inam. 

BADIOE, or BADIGI, Karn. (Sr9Q"A) A carpenter. 

BADI-KATTU, TeL (UOspJ) Ascertainment, measurement. 
Badi-vdradi, Tel. (UQO-#Q) Classification of land as 
of first, second, or third class, &c. Collections of contri- 
butions for extra expenses of the village rated on each 
Kdti of the village lands. 

BADIYA, or BARIYA BHtjsr, Hindi (ffi'J|| >J0 A rich and 
fat soil. Puranlya. 

BAD-MAASH.BUD-MAASH, H. (P. bad Jo , bad, and A. ^_*<t, 
means of living) A disreputable person, one following 
evil courses. 

BAD-NAMI, BUD-NAMI, H. (,*Ujo, from Jj, bad, and ,U, 
ndm, a name) Disrepute, ignominy ; but in Tel., corrupted 
to BadAdmi, it implies, also, responsibility. 

BADNI, BUDNEE, H. (^jJo) A contract by which a bor- 
rower gives a bond at high interest, in satisfaction of 
which he assigns his crops at a rate below the market 
value (from UiJj, badnd, to wager, to agree). 

curring in other dialects, and read BADAHAKA, and BA- 
DARKE, also, corruptly, BADRUCKA, (A. A;Jo) A guide, 
a guard, an escort. Safe conduct Also a charge for con- 
voy formerly levied on merchandise at the rate of 1 per 
cent., as the expense of keeping the highways and rivers 
safe from robbers. 

Badrakd-hisdb, H. (A. t jL**-, an account) An account 
sent with a guard of goods or treasure under its charge. 
An invoice ; also, transit duty. 

BAnsnAH, H. (P. *liib ) A king, a sovereign. 

Bddshdhi, Badshahee, H. (P. ^liiib, royal, from *li>b, 
king) As applied to tenures, it denotes land, &c. held 
under a royal grant, or, in the language of the Regu- 
lations, a Badshahee grant extended to all grants made 
by the ruling authority for the time being, and compre- 
hended royal grants properly so termed, grants by the 
Subahdar of Oudh, and by the British Government. Ben. 
Reg. xiii., 1795. 

Bddshdhi Sanad, corruptly, Sunnud, H. (A. JoU, a grant) 
A royal grant, a written document conveying lands or 
titles from the ruling power. 

BAnu, Tel. (S3 T> &>) Fees in grain paid to the village ser- 
vants before the division of the crop. 

BA-FARZANDAN, or -FURZUNDAN, less correctly, BA-FAH- 


ZAND, vernacularly, BA-FARJAND, H. (from the P. b, 
with, &>jj, offspring, in the plur. 'with children') A 
term inserted in a grant which is made to the grantee 
and his posterity ; also, BA-AUtAD (i)!J}l b), having the 
same meaning. It has been ruled that both apply to 
heirs and descendants generally, although, in strictness, 
they denote only the children of the grantee, or his heirs, 
in a direct line of descent. 

BAFT, H. (P. vj^Jb, from ^b, to weave) Weaving, web. 
B&fta, H. (P. ib) Woven. A kind of cotton cloth, 
Bdf, H. (P. t_jb) Weaver, woven, used chiefly in compo- 
sition ; as, Zar-bdf, (from jj , gold) Gold-tissue, cloth 
of gold. A gold lace or brocade weaver. 

BAa, Beng. Uriya, Mar. (Tt^l, TPT) A garden ; more correctly, 
BAoH, q. v., but in the dialects noted, and perhaps in 
others, both in this word and its derivatives the unaspi- 
rated Sanscrit g is substituted for the Arabic final. 

BAOALYA, corruptly, BAGLAH, Mar. (<WMl) An assistant, a 
mate ; sometimes applied to the Chaiir/hala of a village. 

BAoANDEN, or BAoHi, Tarn. (?) The caste of Palankin- 
bearers. Tinnevetty. 

BAoAR, BAOUR, H. (jib) A hedge of thorns or twigs 

BAGAR, BUOAR, H. (^Uo) Pasture-ground (Bundelkhand). 

BAoAn, Mar. (vm) Swinging from a pole with iron hooks 
fastened to the back. See Charhh. 

BAOARI, BUOUHEE, H. (1^?$) A species of rice cultivated 
chiefly in the province of Benares. 

BAOARIA, Thug. A class of Thugs who reside chiefly in 
the Gwalior country. 

BAoDi, or BnAoDi, (?) A low and servile caste of Hindus 
following unclean and out-of-door avocations. Bengal 
and Cuttack. 

BAoH, dialectically, BAa, corruptly, BAUGH, H. (P. cb, plur. 
BAonAT TPT, ^T*l) A garden, an orchard, a plantation. 
Bdghdyat,Bag&yat, Bagait, Bdgdyati, corrwpl\y,Baf/, 
Baugayut, Baughayhlr, H. (P. e^l^b , from the plur. of 
Bdgh or Bdghat) Mar. (*lTT^f), Karn. (&> A c>0&) 
Land which, being well supplied with water, and adapted 
to the cultivation of various useful and edible vegetable sub- 
stances, is appropriated to their growth, or to that of betel, 
hemp, sugar-cane, plantains, saffron, ginger, pepper, to- 
bacco, onions, garlic, chilis, and other vegetables ; also 
to that of fruit-trees, and the areka, cocoa-nut, and other 
palms. It is assessed at a higher rate than arable lands, 



according to the value of the produce. In Birbhum the 
term was formerly applied also to garden lands held free 
of revenue. Parl. Papers, 1813, p. 293. 

Baghdyati, Bdghaiti, or Bagaiti, corruptly, Baggaite, 
&c., H. ((Jo Wj)> Mar. (MI'M^ffr) Fit for, or relating to, 
garden cultivation (land, &c.). Having much garden ground 
(a town or village). Raised on garden ground (fruit, &c.). 
Assessed or levied on gardens (revenue, tax). 

Bdgdyat-kacheri, Karn. (o&j-?8 ? f r0 m H. i^r^Ti an office) ; 
Department or office in Mysore for the superintendence 
of the revenue levied on garden cultivation in the time 

of the Mohammedan Government. 

An extra cess 

of Bagar, between the south-west borders of Hariana 
and the Setlej. They seem to have been originally Raj- 
puts, but are now looked upon as a branch of the Jdts. 
The term is also applied to other tribes, and there is one 
tribe of Bdgri Brahmans. Bdgar is also the name of 
a tract on the south-west of Malwa ; and Bdgri denotes 
a native of the province. Bdgris are also described as 
Hindus of the lowest caste, robbers by profession, who 
came from the west of India, and settled in considerable 
numbers in the eastern parts of Malwa. Malcolm, Cen- 
tral India. Tod considers them as one of the aboriginal 

Bdgdyat-jdsli-birdd, Karn. (85"e)& n 

charged on garden cultivation in Mysore. 
Bdghicha, Bdgicha, Bageechu, H. &c., (teOcb) A garden, 

a little garden. 
Bdgbagichd, Mar. fal'IM'fNl) Gardens ; comprehensively, 

orchards, plantations, cocoa-nut or areka groves, &c. 
Bdghbdn, Bdghrvdn, or Bagman, H. &c. (jjUc'j , II'I4M) 

A gardener, one who cultivates garden produce ; also, in 

the west of India, a vender of vegetables, fruits, and flowers. 
Bagh-kdri, H. (P. (_f;o) Garden cultivation, the busi- 

ness of a gardener. 
BAGH, H. 0^1), S. mr.) A tiger. 
Bdglt-mdri-iiiAdm, H. (from S. TTC3&, killing, and A. *Uj!, 

a gift) A grant of land made to one who kills tigers. 
BAGHEL, BUGHEL, H. ( tjjjfj) A branch of the Sisodhiya 

Rajputs of Guzarat, who migrated to the East, and gave 

their name to Bagkel-hhand, or Retva, the Raja of which 

is a Baghel. Subdivisions of the tribe, under different 

denominations, are extensively spread through the Com- 

pany's provinces of Bundelkhand, Allahabad, Benares, 

Gorakhpur, Kanpiir, and Farakbabad. 
BAGHI, BUGHEE, H. (A. ^jjo) Tyranny, oppression. Insur- j 

rection, rebellion, turbulence, infraction of the laws. 
Bdglii, H. (A. ^ji'-J, plur. Baghut CU>Uj, or, with a 

Pers. plur., Bdghidn ^jUi^O An insurgent, a robber, a 

rebel, one who disobeys the Imam, or civil and religious 

head of the State. 
Baghdivat, H. (A. dJjlij) Insurrection, rebellion, oppo- 

sition to, and defection from, the rightful Imam. Violence, 

plunder, breach of law. 
BAGINI, Karn. (Q'ArO) A species of palm from which Tdri 

is extracted. 

BAURI, II. (i_^Vj) Name of a tribe inhabiting the district 

BAGSARIA, BUGSUREA, H. (by*) Name of a small clan 
of Rajputs in the Moradabad district ; also of a branch of 
Kanauj Brahmans. 

BAH A, H. (la>U, S. ^T?,TRT?) A water-course, usually an 
artificial one ; but in the Delhi district applied to a 
natural one also. 

BAHA, BUHA, H. (P. lyj) Price, cost, value. 
Bahd-i-khilut, H. (A. c^*Ls-, a dress of honour) A cess 
or tax added at so much per cent, to the ordinary 
revenue to defray the cost of complimentary dresses or 
robes of honour granted by the Mohammedan rulers or 
governors to persons whom they thought proper so to 
Bahd-i-kdghaz, II. (ic , paper) Price or expense of office paper. 

BAHACHINA, Uriya, (QIQ|Q>) A fee or cess levied by 
a Zamindar on his tenants on occasion of a marriage. 

BA-HAL, BU-HAL, H. (Jl^. , from the P. ba to, according 
to, and A. hal Jls- , condition) Re-instated, re-established, 
restored to, or replaced in, a former condition, restored to 
a situation or appointment. (It occurs in different dia- 
lects, as in Tel, Bahalu (uKj^eu), & c . 

Ba-hdli-sanad, H. (tVJLw ^^ ) A grant restoring to a per- 
son possessions or privileges of which he had been de- 
prived, or confirming him in their enjoyment. 

BAH AN, BAHTJN, H. (^b, ^TI?T, from bdhnd, to plough) 
Fallow land, land ready for sowing. Ploughing (Hariana). 
Land that has been ploughed and left unsown (.Khet- 

BAHANGI, corruptly, BANGY, H. ( _ 5 \?, MlNft) A pole 
with slings at either end supporting portable boxes or 
baskets for baggage, carried over one shoulder. 

Bahangi-barddr, H. (P.^lJ^j, who bears) A bangy, or 
baggage-bearer or porter. 



BAHAR, Mar. (*?TS) Ground liable to be overflowed. The 
tide. A salt marsh or meadow. 

SAHARA. BAHURA, H. (/>lj) A man who stands by the 
mouth of a well to turn over the bucket when drawn up. 

BAHAH, or BAHIR-BHUM, or -BHOOM, H. (from S. bahir 
^fjTT;, out, and wfo, land) Lands lying beyond the 
village boundaries. 

JBdhar-, or Bahir-mhi, corruptly, Barreasee, H. (from S. 
baltir cfig{, out, and ^TKt, who abides) A Hindu of 
low caste and dirty avocations who is not permitted to 
dwell in a village or town. 

BAHERiA, H. (bfJ^j) A clan of Rajputs in Jonpur andChunar. 

BAHI, BUHEE, H. &c., (,_5^, ^?ft) An account-book, a 

journal, a diary, a ledger. 
Bahe-hhasra, H. (P. ]/**$ ^jyj) A day-book. 
Bahi-khdtd, II. (Ul^ .^u) A day-book kept by merchants. 
Baht-mahdjan, II. (S. H^MH) A merchant's or banker's 


Bahi-patrvdri, H. (^lyu) Register kept by the village 
accountant. ' 

BAHIN, Mar. (^Nf, S. Tfnft) A sister. A female cousin. 

BAHIH, BUHEER, H. (^yj) A camp-follower of any kind. 
The baggage and incumbrances of an army : (not to be 
confounded with Bhtr, H.jJ^>, a crowd). 

BAHIHANQA-KAGADA, Karn. (eo6otfoXo~3X<5, from the S. 
bahir *rf?t and anga WT, body, and A. kdghaz j>c, 
paper) A public advertisement, a public edict or procla- 

BAHIR CHALAN, Beng. (^tf^lT EW^) An open pass or 
despatch. A summons issued by the Police Darogah to 
witnesses to attend the Court in a criminal case. 

BAHIYAR, H. (;lj^J, from the S. ^fig^, out) Lands at a 
distance from the village. (Bhagalpur). 

BAHLIM, BUHLEEM, H. (f&tf) A tribe of Mohammedans 
in the neighbourhood of Dasna and Meerut : they as- 
sume the name of Sheikh, but have no right to it. The 
name is also applied to some divisions of the Rohilkhand 
Banjaras. In the Thug jargon the name denotes one of 
their seven original clans or gangs, scarcely any of whom 
are to be found north of the Nerbudda. 

BAHONDA, or BAHAUNDA, Hindi, (^tTT,rtr%l) Land given 
rent free to the village watchman, or Chaukidar. 

BAHORA, BUHORA, H. Qjyfi, ^ftn) A shopkeeper, or 
monied man in a village who makes advances to, or on 

account of, the cultivators. The word is a vernacular cor- 
ruption of the S. Byabahdra, or Vyavakara, business, or 
it may be a corruption of Bohra, q. v. 

BAHOHO, Bunono, H. (jjy^) The sloping pathway for bul- 
locks drawing water from a well, especially that by which 
they return to the well. (Central Doab, from baharnd, to 
return, probably from the S. bhrama, to turn round). 

BAHRA, Thug. Four travellers or victims in the hands of 
the gang. 

BAHURUPIA, BUHROOPEEA, H. (Ujjj^j, from S. ba/tu T?, 
many, and rtipa 1H, form) A mime, an actor, a person 
assuming Mirious characters and disguises. 

BAHU, S. (^) Much, many. Large, great. 
Bahudaka, S. A mendicant who lives in a strange town, 
and begs his food from house to house. One class of the 
fourth order, or Bhikshu (from bahu, many, and udaha, 
water, drinking water from various sources). 
Bahuilhi'ini/u, S. &c., (from Bahu, much, and dhdnyti VP*J, 
com) The 12th year of the cycle, supposed to be parti- 
cularly fertile. 

Bahvputra, or -putraha, S. (from ^?, many, and V^',, u 
son) A man who has many sons. 

BAHU, BUHOO, II. (^y?, from S. 7[) A wife, especially a 
son's wife. 

BAHU, H. and other dialects, (S. TT?) The arm ; also a 

measure of two cubits. 

Bdhu-band, Mar. (?) Association or joint interest in the 
property of a village, or the persons so associated, usually 
kinsmen of the Pa til. 

Bdhuband-mirdsi, Mar. (?) Occupancy of land in copar- 
cenership, especially by members of the same family. 

BAHULA, (S. of India) The dark fortnight. S., Much, many. 
Bahulapddya, Karn. (eogbo^^Sg) The first lunar day of 
the fortnight. 

BAI, BAEE, corruptly, BYE, BHYE, Mar. fal^) A lady, a 
mistress, a respectful adjunct to the name or address of a 
woman in general. II. Beng., (^^ , 3ll>) A dancing 
girl, a prostitute. 

BAIA, commonly, BAI, BYE, BAYA, BEEA, or BUYA, A. 

(j-Jj) Sale. 
Ba& for Bai-bdt, Uriya, (Q4QIO) Foreclosure of a 


Bai III rvafd, H. (A. Is^ib j-JJ , lit., sale with faith) In 
Mohammedan law, Conditional sale, sale depending for 
its completion on the consent of the seller. Also the 



nominal sale of an article, in lieu of a debt, to be re- 
turned when the debt is paid, or upon condition that the 
debt shall be paid by a given term, in default of which, 
the article becomes definitely the property of the pur- 
chaser. A contract of pawn or of usufruct. 
Bai Ml rcafaddr, H. (P. j\<5 , who has) A person having 
the use of an article conditionally sold to him in acquit- 
tance of a debt. 
Bai Id kaldmi, A. (lit, sale without (Id, S) words (/Jo), 

Absolute sale. 

Baimidddi, H. (A. ^yjUx* ^w ) Conditional or eventualsale. 
Bai muJtd-yi, also Ba'i mukdyaza, A. (*, and <S-OIA, 
balancing accounts, or ILa)]^>, proposing an exchange) 
Sale or exchange of one article for another, sale of goods 
for goods, barter. Sale or transfer of property by a hus- 
band in liquidation of dower due to the wife. 
Bai ndma, H. A. (P. <tli , a document) A deed of sale. 
Bai pattd, H. &c., (Uj, lease) A lease or sub-lease ob- 

tained by purchase. 
Bai sultdni, H. (A. ^UaL-) Sale of lands or other property 

by order of Government. 

Bai taljih, H. (A. ^=^) A fictitious or temporary sale. 
Bdid, Bdyd, or Bdyl, Bayee, H. (A. A) A seller. 
Bai ddr, H. A. (^'i> *#) A purchaser, a possessor by 

BAIANA, or BAYANA, corruptly. BAINA, or BYNA, H. (A. 

UUjj) BAYANA, Mar. ^TITOl) Earnest money. 
BAI, BAEE, Thug. A frequented road. 
BAIALI, BYALI, Mar. (?) An indefinite land measure, |th 

of a hvn, 
BAID, BAIDYA, corruptly, BAYD, H. Beng. (from S. t?r:) 

A physician, a man of the medical caste. 
BAIGAH, BYGAR, H. (jljo) A name of the Kharrear tribe. 
BAIHAHIA, Thug. A scout, a spy (used by the river Thugs). 
BAIKHAT, H. (e^Lw) Sale. (East Oudh and Benares: it 
may perhaps be derived from the H. bihna, to sell, 
rather than from the A. bai j_ j). 

BAIKUNTH, corruptly, BYKONT, BYKONTAH, H. (S. t^RTjs:) 
The heaven of Vishnu. Pits in which, in the time of Jaf- 
fa- Khan, revenue defaulters were confined until they 
paid the demands against them. 
BAIL, or BEYL, Thug. A spot chosen for burying those who 

have been strangled. 
BAILHA, Thug. The person who selects the spot where the 
murder is to be committed. 

Bailhai, Thug. The office of selecting the spot where the 

crime is to be perpetrated 

BAIL, BYL, H. Beng. Mar. (J# , $35, S. *r%^f :) A bullock. 
Bail-begdri, Mar. (^Jc^'llO) Bullocks impressed for pub- 

lic service, or a tax in commutation. 
Bail-dam, Mar. (%^J^w) A duty or tax formerly levied 
on the sale of bullocks. 


BAILU, Kara. (&)W) A plain, an open field, especially 
such a field as is best fitted for rice cultivation, lying 
low, and having abundance of water. The first sort of 
rice-land, producing in general two crops of rice and one 
of dry grain or vegetables, or sometimes even three crops 
of rice in the year. It also means waste, uncultivated. 
Bailusime, Karn. (<2>)&U0?5j) Open or champaign 

country, in opposition to hilly. 

Bailuhammdr, Kara. (S^,eoos5j^^) A class of 
blacksmiths who work in the open air. Mysore. 

BAIMATRA, or BAIMATREYA, Beng. (S.t^Tfa, < 2<ml4V|) A 
brother by a different mother (also Bai- or Vai-mdtura). 

BAIN, Beng. 0*^T, S. *Tfilft) A sister. 
Bainjhi, Beng. (<J^nfV) A sister's daughter. 
Bainpo, Beng. fa^Ztl) A sister's son. 

BAINSI,BYNSEE, H. ( ( _ 5 wX)j) A subdivision of the Gujar tribe. 

BAINDI, H. (L^^ , ^^) Throwing up water from a pond 
or reservoir with a basket for irrigation. 

BAIPITRA, Beng. (^rf'te, S. ^fiH:) A brother by a different 

butoccuring in most dialects, (^\^>, S. Vairdgi ttnffr, 
lit., one devoid of passion) A Hindu religious mendicant, 
mostcorrectly, one attached to the worship of Vishnu, but the 
term is indiscriminately applied to different classes of 
vagrants professing a religious life. 

B A is, corruptly, BICE, BYSE, or BiiYCE,H. &c., C^w, S. fNf, 
S. Vaisya ^!fm) The Hindu of the third order, whose 
especial duties are agriculture and trade. 

BAIS, BEIS, H. (^M, ifa) A numerous tribe of Rajputs 
found in Oudh, in which they give name to the dis- 
trict. They are also numerous in the Company's terri- 
tories in the north-west provinces of Baiswdra. Their 
traditions are very remarkable. They refer their origin 
to Munji-Paithan in the Dakhin, and assert that the 
360 clans into which they are said to be subdivided are 
the descendants of Sdlivdhana, king of that city A. D. 78, 
giving name to the Sdka era, by as many of his 



wives. They are included amongst the thirty-six royal 
races, and may intermarry with Chouh&ns, Kachmdhas, 
and other eminent Rajput tribes. The branch of them named 
Tilak-Chandra (i.e. having the moon for their 'tilaka,' 
or frontal mark), residing at Dundia-khcra, and their 
nearest of kin, hold themselves superior to the other di- 
visions, and profess to give their daughters to none but 
the very purest races. There is reason to suspect that, in 
the Oudh territory at least, they practice female infanticide. 

BAISAK, BYSUK, H. (CA*uw) A spot in a Jangal where 
cattle are sent to graze (Dehli). The term is also ap- 
plied to old and worn out animals. 

, BYSAKH, corruptly, BESAK, and BEISAK, H. &c., 
ju, S. thpmO The first month of the luni-solar 
year of the Hindus (April, May). 

BAISHNAV, BYSHNAV, H. &c., in Beng. and Uriya pro- 
nounced BOISHNOB, (ykikXj, &<<, S. cau/maea %mi3R , 
from Vishnu faHHi) Any Hindu professing the preferential 
worship of Vishnu, of whom there are many sects. The 
term is commonly applied to vagrant mendicants bearing 
the marks and insignia of Vishnu, and repeating hymns 
in honour of his Avatdrg, especially Udma and Krishna. 
Ba'ishnavottar, or Boishnolottar, most corruptly, Basto- 
mittur,ll. &c., (Jy/lJj, t|3t<l;js) Lands granted rent- 
free to the worshippers of Vishnu, epecially of the men- 
dicant orders. 

BAIT, BYT, corruptly, BEIT, BIET, H. (A. U^Jj) A resi- 
dence in general, a place of abode, a house or office. In 
Mohammedan law, the simplest kind of residence, or any 
roofed chamber surrounded by walls, and having an en- 
trance or door. 

BAIT-UL-MAL, H. (A, C^Jj, place or office, JU Jl al-mdl, 
the treasure or revenue) The public treasury or exche- 
quer, into which payments on various accounts are made, 
and, according to the sources whence they are derived, 
applicable to the support of different classes of persons. 
The principal sources are, 1. Duties on merchandise 
which, after paying the officers employed in the collection, 
should be applied to the support of the poor and desti- 
tute ; 2. The fifth of the spoil taken in war, and the pro- 
duce of mines and of treasure trove, to be applied to the 
support of orphans, paupers, and travellers ; 3. The amount 
of the tax and tribute levied from unbelievers, from which 
the salaries of magistrates, the pay of teachers, students, 
and soldiers, and the expense of public works are to be 

defrayed ; and 4. Property escheated, or for which there 
is no owner, and also the fines for manslaughter and 
murder, which is to be expended on the maintenance of 
the sick, the poor, and foundling children. The Sultan 
may take from the Bait-ul-mdl the necessary expenses of 
the State, but not for his personal use. 'The Bait-ul-mdl is 
not the property of the ruling power, but that of all Mo- 
hammedans, for whose benefit it should be administered." 
The term is sometimes erroneously confounded with Be- 
tan-mdl, q. v., and rendered an escheat, or the escheat 
and place of deposit are confounded. One or other has 
misled the Marathas, as the term occurs in Mr. Elphin- 
stone's Report, Bait-ul-mdl, Escheats. Sel. iv. 166. 

BAiTH, H. &c., (*&b) Value of the Government share of the 
produce of land. 

BAITHAK, BYTHUK, H. (v^AjXjj, S. %7lO A place where 
people sit together, a solemn assembly, the customary 
public seat of a religious mendicant. 

BAITHAPAGAB, Mar. (sfommt) Pay without exaction of 

BAITHAROJGAR, Mar. (J4lCt17TTC, from baitha, sitting, 
abiding, and the vernacular form of the Pers. rozgdr 
iliUi, service) Service or occupation that does not re- 
quire departure from home. 

BAIYA, BYA, H. (Uj) A person appointed in bazars to 

measure grain. (Lower Doab and Bundelkhand). 
Baiyd'i, H. (i_5^) The perquisite of the Baiya, or fee for 
measuring grain. 

BAIZ, H. (A. ijatj) A sort of cypher or monogram formerly 
affixed to a written paper in place of a signature by 
Mohammedan functionaries and persons of rank. 
Baizana, H. OfcLaw) Fee to a magistrate or public officer 
for affixing his cypher to a deed or document. 

BAj, H. (P. .b) Tax, toll, tribute. 

Bdjgir, H. (P. jj^a-(i) A tax-gatherer, a collector of tri- 
bute or revenue. 

BAJANI, Thug. A gun. 

U>-b, a musical instrument, S. vudya ^T?f) A musician, 
a village musician. 

Bdjantari-mahdl, H. (J'-^" <_f/"^lj) A tax under the 
Mohammedan Government imposed upon all professional 
singers, dancers, and musicians. 

BAjAR,Beng. Mar. (WT5TK) Tel. Kara. BADZARTJ, 

A market (vernacular corruption of the Pers. bdzdr). 


BAJE, Mar. Beng. Uriya, fam), Tel. Kara., BAjA, or BAJI, 
(20'-83~ D ? STsS) Some, several, miscellaneous vernacular) 
corruption of Bazi, q. v. 

Bdje-drdji, Uriya, (Q|Gq|Q|\> An estate or Taluk, 
the lands belonging to which are scattered over a num- 
ber of villages. 

Bdje lab, or bdbu, Karn. (P (SwSO o>O) Miscellaneous 

items. Revenue derived from various small farms and 

licences in Mysore, but allowable in all Mohammedan States 

(vernacular for bazi abn-db). 

Bdje fast, Uriya, (QIGPEP9R.) Miscellaneous and extra 

crops, as sugar-cane, tobacco, wheat, &c. 
Bdje hharch, Mar. Ben. (^T% ^t), TeL Bdjd Jtkarchv, 
( '(J ^SS^SOtJOF") Extra expenses, miscellaneous charges, 
such as are not included in the regular account. Miscel- 
laneous expenses incurred by a village. See Bdzi-kharch. 
BAJHA, H. (l^c 1 . , ^5j) Marshy soil. 
BAJHAHAT, H. (ei^l^sO Adjustment of accounts. 
BAJHWAT, BUJHWUT, II. (tL>sr.) Stalk without ear. (East 

BAJIII, Thug. A term implying that the road is clear of 
danger, and that the victims may be murdered. 

BAJIDAR, BUJEEDAR, H. (j\&>^-) An agricultural servant 
who is paid with grain, not money. (Rohilkhand). 

BAJNAMA, Hindi, (n*ifH*n) A deed of surrender by a Ryot 
for lands which he gives up to a farmer of the revenue, 
acknowledging what he has done. Puran'iya. 

BAJPAI, H. (^U^-lj, corruption of S. vdjapeyi ^NqtlD A 
branch of the Kanauj Brahmans. 

BAJRA, BAJRI, or BAJRA, H. &c., (s/j-U or (jifib, )lHl) A 
grain much cultivated throughout India, a species of Panic 
or millet (Panicum spicatum). Bdjri properly denotes a 
smaller kind which ripens earlier. It is also applied to 
the stalk of either sort used as fodder. 

BAJHA, BUJRA, II. &c., (,*., S. ^U) The thunderbolt 
Bajrdfjhdt, II. S. (lit, struck by a thunderbolt) Any sud- 
den calamity, especially if considered a judgment. 

BAJRA, H. (]^f- , Beng. <*tfli) A large boat used in travelling, 
round bottomed, and without keel. 

BAJU, BAJOO, Karn. (S73&J- 1 ) An open file of retainers pre- 
ceding a man of rank. 

BAK, II. (CJU, from S. ^TS, a speech) An estimate of the 
crop without measuring the field. 

BAKAL, Karn. (ET3OW) A low caste of labourers from Kanara. 

BAKAND, II. (jaiu) Proportion of two-fifths of the crop 


which is sometimes paid by cultivators to Zemindars as 


BAKAR, BUKAR, H. (j&J ) Value of a crop fixed by the appraiser. 
BAKAHA, BUKARA, H. (K&j) Intelligence by word of mouth. 
BAKH, BuKH.Thug. The word used by the Thugs in calling to 

each other to assemble after having been dispersed by 

accident or design. 

BAKHA,BUKHA,H. (l^j) Grass kept for pasturage (Rohilkhand) . 
BAKHAL, BUKHUL, Mar. fa^oB) An open or clear space 

in a town or village, one not built on or cultivated. 
BAKHAL, BUKHUL, Mar. (^gf^) Low ground. A bottom, 

a hollow. 

A granary, a store-house. 

u/'j.lJ^lj, S. TH3T, ^i<;5) A house, an inclosure, 

dwellings within an inclosure. In Dehli, a cattle shed. 

In Bundelkhand and Malwa, a sort of cattle hoe, a rough 

sort of plough usually employed instead of the ordinary 

plough for first breaking up the black soil of those 

BAKHAR, BUKHUR, Mar. (TOi:) A history, a narrative, 

memoirs, &c. 
BAKHARI, Hindi, fal^Tfr) A round granary of grass, reeds. 

and mud, raised on piles. Puraniya. 
BAKHEDA, Karn. (^^(TB) Loss by bad debts. 
Bakhediyavanu, Kara. (205;>So&3r&) A bankrupt, an 

BAKHRA, H. (P. 1/sO A share, a portion. 

Bakhri, H. d..^-) A sharer. 
BAKHSH, BUKHSH, H. (^J^-, from the Pers. baktishiden 

^Ju^iir., to give, to forgive) One who gives, a donor. 

Gift, donation. Pay. Pardon, forgiveness ; used also in 

the composition of names, as Khoda-baltlish, Gift of God 

a proper name. 

Bahhsh ndma, H. (<JuU ^^sr.) A deed of gift. 
Bakshayimpu, Tel. (?) Pardon, forgiveness. (Ganjam). 
Bahhshi, Bukhshee, corruptly, Buxy, Buxey, H. ( LS ^sr.) 

A paymaster, an officer whose especial duty it was also 

to keep an account of all disbursements connected with 

military tenures, as those of Mansabdars and Jagirdars. 

Paymaster of the forces. Under the Mogul system, fre- 
quently one with the Commander-in Chief. 

Balishi, Karn. (^O<J.) A superior magistrate. A superin- 

tendant of revenue officers. Mysore, 


Bakhshidt, H. (cuU^sC 1 .) A pargana in the Jonpur 
Sirkar mentioned in Beng. Reg. ii. 1795. The term ap- 
pears to have been originally restricted to villages 
assigned to provide funds for the Bahhshi, the paymaster 
or commandant of the province. It is now merged in 
later subdivisions. 

Bakhshian-i-AAzem, corruptly, Bahhsian Azam,H. (A. and 
Pers., lit., the most eminent (.Jacl) of commanders) A 
title given to four Bakhshis in immediate attendance 
on the Emperor. Assignment of a Jagir for the mainte- 
nance of the commanders of the forces in Bengal. 

Bakhshish, H. (P. ^jkO Gift, donation, reward. For- 
giveness. In the Dahhin the term was applied under the 
Mardtha Government to land, especially garden land, held 
rent and tax free during the pleasure of the Government, 
although rarely resumed during the life-time of the occupant. 

Bakhshish ndma, H. P. A deed of gift. 
BAKI, BAQEE, corruptly, BAKY, H. (A. ^(j, from lib, what 
is perpetuated or remains; plur. Pers. dAwU, Hindi, 
Tl<*1) Remaining, continual. Subs., Remainder, balance, 
arrears, especially of revenue, in which sense the term is 
current in most parts of India. Also balance of an 

Bakdia, H. (blw , A. plur. of <Uaj bakiya, B. 4frt>Ui) 
Balance of revenue arrears. In Bengal, a tax levied 
before the permanent settlement to make up for defi- 
ciencies in the revenue payments. 

Bahdia-tauji, corruptly, tomjee, H. (<JUs>-yL(liu) Account of 
arrears of revenue for any given period past 

Bakdia-bdki, H. (^b ljlJ, S. tnt*TT *TW\) Arrear on 
arrear, the arrears of the revenue of the preceding as 
well as of the current year. 

Bdhi-ddr, H. (P. j\3 , who has) A revenue defaulter, one 
who is in arrears. 

Bdki-jdl, H. (P. (_$lj-, a place) An account shewing a 
deficit or balance of revenue. 

Bdki-jamd, H. (A. *-*-) Statement of revenue after de- 
ducting the balances of former years. 

Bdki-kaifiyat, corruptly, Baity keffyet, H. (A. P. jJb 
e^~JA*) Statement or account of outstanding balances. 
Statement of surplus or improvement in any branch of 
the revenue. As formerly applied to the accounts of the 
salt lands of Bengal, the profit on the salt sales. 

Bdki khmdh, H. (from sl^s*-, who requires) A landlord, 
or the Government in that capacity. 


Bdki lekha, Kara. (E3~s8S > SO i f rom A. ^Jlj, and S. 

lekha, writing) Written statement of arrears. 
Baki mdlrjuzdri, H. (P. jjf/iJU) Arrears of re- 
Bdki patrak sanrvdt, Mar. (?) An annual account of the 

balance due from each cultivator. 

Bdki-zamin, or -jamln, H. (P. ^x*;) The balance of the 
land revenue after deducting any deficit from the pre- 
ceding year. 

BAKIRU or BAKILU, BUKIROO, -LOO, TeL (&&) A state- 
ment, return, or report. 

BAKKAL, II. (A. Jlw, Mar. TOT^S) A grocer, a chandler, 
a grain merchant. A cloth dealer. A shopkeeper in ge- 
neral. In Mar. it is more usually Bakdlbdni (TOT<$*ll4Ul). 

BAKOLI, BUKOLEE, H. (.J^o) A small caterpillar destruc- 
tive of rice crops. 

BAKOT, BUKOTE, Thug. The strangler, the person whose 
office it is to throw the noose or turban round the neck 
of the victim. 

BAKK-ID, BUQR-EED, H. (A. AXC jii) A festival observed 
by the Mohammedans on the 10th of the month Zulhaja 
the feast of the ox in commemoration of the offering 
of (according to Mohammedan tradition) by 
Abraham. Sheep, oxen, and camels are sacrificed on this 
occasion. It is also termed the Id az-zoha. 

BAKUL-ASWARI, Kara. (?) A tax levied upon each house 
in a village for the expense of peons sent to expedite the 
collection of the revenue by the Government of Mysore, 
consolidated by Tipu with the general collections. 

BALA, and BALAKA, S. &c., falc?5, ^Tc5!r) A child. In law, 
a minor, who is distinguished as, 1. Kumdra, a boy 
under five years of age ; 2. Sisu, under eight ; 3. fo- 
ganda, a boy from the 5th to the end of the 0th year ; 
or, where the next distinction is omitted, till the 16th year ; 
4. Kuora, a boy from the 10th to the Ifith year: to the 
end of it is apparently the most correct limit, but some 
make it the commencement. (Each of these terms is used 
also in the general sense of a child, a boy, a youth). 
After the close of his minority the youth is termed Vyu- 
vahdri, or Jdta, or prdpta-vyavahdra, one by whom 
affairs (vyavahdra) may be conducted. Some authorities 
maintain that these epithets do not apply to him, and that 
he is not to be trusted with the management of his own 
interests till the end of his 20th year, although minority 
expires at the close of the 16th. The British Govern- 


ment has extended the completion of minority to the end 

of the 18th year. Beng. Reg. xxvi. 1793. 
Balahatyd, S. (?WT, killing) Infanticide. (Or with Bald, 

fern, of Bdla), Female infanticide. 
Balgopdl, Mar. (^io5'iVlio6) A collective term for all the 

people of a place as uniting in a petition to some great 

man, &c. Lit., boy-cowherd, in which sense Bdlago- 

pdla, S. vern. Bdlgopal, is universally current as a name 

of the juvenile Krishna. 
Bdlparwesi, or -parwarashi, Mar. falcfciH^ft, -*.<n.$ft, 

from P. ir-j)! 3 1 cherishing) A pension granted by the Go- 

vernment to the family of a soldier or servant who has 
died in its service. 

BdJsantosh, Mar. (MldbMiTlM) A particular class of beg- 
gars, or an individual of it. They generally ask for clothes, 
crying out Bdlsantosh," child-satisfaction. 
BALA, H. Otlj, '<[!< I ) A grub that eats young plants of 

wheat or barley when about six inches high. 
BALA, S. Ol^S) Strength, force. 

Baldt-kdra, vernacularly, Baldtkdr, S. &c., (;Oj, from 
^mT, by force, and flJTR, doing) Violence, oppression. 
Any act of violence, as robbery, rape, &c. In Karnata 
and Malabar, Detention of the person of a debtor, and 
infliction by the creditor of personal punishment to com- 
pel payment. 
Baldthar-nebar, Uriya, (CftQjQ, taking) Exaction, ex- 

Baladagti, or -dustee, corruptly, Baladusty, H, (^^JLuiXb) 

Unauthorised or oppressive exactions. 
Balbhotj, H. (d/j4jJij) Taking forcible possession of 

another's right. 

BAL, H. ( Jb) An ear of corn. 
BALAD, or BALD, BULUD, BULD, H. &c., (jJu, from S. 

^c?falr) A drove of cattle. 
Baldana, H. (AJljJa) A tax on laden oxen. 
Bal-dev, H. (^.^, ic?^^) A cow-herd. 
Baldiyd, H. (bjJj) A herdsman, a drover. 
Baldihal, H. (^lajJj) Compensation for pasture ground, 

also termed Bardaihi to the eastward. 
BALADUR, (?) Averting an omen, waving a lamp to avert 

a spell or unlucky omen. 
BALAQASHTI, also, in some dialects, BALAGASTI, and, incor- 

Irectly, BHALAGASHTI, H. (^jXi^llj, from Bald, above, 
and gashti, walking about) A superintendent of watch- 
men, an inspector of police. A watchman, a patrol. 


| BALAGYE-JATI, Kara. (^5o'7?ga3~o)) The right-hand castes. 

BALAHAB, BULAHUH, also, BALADHAR, incorrectly BILA- 
HUR, H. (yt>5b, Nc^l^O A low-caste servant, a village 
guide or messenger, a village watchman, inferior to the 
ordinary Chaukidar : he is also employed as a sweeper. 

BALAHI, H. ( ( J&Jb) A man of low caste a ChamAr, or 
worker in hides and leather, sometimes employed to 
measure land. 

BALAI, corruptly, BALLAE, and BULLAEE, H. (t^b, from 
Pers. ^Ib, above (?) ) Any extra cess or tax, especially 
such as were formerly levied by the Peshwa and Gaek- 
war at Cambay and Surat, of undetermined amount and 
varying application. Payment of revenue in kind, or a 
village where it is so paid. 

BALAIYAPHT, ,Mar. faTeJSl^HTCfiT, from P. C^U) Fees, per- 

BALAJI, or BALAJIVADU, Tel. (&v&, 25e;83;T > &>) A 
caste, or individual of it, engaged in trade, a dealer, a 

shopkeeper, a merchant ; sometimes occupied in agri- 
culture, and usually of the Lingamite sect. 

BALAM, Beng. (TfrTfa) An excellent sort of rice grown in 
Bengal, especially about Bdhharganj. 

BALAND, H. (jJJb) Name of a tribe who were expelled by 
the Uliundels from the southern parts of Mirzapu'r, and 
settled at Manwai, where they formed a Raj in subor- 
dination to the Raja of Rewa. 

BALASU, Kara. (>?*X>) Husbandry. 
Balasiga, Kara, (^y'^'v A husbandman, a cultivator. 

BALAT, BALANT, or BALAT, BALANT, Mar. (^T^, Hoii, 
'ncJVif, sftoSfe) A false charge, a calumnious accusation. 

BALAWA, Mar. (?) Tax on travellers in Kandesh to defray 
the expense of keeping up guards in dangerous places. 

BALBAND, BALBUND, Mar. (<f !<$<('<) The alphabetical cha- 
racter peculiar to the Maratha language. 

BALBODH, Mar. (^T^TtV) The Devanagari alphabet, also 
in common use among the Marathas. 

BALEGAR, Kara. (0y A do) A maker of the Bale, or glass 
rings worn by women on the fore-arm. 

BALESAR, H. (<I^4H) A sub-division of the Gujar tribe. 

BALI, BALf, BALEE, Beng. (Ttfa, Tt^t) Sand (also, in this 
and other dialects, Bdlu, q. v.). 

BALI, BULEE, S., but adopted in most dialects, faf<y) Any 
offering to an idol, flowers and other articles for worship. 
Presentation of food to all created beings, that is, small 
quantities of grain, &c., thrown up into the air for that 



purpose. Animals offered in sacrifices, or the sacrifice of 
animals, as goats, &c., to Durga ; more correctly, Bali-dan. 
Bali-akki, Karn. (from ^g , rice) Rice placed on a stone 
outside of a temple in Kanara, having been previously 
offered to the idol. Eating it by women separates them 
from their caste and families, and converts them into 
courtesans, not necessarily servants of the temple, but 
connected with it by occasional offerings. 
Bali-dan, Mar. Beng. &c., (4|fc$<M, tfsnfll, S. Bali, 
and ^Ti ddnam, gift) Presentation of an offering 
to a deity. When presented by the worshippers of Vishnu 
to any of his forms, the Bali usually consists of rice, 
milk, curds, fruits, and flowers ; when offered to the 
terrific forms of Siva, and more especially of Durgd, it 
consists of living victims, as sheep, goats, buffaloes, and the 
like, the heads of which, after decapitation in presence 
of the idol, are given to the priests, the carcases are 
carried away and eaten by low castes. Presentation of 
grain and the like to all creatures. 
Balikallu, Karn. (^5ep) A large stone slab outside of 

a temple on which rice offered to the idol is placed. 
Bali-hul, or -hool, Karn. (?) The rice so placed. See 

BALICHATA, Tel. (?) An allowance of grain made to the 

persons who are employed to measure the crop. 
BALIJEVARU, or BALJEVAHU, Tel. (&Q~-J^&>&~Jr&>) 
A numerous tribe of Sudra* in Telingana (probably the 
same as the Balajivadu, q. v.). 
BALIGH, BALIGH A, H. (A. jJU, fern. <SiSb) Adult, mature. Of 

years of legal maturity. 
Bulvgh, H. (A. c^j) Maturity. Legal maturity, being 

of age. 
BALISHT, H. ((.i^iJlj) A span from the tip of the thumb 

to that of the little finger both extended. 
BALIVALI, Karn. (^V^V) A wife's dowry. 
BALKA, H. (from S. ^T(JR, a boy) A young follower of a 

religious Hindu mendicant. 

BALKAT, BULKUT, H. 6JL*ij) Rent taken in advance. 
(Lower Doab, Bundelkhand, and Benares) Cutting of ears 
of corn without regularly reaping (from Bui, an ear of 
corn, and kdtna, to cut). 

Balkati, H. (jJiOj) A tax formerly levied on the com- 
mencement of reaping. 
BALLA, BULLA, Karn. (>Jp A measure of capacity, con- 

taining 48 double handfuls, or two Sers. A large land 

measure in Coimbatore, equal to 3 . 83 acres. Beng. 

A weight of two Ratis. 
BALLABA, Beng. (^H7) A cook. A cowherd. 
BALLALA, or VALLALA, Karn. (^, or 3^) The 

5 5 

title of an officer under the Government of Bidnur who 
engaged to collect and pay the revenue of a village or 
district for certain fees or perquisites, and exercised the 
civil and criminal jurisdiction. He had no power to alter 
the assessment, or to interfere with the proprietary rights 
of the villagers. In many respects he corresponded to 
the Zamindar of Hindustan. 

Balldyi, or Balldi, (?) (In central India) The village 
servant who is employed to preserve the village boundaries, 
also wood-cutter to the village. 
BALHAKH, H. (?) . A person put in charge of property under 

distraint for arrears of revenue. 

BALRAKHA, H. (li-^llj) Wages of persons employed to 
watch ripe crops at night (from bdl, an ear of corn, and 
rahknd, to protect 
BALSUNDAR, BULSOONDUR, H. (^jJLJj) A kind of soil, 

clay much mixed with sand. 

BALU, BALOO, H. &c., (jSlj, YTcg, from the S. TTcgcKT) Sand. 
Bdlua, H. (IjJb, m^-fll) Sandy. 

Bdliibnrtl, linhin-biiril, II. (from P. (j^, to bear, to take 
away) also, vernacularly, Bdlu-burd (^T55=IT<l), Arable land 
destroyed by a deposit of sand from inundation. An item 
of remission of revenue on this account. 
Bdlu-char, or chur, H. &c., (from Bdlu and Char ^^-, a 
shoal, a bank) Land covered by a deposit of sand. A 
sand-bank formed by a deposit of sand from the waters 
of a river. The name of a village near Murshidabad, 
perhaps originally so formed from the river ; whence 
Bdluchari, a kind of silk manufactured at Bdlu-char. 
BALUCH, corruptly, BULOOTCH, or BULOTCH, (?) A bundle 
of corn, to which, in the northern Sirkars, the village arti- 
ficers are entitled. A portion of corn paid at harvest- 
time as a moiety of their wages to the village peons by 
the peasantry. (Although repeated in the Glossary from the 
Fifth Report, and found there p. 681, the word is most 
probably a typographical error for Bulooteh, corrupt 
reading of Balute, or Buloote, q. v.). 

BALUTA BULOOTA, Mar. (^gUT) or, as the persons so 
named are usually spoken of collectively, plur., BALUTE, 
BULOOTE fac?^), r > with B AHA, twelve, prefixed, BARA- 


BALUTE (^TO^cSK), The twelve BALUTAS, from their 



being twelve in number, or, according to some, from the 
amount set apart for them being divided into twelve 
parts. The word is also spelled BALOTE, BALUTYA, and 
BALOTYA,and is corruptly written in a variety of forms, as, 
TEE, BULOWTEH, BALOWTAY, &c. A village officer or ser- 
vant. The popular enumeration is twelve, but the whole 
number, by including three who may be regarded as the 
heads of the village, and the twelve inferior classes, or 
Alute, q. v., extends to twenty-seven. The actual number, 
however, varies in different parts of India, as do the re- 
spective appellations : there is less variety, although 
some, in the duties. According to Molesrvorth (Mar. 
Diet), the twelve Balutas of the Maratha villages in 
which the system is preserved most entire, are, 1. The 
Pdtil (iTTtcS), or Head-man ; 2. Kulkarni (4<jS<*i.JJj1), 
Accountant ; 3. Chaudhari (^farD, Head of the trades ; 
4. Potaddr (^TI^R), Assayer, money-changer, and sil- 
versmith ; 5. Des-pdndyd (<^im<li|l), District account- 
ant ; 6. Nhdwi (^nt) Barber ; 7. Parit, (nOu), 
Washerman ; 8. Gurav (*TT^), Attendant on a temple ; 
9. Sutdr (WK), Carpenter ; 10. Kumbhdr OWR), Pot- 
ter ; 11. Vesahar (5*1*0, Gate-keeper, usually &Mahdr 
by caste ; and, 12. Josi (fl$fl), Astrologer. Most enumera- 
tors, however, exclude the principal officers or administrators 
of the village affairs. Thus, Grant Duff specifies the 
village officers ; the Pdtil, the Kulkarni, and Chaugala, 
assistant or deputy of the Pdtil, as distinct from the Bo- 
ra. Balute, and Bard Alute. For the latter, see the 
word Alute. The twelve village servants he terms, 1. The 
Carpenter ; 2. Blacksmith ; 3. Shoemaker ; 4. Malidr, or 
watchman ; 5. Mdng, worker in leather ; 6. Potter ; 
7. Barber ; 8. Washerman ; 9. Gurav or Sudra, atten- 
dant on a temple ; 10. The astrologer ; 11. The Bhdt, 
or bard ; and, 12. The Mauldna or Mulla, or Moham- 
medan priest. In some places the Balute are fourteen, 
divided into three classes, severally denominated the Tho- 
rald-khds (ifKcSWUO. Elder or principal division ; 
Madhald-hhds (TO<$K<<U^) The middle ; and Dhdkatd- 

klids (V||<*4KIUO Younger or inferior ; the first com- 
prising the Carpenter, Blacksmith, Shoemaker, and Mahdr ; 
the second, The Washerman, Potter, Barber, and Mdng ; 
and the third, The Goldsmith, Mauldna, Gurav, Josi, 
Waterman, and the Rdmusi or Bhil. In the Kanara 
countries these village servants and officers are termed 

Ayakdrru, or Ayagdrru, or Ayangdndlu 
WC&nrc)^ t an d eofooTTSCxl-)), q. v ., and are enu- 
merated by Reeve as, 1. The Gauda, head-man ; 2. Sd- 
nabhoga (^Tc^SV^X), accountant ; 3. Joisa (8&S? C&D>), 
astrologer ; 4. Pattdri(^3 fi")- y corn-measurer, or money- 
changer ; 5. Kammdranu (OOoJTSO'-vX;), blacksmith; 
6. Badiga (&Q>X\ carpenter ; 7. Kumbhdra (CWOSTStf), 
potter; 8. NaUa (5O3d&0^), barber ; 9. Agasa (&$), 
washerman; 10. Bdrika (H3~36o) ; One who affixes the public 
seal to public papers ; 11. Talamdra (8y tO 5o) 5 watch- 
man ; l2.Niraganti or Kolavdrd(Z>&Xo^P / Q$^r3$\ 
waterman; 13. Konikdrachakra (O'SOtTcJoa?^), be- 
tel-nut gatherers. In the Telugu villages we have the 
1. Pedda kdpu ("oOOIT ^ ) ; head-man; 2. Karanam 
(&fc>x>) ( accountant ; 3. Vadla-vadu (3 <S <*?~&J), car- 
penter; 4. Kammari<$^>), smith ; 5. Kummarifa"^), 
potter ; 6. Chdkdli, (tT^oS ) ; washerman ; 7. Mangali 
0600 X9) j barber;8. Madiga-vddu(&><$X*J~&3'),\ Chan- 
ddla, and Vetti-vddu C<3& &~&J ), a sweeper. In Gu- 
zerat, the Desdi and Majmaddr, properly district officers, 
sometimes exercise the functions of Pdtel ; at other times, 
the Pdtel is the head-man of the village, under whom are 
the Taldti, accountant ; Sutdr, carpenter ; Lohdr, iron- 
smith ; Kumbhdr, potter ; Darji or Sui, tailor ; Dhobi, 
washerman ; Hajdm, barber; Moclii, shoemaker ; Khdlpd, 
leather-dresser ; Bhangi, sweeper ;Dher, watchman; Kosia, 
water-drawer ; Sonar, goldsmith ; Bhdt or Bhdrat, bard ; 
besides the Ahhun, Mohammedan teacher ; Baid, Hindu 
doctor; Josi, astrologer; Gosains, Fakirs, &c. In the Dehli 
district they are known collectively as the Kamin ( ( j^tS), 
the inferiors of the village, and are, the Lohdr, smith ; 
Barha'i, carpenter ; Kumhdr, potter ; Dhobi, washerman ; 
Ndl, barber ; Kahdr, bearer ; Sagga, water-carrier ; 
Darzi, tailor ; Dom, musician ; Dhuniya, cotton-stuffer ; 
Chipi, cloth-stamper ; Rangrezi, dyer ; Brahman ; Ba- 
lahar, or Dhanuh, messenger ; Khdhrob, sweeper ; Dau- 
rdha, guide, intelligencer ; and Chamdr, shoemaker. 
In Bengal, and those parts of Hindustan where the village 
organization has been greatly disturbed by the long period 
of Mohammedan rule, the establishment of village officers 
and servants is less complete, but the head-man and ac- 
countant are almost universally retained, and more or 
fewer of the rest are to be found. In most instances the 
offices are hereditary, are capable of being mortgaged or 
sold, and are paid by recognised fees and perquisites, by 


allotments of corn at the time of harvest or sometimes, 
by small portions of land held rent-free, or at a low quit- 
rent. The following is a further specification of their 
synonymes and functions : 

1. Mar. Pdtil, Guz. Pdtel, H. A. Mitkaddam, Ka- 
dim, H. Chaudhari, Jtfahto, Makdjan, Thdkur, Jeth- 
rdyat, Ben. Mandal, S. Grdmddhipati, Pradhdn, Tarn. 
Grdmdttan, Ambalagdr, Ijamdn (S. Yajamdnd), Md- 
niya hdran, Monigar, Pravarttika, Karn. Gauda, Mai. 
Ndttdr, Ndttdri-kdre, Tel. Naidv, Ndyadv, Pedda- 
kdpv, Pedda-kdr or Pedda Iteddi, Reddi-vddu. (These, 
and the synonymous appellations of the other village ser- 
vants, are not always exclusively applied to them, and many 
are so applicable only in virtue of their general purport ; 
as, S. Pradhdna, vern. Padlidn, the principal ; A. Mu- 
kaddam, one who precedes or takes the lead, or Kadim, 
elder, senior ; Tarn. Ijdmdn, lit., the institutor of an act of 
worship ; and Tel. Pedda-kdpu, the old or chief man, &c.). 

The head-man, the Pdtil (Mar.), or Pdtel, (of other 
dialects), has the general controul of the affairs of 
the village, usually assisted by a sort of village council 
of the most respectable of the community, but not exclu- 
sively, as any discussions that may occur are mostly held 
in an open space in the village, where all have access, 
and do not hesitate to give their opinions. With their 
concurrence, the head-man superintends the cultivation, 
apportions the assessment, collects the revenue, either in 
money or kind, and pays it to the Government district- 
collector, regulates the village expenses, distributes the 
quotas for defraying them, and collects the money and 
pays the charges. He examines and checks the accounts. 
In some places, especially in the south, he has charge of 
the police, and is entrusted with limited magisterial 
powers. Madras Reg. xi. 1816, Bomb. Reg. xii. 1827, 
sec. vi. xlix. And as village Munsiffs, the heads of vil- 
lages are also entrusted with powers to decide civil 
causes of small value. Madras Reg. iv. 1816. The Pd- 
tel also usually settles petty disputes in the village 
either by his own authority or through the agency of 
a Panchayat, or court of arbitration. He is the chief 
organ of Government in its dealings with the village. In 
some places the office is hereditary ; in others the head- 
man is appointed by the Zamindar, or contractor for the 
revenue ; in others he is elected by the villages. In some 
villages, especially those held by coparcenary tenure, their 


affairs are usually managed by several of the principal 
inhabitants, not by one head-man ; and even where such 
a functionary is recognised, there are sometimes more 
than one individual regarded in the same light, in which 
case the eldest, or more respectable of the number, takes 
the lead in transacting public business. Such a head-man 
is distinguished among the Marathas by the Hindustani 
or Arabic term Muhaddim : his fellows retain the national 
term of Pdtil. Where the office is hereditary, as it com- 
monly is among the Marathas, its fees, perquisites, and 
privileges may be pledged for a loan, or may be sold. 
The office of Pdtil is regarded as extremely respectable, 
and Hindus of the highest rank have not disdained the 
title. Daulat Rao Sindhia particularly affected the title 
of Pdtil, and in some villages of the Dakhin exercised 
the office by deputy, and claimed the perquisites and 
rights ; and Bhairi Sal, the first noble of the Court of 
Jaypur, boasted of the title of hereditary Pdtil of the 
principality. In Maratha villages the Pdtil is commonly 
assisted by a deputy, the Chauyhald (^mcJT). who, on his 
part, or in his absence, conducts the affairs of the community. 
He is not known elsewhere by any specific designation. 

Mar. Kulkarni, Bhm, II. A. Kanun-fjo, II. Patn-dn, 
S. Grdma-harana, or Ktiyastha, Tarn. Kanakapilli, B. 
Kayeth, Moharir, Karn. Sanabhorja, Tel. Karanam or 
Karnam, Guz. Tahiti, Itifjal, Mai. Menava, Menon. The 
accountant's business is to keep accurate accounts of the 
lands of the village, their extent, quality, produce, and pro- 
prietary distribution, whether held singly or in common, 
of changes of possession or property of the lands, of the 
village expenses, and assessment and payment of the re- 
venue. He acts as clerk and notary, and often as the 
scribe, or letter-writer and accountant of the villagers. 

The village servants, properly so called, are, 

l.S. Sutradhdra or Varddhahi, Mar. Guz. H. Svtdr, 
H. Barhdi, Karn. Badige, Tel. Vardhalti, Vadla-viidit. 
The carpenter and wheelwright, who makes and repairs all 
the wood-work and agricultural implements of the villagers. 

2. S. Lohalidra, H. Mar. Guz. Beng. Lohdr, Karn. 
Kammdr (S. Karmalidra), Tarn. Karumdri, Tel. Kam- 
mari, blacksmith or ironsmith, who makes and repairs all 
iron-work for the village. 

3. S. Charmahdra, H. Beng. Chamdr, Mar. Chdm- 
Idr, Tam. Chakkili or Shakkili, Tel. Cltcppulu-kutta- 
vddii, H. Beng. Guz. Mochi, Guz. Klidlpd. A man of 



low caste, who works in hides and leather, and makes 
the leather bags for drawing water, and any other leather 
article for public use. He makes shoes, whips, thongs, 
&c., for the villagers, but for hire when for individual use. He 
also dresses and tansskins, and sometimes skinsdead animals. 

4. Mar. Mahdr or Mhdr, Dher, Ballayi, Mhau, 
&c. These are local names current in the Maratha and 
Guzerat provinces for particular tribes of outcasts, members 
of which are usually found in the villages. The Mahar is 
the guardian of the village boundaries and land-marks, and 
is the public servant of the head-man. He summons the 
villagers to public meetings, carries the collected revenue 
to the Government office, and acts as public letter-carrier 
and messenger. He cuts wood and grass, and serves as 
scout, guide, baggage-porter, and general attendant on 
travellers. He assists the head-man in his police duties, 
and traces and apprehends thieves. He officiates also, some- 
times, as watchman, especially of the crops, and is the 
sweeper of the roads through the village. Some of these 
functions are wholly or in part discharged by other ser- 
vants, as the Many and Yeshar. The office of village 
Mahar is generally held by one or more families ; so 
that, although there is nominally one officer, the duties 
are commonly performed by several individuals. The 
functions of the J\Iahdr, are, in part at least, also dis- 
charged in different places by other low tribes or castes, 
especially those of protecting the village boundaries, and 
acting as guides, messengers, and watchmen, who are 
frequently Bhilt, Kalis, or Rdmusis. The persons em- 
ployed to protect the roads and boundaries are also termed 
Rakh-ii'dlti* and Varttaniyat, whilst the village watch- 
man is designated by a variety of terms in different parts 
of India, as II. Mar. Beng. Chauhidar, Kolrvar, Uriya. 
Chohid, II. Dofdd, Dkanuk, Goret, Hdri, &c., Tel. Pa- 
yih, Pdxbdn, Tarn. Kdvali or Kdval-hdran, Tel. Kara. 
Talari, Karn. Taldivdra, also Mar. Jagla. 

5. Mar. Sfdnfj, Tel. Bdriliudu, Mddiga-vddv, Vetti- 
vddu, Tarn. Vettiy&n, H. Bhangi, Khakrob, Mehtar, 
Halal-hhor, Karn. Toti. A man of very low caste who 
is the scavenger and sweeper of the village. He is also 
employed as skinner, and as executioner, and occasionally 
as a watchman. 

6. H. Dhobi, Mar. Parit, Karn. Aydsi, Tel. Chdkali 
or Chdkala-rddv, Tarn. Vannun (6L.'<5OT 1 '(i5ro)o%T). The 
washerman, who washes the clothes of the villagers. 


7. S. Kumbhakdra, H. Kumhdr, Mar. Kumbhdr, 
Tel. Kummdri, Karn. Kumbhdra, Tarn. Kuyavan. The 
potter, who makes pots and tiles for the village, and has 
sometimes to supply travellers with water. 

8. S. Ndpita, H. Nal, Mar. Nhdwi, Karn. Nd'ida, 
Tel. Mangali (S. Mangala), Tarn. Ambattan, Guz. Ndrvi, 
also from the A. Hajdm, which is also used in other 
dialects, as Hin. and Beng. The barber, who has to shave 
the inhabitants, more especially their heads : he also bleeds, 
and acts as surgeon. His wife is the general midwife. 
He is occasionally called upon to carry a torch before 
travellers at night. 

9. S. Jyotishi, H., and in most dialects, Joshi or Jo*i. 
The village astronomer, who prepares the almanack, an- 
nounces lucky and unlucky days, and the days appropriated 
to public festivals, and casts nativities. The name applies 
to the office, which is filled most commonly by a Brah- 
man, who in that character conducts the village cere- 
monies and religious observances, and is known by the 
terms Bhat or Shut, Parsdt, Purohit, and others. 

10. S. Swarnakdra, whence the Sonar of most of the. 
dialects, also H. Mar. Beng. Potaddr or Potddr, Karn. 
Paltdri, and H., from the A., Sardf, vulgarly, Shroff. 
Goldsmith, silversmith, assayer, and money-changer, 
weigher of coin and bullion. He declares the value of 
coins tendered in payment of the revenue, and makes the 
silver ornaments worn by the villagers. 

11. Mar., from S., Guru, Gurav, or Pujdri, A Su- 
dra whose especial duty it is to clean the village temple 
and deck the idol. He acts also as a servant to the more 
respectable villagers, and attends their wives when they 
go out. He has also to assist in the carriage of travellers' 
baggage, and sometimes acts as trumpeter. 

12. Mar. (S.) Bhat, A bard, or genealogist, who 
keeps a record of family descents, and arranges marriages. 
He composes and recites poems or songs on particular festive 
occasions. He is sometimes reckoned one of the Alute, q. v. 

13. H. Mar., from A., Mauldna, Mulla, Akhund, 
The Mohammedan priest who conducts the ceremonies of 
the Mohammedans of the village, and acts as school- 
master. In some places he has degenerated into the 
butcher, killing animals for such of the villagers as 
eat meat. Where there are no Mohammedans, the place 
of the Mnlla is filled up by the Koli, or waterman, who 
supplies water to the villagers and travellers, but who is 



more usually enumerated amongst the Alute. In Kar- 
nata, the waterman, Niraganti or Kolavdru, has charge of 
the supplies of water for irrigation, superintending its 
distribution, and preventing waste. The Karnata establish- 
ment, also, includes officers not recognised elsewhere ; as 
the Alatigdra or Pattari, Corn-measurer, who apportions 
the shares of Government and the cultivators where the 
revenue is paid in kind ; and the Addika or Addiga, who 
superintends the cultivation, q. v. : also the Konihdra- 
chakra, who gathers betel-nuts for the villagers from the 
public plantations. For the other classes of village ser- 
vants, see Alute and Ndru-hdru. 

^<$\~A, the final n is scarcely sounded), also read BALU- 
TEH, BALOTEH. The portion of the crop assigned to the 
village servants for their maintenance, also their fees, per- 
quisites, or other rights. 
Balute-ddr, Mar. (j<grt<lO A village officer or servant 

receiving a share of the crop, &c. 

Balute-patti, corruptly, Bullootij-puticc, Mar. (lciHMg"))A 
cess or tax upon the shares or claims of village servants. 

BALUTTAHAM,Karn.(20 d^^OO) Land in Kanara with which 
temples were endowed, but remaining in the hands of the 
original proprietors. They were not at first included in 
the assessment, being considered religious property ; but 
subsequently they were assessed, such share of the produce 
as the temples had formerly received being continued to 
them. Land claimed as the special endowment of an 
officer of the temple. 

BAM, BUM, H. (.+}, ^R) An exclamation of salutation in 
passing, interchanged especially with Saiva mendicants 
carrying the water of sacred rivers to a distance, who 
call out as they go along to those they meet, Sam-bam 
Mahddeo, and receive the same words in reply. 

BAM, or BAM, H. (*J, *U) A measure of three cubits and 
a-half. A measuring-rod. 

BAMAL, H. (JLo, from \J, with, and JU, property) Found 
in the possession of the thief (stolen property). 

BAMB, BUMB, (?) A revenue defaulter, one who owes a ba- 
lance to the State. 

BAHBETivii Beng. (<ic^n*i1, from Bombardier (?) ) A 
pirate, a river pirate or robber. 

BAMBHA, BAMBHEE, H. (^j^ijb), An ant-hill. 

BAMHAN, BUMHUN, H. corruption of Brahman (^^>), A 


BAMHANOAUR, H. (^&$-j), A class of the Gaur Rajputs. 
BAMHANIA, BUMHUNEA, H. (Uiij), A subdivision of the 

Kdchhi tribe, a class of cultivators. 
BAMHNI, H. dj.^j), Light red soil. (East Oudh). 
BAMI'TH!, BUMEETHA, H. (^!MJ), An ant-hill. A snake's 

hole (Lower Doab). 

BAMLA, Hindi (^I^n) A spring, a hole from which water 
left by the inundations springs up after the waters have 
BAM-MATI, Asam. (Tt^nrtfp) Land not subject to inun- 

BAM-TELK, H. (^jLu/w) A Rajput tribe in the eastern parts 

of the central Doab, not in much consideration. 
BAN, BUN, H. (^ S. ^f:) A wood, a forest. 
Bdnaprasth, corruptly, Banperuxt, II., from the S., TR, 
a solitude in the faq) wood, and T&H, who proceeds to) 
The Hindu of the third order, who has discharged the 
duty of a householder, and has become a hermit 
Ban-char, Banchur, H. (S. _jSb) A forester, a woodman. 

A wild animal, one who goes or dwells in a wood. 
Banchari, Bunchuree, H. (jf^u) A high jangli grass, 

also called Baro. 
H(iinjiinntlt(i, Bungountlia, II. ('^^ ^ Cow-dung found 

in forests. 
Bankandd, Bunhundd, H. (ISoS^) Cow-dung found in 

forests and dried for fuel. 

Bankar, Bunkur, II. (/Lw) Spontaneous produce of jangal 
or forest-land, timber, brushwood, gums, wild honey, &c. 
This is considered as distinct property from the general 
estate or Zamindari, and as not conveyed by the sale of 
the estate unless so specified. The Bankar may be sold 
separately. The term is also sometimes applied to pas- 
ture lands, Beng. Reg. i. 1804, and to revenue derived 
from forest lands. Elliot. 


Bankatti, Bunhutti, H. ((_ (iJ j) A fee paid for cutting 
timber. The title obtained by cutting away jangal or 
thicket, and bringing the land into cultivation. 

Banotsarya, H. (from S. ban, a wood, and utsarrja 9HIJJ, 
abandoning) Consecration of a wood or orchard newly 
planted by going through the forms of marrying the 
Sdldgram stone or ammonite, a type of Vishnu, to a 
branch of the Tulasi tree (Ocymum sanctum), the type of 
a nymph beloved by Vishnu or Krishna : one man, car- 
rying the stone, represents the bridegroom; another, holding 
the plant, the bride. The usual ceremony, somewhat 


modified, takes place, and on the completion of the 
ceremonial the fruit which the orchard is to bear may 
be eaten. 

Ban-salami, H. (from Salam JL, salutation) A fee for- 
merly exacted by the Zamindar from the Ryot for per- 
mission to gather the juice of the date-tree for the pur- 
pose of making a fermented liquor. 

Bantarid, Buntar/d, H. ('o.^V' ^TTTfiCTT) A class of 
wood-rangers formerly holding rent-free lands in quit- 
tance of police duties in the northern Parganas of Go- 
rakhpur. The duties having ceased, revenue has been 
levied on the occupants (Bantarias) at an easy rate. 
BAN, BUN, H. (^J, *R) Cotton. 

Bankhard, Bunftlnira, H. O^ou) Land on which cotton 
has grown during the past season (Central Doab), and is 
succeeded by a crop of grain. 
BAN, BUN, (?) A division of a Patilship. 
BAN, Beng. (Tft) An inundation within the influence of 
the tide ; also the rapid influx of the flood-tide, com- 
monly termed the Bore. 

BAN, Mar. &c., (S. ^TO) An arrow. A fire-work or rocket. 
Bandar, Mar. 0$TH!J<JK) An archer. A rocket-bearer. Guz., 

A village watchman. 
BAN A, H. (li'o) A vat, a large jar without feet. An iron 

bucket used for raising water for irrigation. 
SANA, Mar. faTOJT) The woof of cloth. 

Bdndtdna, Mar. (^mnnnui) The woof and warp. 
BANA, Hindi, (w, from tHHI, to make) Land dressed 

and ready for seed. Made up. 

BANABE, BAXAVK, Karn. (>, CO) A stack. 

BANAFAB, H. (^J'-ij) A tribe of Yadubansi Rajputs, chiefly 
settled in Oudli, but also in Allahabad, Benares, and 

ZDOaSX) A sect of dissentients from the Hindu system, 
Lingayits, or, according to some authorities, a tribe of 
Sudras engaged in trade or business : (the same, appa- 
rently, as the Tel. Balajivdru). Also Banijaga, q. v. 

BAN AH, Thug. Bad news. A road become unsafe. 

BAXASIGA, Karn.(f9<^<^, from D~Sr6^3 ) cooking) A cook. 

BANAULA, BUNOULA, H. 0!^w) The seed of the cotton 

bambu (Arundo bambusa). 

BAND, BUND, H. &c., (tXu, ^, from the imp. Jju band or 


bund of the Pers. verb (jJu-J , to bind, to confine ; when 
derived from the S. ^f^T bandh, also signifying to bind, 
to tie, the word and its derivatives preserve the final 
aspirate, and are properly written Bandh or Bundh, 
&c., q. v.) A band, a binding, literally or figuratively, 
as imprisonment, fetters, a tie, a cord. A bundle of 
papers tied together. A written contract, an account, a 
pledge, a bond, an agreement, an arrangement, stipulated 
allowance, deduction, &c. In Mar., also, a law, a regulation. 
Bandd, Bundd, H. &c., (^T, from the Pers. participle 
i&i), bound, tied, and thence, in H., more usually Ban- 
dati) A servant, a slave. 

Bandah, Bunduh, H. (P. SJuu) A slave, a bondman, a 
servant. A term of humility in speaking of one's self to 
a superior. 

Bandagi, Bundugee, H. (^AM) Service, slavery. A term 
used as a complimentary salutation. 

Bandak-wdld-i-Bdrgah, (lit., the slave of the exalted 
Court) A nobleman under the Mogul system charged 
with the Diwani or revenue administration of a province, 
and holding a Jagir for his personal and official expenses. 

Bandi, or Bdndi, Bundee, OiXJo , ^yjolj) A slave girl. 

Bandi, Karn. (&3OQ) Imprisonment. A prisoner. 

Bandirvdn, Bundeeman, H. (^LjiVjo) Bandiydn, Beng. 
(THJfSrM), A prisoner, a convict ; Bandivdnanu, Karn. 
(SOoQcO c)rO<\X)) One in custody under suspicion. 

Band- or Bund-khdna, Bandi- or Bundee-khdna, 
(<KJli-iXu) A prison, a jail. 

Bandi potu, Tel. (>OCn>Lx>) Gang-robbery. 

Band- or Bund-behri, H. ((^^.oJJb) Statement of the 
amount of each share of the money instalment of the re- 
venue assessed on a village. 

Band- or Bund-barddsht, H. (c^vi'i^J Jou) Account of 
a share or portion of an instalment to be paid by each 
member of a village. 

Band-batdi, H. d_g\M AM) Account of each share of the 
assessment paid in grain. 

Band-hisdb, H. (ijl-u.*- jJj) An abstract account. 

Bandi, Bundee, H. ((_?iXw) Agreement, arrangement. Dis- 
tribution. Stipulated allowance. Deduction or charge, as 
Behri-landi, Bet-bandi, &c., q. v. 

Band-i-jamd, H. (A. *-**) Distribution of the assessed 
lands among the cultivators so as to allot to each an 
equal proportion of good and bad lands, and to make 
him responsible for a fixed proportion of both. 



Band-i-mudat, H. (c^)!Lo i3ou), Mar. ('JfnOjJ^) A stated 
term for the settlement of an account. 

Band-i-Sale or -Seal, H. (a compound of Band with the 
English word Sale or Seat) A contract of sale, a docu- 
ment executed immediately after the sale of a Zamindari, 
specifying the lands sold, the amount of assessment, and 
the price. 

Band-navis, H. (Band, and P. navis \j~ty > a writer) A 
clerk, an accountant 

Band-o-bast, Bund-o-bust, or sometimes inverted as Bast- 
o-band, H. (P. u^-v^iV'" or tiJu^w;), Beng. (i4-*fi<J<s), 
Mar. (f{Nw), lit., tying and binding, both words being 
derived from the same P. verb ^V*^, to bind) Agree- 
ment, settlement, bargain, adjustment, arrangement. Set- 
tlement of revenue to be paid by the Zamindar, renter, 
or farmer to the Government, or by the tenant to the 

Band-o-bast dawdmi, H. (from A. JjJ, perpetuity) Per- 
petual or permanent settlement 

Band-o-bast mi&di, H. (from A. i>Uxc , fixed time) Tem- 
porary settlement, one for a prescribed time. 

Band-o-bast-i-mulh, H. (A. CJlo) The sum total of the 
revenue of a kingdom or province as settled and en- 
gaged for. 

Band-o-bast-i-parrvdna, H. (*'j^J ) Patent or deed of set- 
tlement A warrant given by the Government to the per- 
son with whom a revenue settlement had been agreed 
upon, empowering him to make the collections from the 

cultivators or land-holders. 

Band-o-bast-l-sanad, H. (A. <XAw) Warrant or patent of 

settlement. See the last 
Band-o-bast sarsari, H. (<_<r/^*i) Summary and temporary 

Daul-band-o-bast, H. (TT<, Jjj, manner) Particular 

statement of the manner in which the rental of an estate 

or district is subdivided. 
Band-o-bast-i-Sarrixhtaddr, (P. jlj&i^u) A revenue 

officer attached to some of the Government offices in Ben- 

gal to assist in making and revising revenue settlements, 

and to keep and record all documents relating to them. 
Band-phdnta, Bundphanta, H. (duulyJaj) An account of 

the shares of the liabilities of a village. 
BAND, BUND, H., and in most dialects : (the same as the 

preceding in its literal sense, but having a specific appli- 

cation) A dam, a dyke, a causeway, a raised bank or 

mound of earth constructed to confine the waters of a 
river or reservoir, or to preserve a road-way across plains 
inundated in the rainy season ; also Bandh, Bundh, or 
Band-tdl, H. (JfijJu) Damming a watercourse for the 

purpose of irrigation. 

BAND, Mar. fats) A field of grain blighted before coming 
into ear, or of which the heads have been eaten by 
cattle. The stalks of such corn. 
BAND, BUND, Mar. Ofj) Insurrection, sedition. A band or 

body of insurgents. 

BANDA, BUNDA, H. OAXJ) A grain magazine above ground. 
BANDA, BUNDA, Mar. (^l) Whole, unbroken, unexchanged 

for smaller coin. 
BANDAR, BUNDUR, H. (P. j>&>) A port, a harbour, an 

emporium. In Bengal, also, a market, a mart. 
Shah-bandar, Harbour or custom-master. 
BANDAWALA, BANDAWALA, Kara. (o&So ; uo&53~3$) 

Stock in trade, capital. 

BANDE, BUNDE, Tel. (>O Q) A fine for trespass by cattle. 

BANDH, BUNDH, occurring in most dialects, (from S. ^V , 

binding, confining, literally or figuratively) Confining, 

fastening. A cord, a fetter, a tie, a ligature, a bond, a 

deed, an agreement, a pledge. A rule, a regulation, &c. 

See Band, also Bandhan or Bundhun. 

Bandh, Bundh, or, preferably, Bdndh, H. Mar. &c., (^J, 

Tfhl) A bank, a dyke, a mound for confining water, or 

forming a roadway over inundated fields. Boundary of 

a field or village. 

Bandliak, Bundhuk, in most dialects, (*fH|cfc), Tarn. Ban- 

dagam (un^SlL) A pledge, a pawn, a mortgage. 
Bandhak-ddtd, Beng. Uriya, &c. ( (S. ^TiTti a giver) A 

mortgager, a pawner. 
Bandhaltgrdhi, Beng. 01^2rt^t) A pawnbroker, one who 

lends upon pledges. 
Bandhah-yrahitd, Beng. Uriya, &c., (from S. eTni , who 

takes) A mortgagee. 

Bandhak-lewd-byahti, Beng. Uriya, &c., (3Twi<il ^/f5>, 
from H. lui , to take, and S. ^rfa. a person) A pawn- 
broker, one who takes a pledge, a mortgagee. 
Bandhak-ndma or -patra, Beng. Uriya, &c., (TftTl, 'T3I) 

A mortgage-deed. 
Bandhan, Bundhun, H. &c., (S. ^VR) Binding, the act 

or implement of binding, &c. See Bandh. 
Bandhan, Bandhun, Mar. tehlll) Ground formed into 


rice-fields by damming a stream, and laying the soil 
under water. A dam, an embankment. A mound raised 
across a field to prevent the soil from being washed away. 

Bandhdrd, Bundhara, Mar. (^VTO) A bank, a dyke. 

Bandhdrd, Mar. fafanj) The ground adjoining and along 
the course of a field-dyke or embankment. 

Bandhdra, Bundhara, Mar. (? perhaps for Bhanddra, 
q. v.) An assembly of religious mendicants convened to 
celebrate the funeral obsequies of a deceased Mahant, or 
principal of an establishment of the order, and confirm 
the nomination by him of his successor. 

Bdndhil, Mar. (^jtflc^) Tying up rice in sheaves. 

Bandhiyd, H. (UfcJJu) Raised embankment for confining 
water and flooding fields. 

Bdndhne, Mar. fatvUff) A gap made in the bed of a 
stream to let the water through : the rubbish with which 
it is occasionally stopped. 

Bandhmds, Bundlnvas, H. (j^y&jJu) Land embanked 

all round so as to admit of being flooded. 
BANDHAN, BUNDHAN, H. &c., ((jlajJo) A pension, a stipend. 
DHOOR, (^jjftiXij) Purchase of grain in advance of the harvest. 
of Rajputs of Chauhan descent, occupying part of Bun- 
delkhand and Benaudhia. Sometimes pronounced Bddkil- 
or Banjil-goti. 

BANDHU, S. ('JW) A relation, a kinsman in general. In 
law, a cognate kinsman in a remote degree. Three kinds 
are enumerated, personal, paternal, and maternal. The 
first are the sons of the deceased's father's sister, of his 
mother's sister, and of his maternal uncle. The second are 
the sons of his father's paternal aunt, of his father's ma- 
ternal aunt, and of his father's maternal uncle. The third 
are the sons of his mother's paternal aunt, of his mother's 
maternal aunt, and of his mother's maternal uncle. These 
succeed after the Gotrajas or Gentiles. 

Bdndhava, S. (^Tm^t) A kinsman in general. A cognate 

kinsman. See the preceding. 

BANDI, BUNDEE, corruptly, BANDY, H. (,_fjJui) Name of 
a dry measure. Tel. Kara. (OO>) A cart, a carriage, a 
gig, any wheeled conveyance. 

BANULI, BUNDLEE, H. (,J>Xw) A sort of rice grown in 

IANDRI, H. (^j&Jj) A kind of grass growing in rice-fields, 
and used as fodder. 


BANGA, H. (l&lj) Raw cotton. The cotton plant. Banaula, 
q. v., is, properly, the seed of the plant ; Rui or Hooee, 
the cotton itself; and Kapds, the seed and cotton in the pod. 

BANGA, BUNGA, H. (lw) Soil impregnated with oily well- 
water, and cultivable at either the spring or autumn har- 
vest (Agra). Well water slightly brackish (Central Doab). 

BANGALIYA, H. (Lxldu) A sort of rice grown in the eastern 
parts of the north-west provinces. 

BiNGAR, BANGUR, H. (^olj)High ground. Uplands. Upper; 
as Panipat bdngar, Upper Panipat, in opposition to Pa- 
nipat-kddir, Lower Panipat. 

BANGARA, Kara. (2DO-7Tc)#) Gold ; golden. 

BANGf, Tarn, (un^) A species of village tenure in Tin- 
nevelly by which the fields are divided once in every six 
years among the villagers by lot. 

Bangdli, Tarn. (urjaiTStfl) A shareholder of village lands 
under the preceding tenure. 

BANGKA, H. (tiLCo) A sort of water-beetle that feeds upon 
rice plants. 

BANG-KATI'A, H. (Lu^ io) A species of Solanum re- 
sembling a thistle not of any use. 

BANGKI, H. (^JXfc) A sort of rice cultivated in the Be- 
nares district. 

BANGLA, corruptly, BUNGALOW, Beng. (Tt'lSTl, probably 
from Banga, Bengal) A thatched cottage, such as is 
usually occupied by Europeans in the provinces or in 
military cantonments. 

BANGRI, BUNGREE, H. d_^Jou) A bracelet, an ornament 
for the wrist ; corruptly, ' a bangle.' 

BANGU, Thug. The river Thug of Bengal. These inveigle 
people into their boats, and, after strangling, cast them 
into the water, 

BANI, H. ( ,_5J^) A weight equal to eighty rupees. A yel- 
low earth with which potters sometimes decorate their 
pottery. The thread with which cloth is woven. Price 
paid for a work. Thug., Blood. 

BANIJ, BUNIJ, H. C-^? fr m s - ^ftr^) Trade, traffic. 

Thug., A traveller. 

Banik, Bunik, H. (>-^i?, S. qftlH^, nom. ^fiffF) A 
merchant, a trader. In Bengal it most commonly denotes 
a money-changer, or banker. 

(eO&aSX, ei&3dX } eo&>aT7rS&>) The name of a class or 
sect, including several divisions, generally followers of the 
Lingayit sect. See Banajiga. 


Panchama banajiga, Kara. (JOa?iO >C38SX) Merchants 

and traders of the Lingayit sect 

Tenwju banajif/a, Karn. (O<?3JA3 03aSA) Persons fol- 
lowing- the business of tailors, bracelet-makers, and 
speaking- Tdufju. 

BANIWAL, H. A subdivision of the Bahangl sect. 
BANJAR or BANJAR, BUNJUII or BANJUR, II. ( .scu , .cC l> , 
^3R,^TJT, from S. ^UJT bun dln/a, barren), also BANJH, 
H. (<te=-'lj), BANJARU, and BANJE, Karn. (WoaJfo, 
e308) Waste or fallow-land. 
Banjar-jadid, H. (A. ik>?-, new) Land again brought 

into cultivation after lying fallow for some years. 
Banjar-liadim, H. (A. >JjJ, ancient) Land left fallow 

from a remote period. 

Banjar-Jtami, H. (from P. ham *, less, little, deficient) 
Abatement of revenue on account of land left unculti- 
vated (South of India). 

Banjar-kanddi/am, Karn. (&O&8 SboSO&o) Tax in My- 
sore levied on waste lands. 

Banjar-khdrij-i-jamd, H. (A. g*. ; U-) Waste lands 
excluded from the rental. In Cuttaek, lands which, being 
waste, and therefore not yielding revenue, were sold by 
the district and village officers clandestinely as rent-free 
lands. They were subsequently subjected to a light quit- 

BANJARA, BANJAHI, BUNJAHKK, corruptly, Brv.i-\i:v, BEN- 
JARY, BUINJAIIEE, &c., II. (\j\jsij , from S. *fftrs^, a 
trader). The term is most usually applied to a grain and 
cattle merchant, who, with a more or less numerous party 
of the same calling, moves about to different markets, and 
especially accompanies bodies of troops to supply them 
with corn. It is especially applicable, also, to a nume- 
rous tribe spread along the foot of the mountains from 
Haridwar to Gorakhpur, and forming various subdi- 
visions, many of whom are stationary, and follow agricul- 
ture. They comprise both Hindus and Mohammedans, 
acknowledging a common origin and affinity. The most 
migratory are the Bahurupa Banjdrds, of whom there 
are five branches, four of whom assume the well-known 
appellations of the chief Rajput tribes, or Rahtore, Chau- 
hdn, Pomar, and Tumdr. The fifth, called Barka, is 
said to be descended from a Gaur Brahman. Each of 
these is infinitely subdivided. The Rahtore branch, for 
instance, splits into four families, and these comprehend 
138 sub-branches. Some of these Banjdrds have 


the privileges of the Chdran and Bhdt, q. v., their per- 
sons being sacred, and accepted in guarantee of engage- 
ments. The origin of these people is obscure : if they 
were primarily a distinct race, they are now much inter- 

BANJIN, BUNJIN, H. (^J&S) Lands close to a village. A 
weed which springs up with the kharif crop to the 
height of about three feet. It is much prized by mendi- 
cants professing alchemy. 
BANK, H. &c., (CJJ'j, *fai, S. *n, crooked) A bend or 

reach of a river. 
BANKA, II. (&'o) An idle, dissolute fellow. A bully. A 


BANK SAL, Beng. (^"Tfa, from S. ^ftsHSF, a trader, and 
ZjTT^n, a hall) The office of the chief officer of the marine, 
or harbour-master. 

HANKTA, Hindi, (^oRT) The crop on the field irrecoverably- 

BANNAN, Tam. (?) The washerman caste. Travancore. 
BANNAN-ADIGA, (?) Tam. A smaller grain measure used in 

giving- grain to slaves and labourers. Tinnivelly. 
BANNI, BUNNEE, H. ( ( _^^ A portion of grain given to a 

labourer in requital of his services. 

Banni- or Bani-kdr, H. (^< J\^ A ploughman or la- 
bourer whose services are paid in kind. 
BANS, BUNS, II. &c., (i^J S. tj[i:) A race, a family. 
liansdvali, II. (^^LJj, S. ^irecjrO A genealogy, a family 


BANS or BANS, BUNS or BANS, H. &c., (^j-JJ, (j~^.> s - 
^5T.) A bambu, a measure of length. A rod or bambu 
about ten feet long used to measure excavations. 
Bansa, II. (LJLi, probably from Bans, a bambu) The 
hollow tube or bambu through which the seed descends 
in a drill -machine, usually, but not always, attached to a 

Bdnsdi, Beng. (Tl"f^) A frame of bambu-work like a lad- 
der, used as a harrow for breaking the clods after 
Bdnsgdri, Beng. (<tf*f'tl'0 Planting a bambu in the 

ground as a monument of any transaction. 
BANSA, BUNSA, II. (LJj) A grass growing amongst rice, 

and used as fodder. 

BANSARI, BANSUREE, H. (,_^^) A weed found in parts 
of the Doab near the Jumna, injurious to the crops, and 
difficult to be eradicated. 



Banslochan, H. ((^^(J"*^' s - ^IcJV^H) Bambu- 
manna, a sort of white flinty substance found in the 
joints of the Bambu. 
Bdnsphor, H. (.jyQ i/*^) A caste who work with bambu- 

canes. A basket-maker. 
BANSI, BUNSEE, H. ( ( j*Jb) A sort of wheat with blackish 

ears. North-west Provinces. 
BANT or BANTAR, BUNT or BUNTUR. Karn.(^kj,^^) 

A cultivator, a Ryot. 

BANT, H. &c., (c^it?, from S. <RWH), BANT, BUNT, or 
BANT, Beng. 0T, Tfi) A share, a portion, division of 

Bdntd, Beng. (TtTJl ) A partition, an allotment; also Hindi, 
C^TTT) Tying up the crop into sheaves or trusses. Pu- 



Bantak, Beng. S. (*<> <*) A share, a portion. A sharer, j 

Bdnt-chont, H. (c^J*- iJi^^) Share, portion, distribution. 
Bantan or Bdntan, Beng. (S. 3TR, Tfi>3) Sharing, di- 
viding, partitioning. 
Bant-patra, Uriya, (S. T^, a leaf) Record of division of 


BANTROTU, BUNTROTOO, Tel. (s3O(^5^/oJ) A peon, a foot- 
man, a courier usually wearing a badge. A policeman. 
BANUI, Beng. (3TT?) A sister's husband. 


BANVIKRI, corruptly, BUNVICKREE, H. (from the S. ^T, a 
wood, and vikraya fajUJt , sale) The sale of an adult of 
one of the agricultural classes as a slave in his absence 
(in the woods or elsewhere), the purchaser taking the 
risk of finding and securing him (formerly practised in 

BANIYA, BANYA, BENYA, Beng. (<Ufa*|l, 
4-1M/1, from S. qfiOcfi) A Hindu trader, shopkeeper, or 
money-changer. In Bengal it is commonly applied to 
the native cashier or man of business in the service of 
Europeans. In the West of India it ordinarily denotes 
Hindu merchants settled either as agents or principals at 
the chief places of traffic in the Persian Gulf or Red Sea. 

BAOLI, or. sometimes BAORA or BAORI, corruptly, BOWLEY 

or BOWREE, H. (,_j!jVi <-fJi^' ^ ar - (TWSD A ^ ee P 
well, the descent to the brink of which is by long flights 
of steps leading far down below the surface of the 
ground, relieved by landing-places and covered chambers 
where travellers may rest and take refreshment during 
the heat of the day. Some Baolis are constructed with 

much architectural embellishment, particularly in the 

west of India. 
BAOLIEN, BAOLIER, Mai. (?) Outcast slaves who reside in the 


BAONI, BAONEE, H. (^j'j) Seed-time. Sowing. 
BAORI, H. ((_s\jb) A vagrant tribe in the Bhatti country 

and west of Dehli, who subsist chiefly by stealing. A low 

caste in the Jangal Mahals, cultivators and palankin- 

BAPANS, H, CpJkW, from bap, a father, or S. vapra, a 

field, and an* ^f, a part, a share) Patrimony, patri- 

monial inheritance. 

BAPOTI, erroneously, BAPROTTEE, H. (J^u) Patrimony. 
BAR, H. Hindi, Mar. (j\i, ^T5) A fence, a hedge, an inclo- 

sure. The boundary of a field. The outer screen of a tent 
Bdri, Bdree, H. Beng. (<^$j\i, fff) An inclosed piece of 

ground, a plot for sugar-cane or other garden produce, 

also cotton. 

Bdri, H. Beng. (Tfcft, from S. ^T^) A house, a dwelling. 
BAH, more correctly, VARA, H. &c., (;b, S. ^K) A day of 

the week, used chiefly in composition, as, Som-bar, Mon- 

day ; Buddh-bdr, Tuesday ; Mangal-bdr, Wednesday ; 

Brihaspati-bdr, Thursday ; Sukra-bdr, Friday ; Sani- 

bdr, Saturday ; Aditya-bdr, corrupted to Etmar, Sun- 

day : also, A time, a turn. 

Bar-bar, H. Repeatedly, time after time, turn after turn, 
Bdri, H. ( ,_fj\J ) A mode of keeping up the village watch 

in some places, in which the villagers watch by turns ; 

also, in the season of grinding the sugar-cane, the 

working of the mill by turns, so that there shall be no 

intermission night and day until the whole is ground, 

the villagers uniting for this purpose. 
BAH.BARA, H. (,\J, 3,1?) A perquisite of the Ahir, or cow- 

herd, in milk, generally the milk of every eighth day. 
BAR, H. (P.^lj) A load, a burthen. 
Bdr-barddr, H. (P.^J^, who takes up) A porter, a car- 

rier, a burthen-bearer. 
Bdr-barddri, H. P. (i.^, bearing) Carriage hire, cost 

of conveyance, charge of porterage, and the like. 
Bdr-baldi, H. (t^^b) Division of the crop by sheaves 

(or loads) before the corn is trodden out. 
Bdr-gir, Bargeer, corruptly, Bageer, H. &c., (P.jj\i> 

^K'ftt., lit., one who takes a load) A trooper who is 

mounted on a horse which is supplied by the State or 

the chief he serves. 



BAR, H. (P. iL) A court, a tribunal, a place of audience. 
Bdr-i-ddm, H. P. (Jc^U) Public hall of audience. 
Bdr-gdh, H. (P. sl^lj ) Place of audience, a royal court. 

The court of the Mogul. 
Bdr-i-khds, H. (P. (ja&- j\}) Private audience or council 


Bdr-ydbi, H. (P. ^U j\i) Admission at court, presen- 

BARNis, Mar. ()K0$l) An officer whose duty is to affix 
the word TTC bar, to notes, bills, &c., implying that 
they are to be entered on the account-book. 
BAR, H, P..(,tj) Fruit. 
Bdramba, Barumba, II. (&Uj[>) Revenue derived from 

the lease of a mango-orchard. 
BAH, H. (j\>, S. ^Tft) Water. 
Bdrdn, H. (yj/^) Rain. 

Bdrdni, H. (^\j[i, lit., rainy) Applied to land, it signifies 
that which is watered by rain, not by irrigation. It is 
also the name of a cloak for keeping off rain, commonly 
corrupted by Europeans to Brandy, as Brandy-koortee 
for Bdrdni-kurtah. 
BAR, BUR, Beng. (3^) A band of straw to secure a thatch, 

or to bind down a stack of salt. 
BAR, BUR, BARGAT, H. (Jj>, or vJL~>Jj, from S. ^f.) The 

Indian fig-tree, commonly, the Banian-tree. 
BARA or BARU, Kara. (Tc>#, 2TS&>) Troops, a line of 

troops. The infantry of the Mysore State. 
Bdra kacheri, Karn. (25~c>5O2l6) The head-quarters or 

office of the infantry. 

Bdrigdtu kacheri, Kara. (H3~38~7T3feiSkl?5) The ca- 
valry office. In Tipu's time, the office of the body-guard. 
The' horse-guards.' It seems to be confounded vilthBdrt/ir, 
as it is also written Bdrigira kacheri (0 ci8"AV.OO&r"D). 
BARA, corruptly, BARAH, BURRA, H. (^b, ^m) Land next 
to, or surrounding, a village ; (perhaps from Bar, an in- 
closure). Land of the first quality, although containing a 
portion of sand. 
Bdrd-zamin, H. (from P. j.^J> land) Land adjacent to 

a village, also land of the first class. 
BARA, or BARAH, H. (*/j), Mar. BARA, (^TO) Twelve. 
Bdra-dari, H. (from Barah, twelve, and P. dar ,& , a door) 
A summer-house, a summer palace (having twelve, i. e. 
many, doors and windows). 

Bdrah gdon, corruptly, gaum, H. (S. yli ) Any tract con- 
taining twelve villages (or more), with their dependent 

lands. In this and similar compounds, however, very 
commonly only one village is meant, as, Tin-gdon, three 
villages ; Pdnch-gdon, five villages ; Sdth~gdon t seven 
ditto, &c. ; each being the appellation now borne by a 
single village. 

Bdrah-thdhurai, II. (from JI44., a chief) The twelve 
lordships. Twelve petty hill States between the Jumna 
and the Setlej. 

Barah-wafdt, H. A. (from CJlij, death) The twelfth of 
the month lldbl-ul drval, on which day Mohammad died. 
It is observed by the Mohammadans as a religious 

Bdrotra, Mar. CqittTt) Interest at the rate of 12 per cent 
per annum. The twelfth part of the interest due on any 

Bdruld, Mar. &c., (^l<j5l) A measure of I2pailis. A man, 

or man, or maund. 
BARA, BURA, corruptly, BURRA, (|^) Great, large, much. 

Bard-bhdv, II. (jlgjy, lit., great price) Premium or 
money borrowed by the cultivators at a rate per cent, to 
be reckoned according to the highest rate during the 

Bard-brahman, H. ( ( j^a>\ J > \j>) A great Brahman, used 
ironically to denote an inferior class of Brahmans who 
conduct funeral ceremonies, and are thereby held impure ; 
also Mahd-brdhman. 

Bard-midn, H. (^jL*-*^) Term of address to an elderly 
and respectable or venerable person, also to the head of 
a village. 

Bard nagar takdrci, H. (A. u$j& advance) Fee or al- 
lowance granted to the cultivator who uses the ' bard 
nagar,' or large plough used for breaking up new land. 

Bara-Thdhur, corruptly, Barra-Thakoor, H. Great 
chief. A title given in Tipera to the person who stands 
next but one to the succession to the Raj. Puraniya. 
BARA, Kara. (>#) Famine. 

Baragdla, Kara. (&3&~7TSG) A season of famine. 
BARAD, BURUD, corruptly, BURHUD, Mar. (^) Inferior 
soil. Stony and sandy land. In the Dakhin it is distin- 
guished as Ldl-barad, red gravelly soil ; Piula-barad, 
yellow ; and Mdl-barad, hilly and stony. 
BARAD, Hindi (*TT3) Division, parcel or portion of land 
in a village distinguished by some epithet, as, Purwdri- 
bdrad, eastern parcel ; Matidri-bdrad, clay-soil division, 


Bdrad salami, Hindi, (from A. *Lw , compliment) A con- 
sideration taken by the proprietor from the Rakhwdla, or 
watchman of a Bdrad for granting him permission to 
be employed. Puraniya. 

BARAHI, BURAHEE, H. (^5*]^) A small kind of sugar- 

BARAHI, H. (.J&^b) Land, or, more properly, the earth, 
from its having been raised from the deep by the Ba- 
rdha or Vardha, the boar-avatar of Vishnu. 
BARAI KHOR o POSH, H. (P. ^ )jf- i_$^, lit, for the 
sake of feeding and clothing) Designation of an assign- 
ment of real or personal property to a person for main- 
tenance for life, not conveying a right of transfer. 
BARAKA, Karn. (>Oo) A double sack with which manure 

is carried on land with buffaloes. 

BARAL, Thug. Omen from the howling or appearance of 
wolves, bad or good according to circumstances, but 
always of great weight. 
BARAMAD, Mar. (*.IH<, from P.^J, and <xj, what comes) 

Export duty. 

BARA-MARG, also BARA-BHATI, Karn. (ZT3>#&yBXr-, 
Er3TT35r3&S)The high orroyal road. Transit duty or toll. 
BARAMATTI, Thug. Cry of the lizard, always a good omen. 
BARAMDAH, BURAMDUH, H. ( SJ^ , from the Pers.^j, off, 
and SiXl, what has come) Issue, expenditure, disburse- 
BARAN, BURUN, corruptly, BURRUN, H. &c., (^i^, ^ffff, S. 

varna ^rlh) A caste, a class, a colour. 
Baran-Sankar, corruptly, Burrun-Shunkur, H. Beng. (S. 
Vama-Sankara <<l!J*O The mixed castes, the classes 
of the Hindus other than the four first pure castes. 
BARAX, Hindi, (rrT) Alluvial. Fresh earth thrown into 

hollows by water. 
BARAN, Beng. (T5T1) Betrothing of a female, making a 

promise of marriage. 

BAHAR, BURAR, H. (j]j> , m*) Tax in general, as, Hal-bardr, 
a tax on ploughs. Land-tax or rent. Apportionment of 
revenue payments according to agreement with the village 
community. See Bhej-lardr. Any division of shares. 
See Bdchh. 
Bardri, H. (i_$^jJ, TTTtt) A shareholder, a co-parcener. 

One paying his portion of the assessment. 
Ardzi bardri, H. (A. .g^f- > lands) Land in a village 
retained by the proprietary cultivators, not let to strangers, 
and paying the rent or revenue. Bundelkhand. 


BARAS, BURUS, H. ({juj> , from the S. ^*b) A year. Rain, 

raining. An intoxicating preparation of opium. 
Barasdl'id, Barasolid, or Barasodid, shortened in pro- 
nunciation to Barsdlid, &c., H. (UJL^, \j]yj> , bjjwyj) 
An agricultural labourer or servant who is hired for a 

Barasauri, H. (,_^yly) An annual rent or tax. 
Baras-gdnth, H. (<XJul>w^) The custom of tying a knot 
on a thread on the anniversary of a child's birth. Birth- 
day observance. 

Baraspadi or -pari, Uriya (?), An annuity. 
BARAT, BURUT, H. (ci^j) A disease affecting rice crops. 
A leather girth or rope for drawing up a bucket from a 
well. (In the Dehli district) Government revenue, or a 
part of it. 

BARAT, BURAT, corruptly, BEHAUT, H. (A. cul^J ) A record, 
a register. A diploma, a warrant, a commission. An as- 
signment or order on the revenue. In this last sense it 
is adopted in Mar. (TOff), Tel. (6"O-d&O) j an d Karn. 
(200~S3) : i n the latter it also implies a peremptory de- 
mand, or dunning for payment. 

Bardtahdr or gar, Karn. (&3T5~aS A 00) One who holds a 
written order or assignment. One who presses for 

Bardt, Burat, or, more correctly, Shab-i-bardt, or Shub- 
i-burat, H. (A. P. ci^J <*.%, lit., the night of record, 
or that on which men's deeds during the coming year 
are said to be registered in heaven) A Mohammadan 
festival, held on the 14th, or rather on the eve of the 14th 
of Shabdn, on which a vigil is observed with prayers, 
fasting, and illuminations. In Hindustan, lamps are 
lighted and prayers repeated in honour of deceased an- 
cestors, a practice no doubt borrowed from the Hindus. 
BARAT, BURAT, H. (<^J\rf, probably from the S. vara ~3Ti, 
a bridegroom, and rdtri XTftr, night, at which season the 
principal ceremonies take place) A bridal procession. 
BARATHA, H. (-^) Land situated amidst jangal. 
BARAUNDHA, H. (UjJ^y.) Cotton soil. 
corruptly, BURRAWURD, and BIRAWIRD, H. &c., (P.^J, 
on, and awardah tAj)\ , brought, brought up or forward) 
An estimate, a calculation. What is summed up. In the 
west of India, a monthly statement sent to the Govern- 
ment of the revenue and village establishments of the 
sums payable to each person, and the increase or decrease 



as compared with preceding months. A statement of dis- 
trict disbursement. 

BARDA, BUHDU, H. (P. 8J^.) A slave, a captive. 
Barda or Burdu farosh, H. (P. (jZ)j> , a seller) A slave- 

BARDA or BARDI, H. Oii^, i^^) Light stony and sandy 

BARDASHT, H. (from P-j>, on, and e^-i^, what has) Stores, 


Barddsht-khdna, H. (P. <lili-) A temporary store-house, 
or houses for preserving supplies for travellers or troops. 
North-west Provinces. 

BAREHTA, H. (lS# j) Land of the third quality on which 
sugar-cane has been lately grown. 

BAREJ, BAHEJA, H. (j>< ^^l^)' Be n - BARAJA or 15 \ H.I A, 
(qa*() A betel garden. 

BARESIRI, H. (j^jy*^) A tribe of inferior Rajputs in the 
Agra district. 

BAHETHA, H. (>ji) A washerman. 

BARGA, Beng. (TjT'tt) An agreement by which the culti- 

vator engages to pay the landlord half the produce, the 

latter providing half the seed, and paying the whole 


Bargd-it, Beng. (TsTtt^*-) One who cultivates the land 

on the above terms ; also Barga-jot-ddr. 
Bargd-patta, Beng. ("f]p Deed or lease by which land 
is rented on the above terms. 

BARGAIN', BURGUN, H. (jj-^) Partition, share. Hoshang- 

BARHA, BURJIA, H. ((ty, ^C^T) A narrow channel for the 
passage of water from a well to a field, or from one field to 
another. A field in which cows are fed. A rope or string, 
especially one by which a harrow is drawn, or one 
thrown over a loaded cart to secure the load. In some 
places in the Central or Upper Doab, Barhd, corruptly, 
Burreh 0=K^t), and Barheta (*H^rtl), is the land of 
a township or village farthest from the inhabited portion, 
constituting the third class of land. Bdrd C^tTST) is that 
immediately adjacent, and Manjhd (flJRj), middle or in- 
termediate. Barhd, corruptly, Burreh, in Etawa is applied 
to the uplands. 

BARHAI, BURHAEE, H. d_jlfcrf, S. Affair), BADAI, Karn. 
(p GTd&X>) A carpenter. As the name of a caste fol- 
lowing the occupation of carpentry, it comprehends seve- 
ral subdivisions. 


BARHAH-SADAT, H. (djOuw ^j^>) A powerful tribe of 
Salads still numerous in Muzzeffar-nagar. The Saiads 
of Bdrh furnished many persons of note to the Court of 
Dehli from the reign of Akbar to that of Farokhsir. 

BARHA WAN, BURHAWUN, H. ((.jj^) A cake of cow-dung 
placed on the top of a heap of corn to protect it against 
an evil eye, and to secure it good luck. 

BAHHI, BURHEE, H. ( ^>ji , S. vriddhi ^figt) Profit, increase, 


Bdrhi, Barhee, H. (^jftjb) Interest in kind upon seed- 

BARHIA, BURHIYA, H. (Uft^) A sugar-mill stone. A species 
of pulse (Eastern Oudh). A grain measure of one seer, 
or, in some places, one and a-half. A small clan of 
i BARHNI, BURHNEE, H. (,$*&;?) Advance on a contract for 

goods or grain. 


BAHHOLIA, II. (uJ^fcjj) A branch of the Bhrigu-bansi Raj- 
puts, chief proprietors of the town of Barhoul. 

BAHHOTARI, H. (^fy) Profit, interest. 

BARHTI, spelled most correctly, BADHTI, but pronounced as 
the first, II. ( Jiajj, from S. srflj, lit., increase), BADTI, 
(il'SF*) Mercantile profit, gain on stock, surplus, excess. 

BARI, Beng. C^lfa, S. 7rft) Water. 

Bdri-gandi, Beng. (^IfTTft*^ ) An extra cess formerly 
levied on the Ryots in Bengal, abolished by the British 
Government (perhaps for irrigation (?) ). 

BARI, BAREE, Mar. (*JlO) A hollow way, a passage 
through hills. One infested by tigers, robbers, &c. 

BAm, Karn. (S3~S6) An inclined plane sloping from the 
edge of a well, down which the bullocks employed to 
raise the water descend as they drag up the bucket A 
time, a turn. See Bar. 

BARI, BUREE, corruptly, BURREE, H. ((_/) Wedding 
gifts carried in procession. The marriage procession, and 
the day of its performance. See Bardt, 

BARI, BAREE, H. (tAv) A caste of men employed to make 
and bear torches. They also act as barbers, and, in the 
Oudh service, have the character of good soldiers, 

BARI, BUREE, H. (t^J, probably from the P-^J, off) Re- 
lease. Released, exempted, acquitted ; applied to a de- 
fendant who is released by the plaintiff from the demand 
against him. 

BARIAR, H. (.ju.j>) Strong; applied in the Purania district 
to land, to denote fertile, rich, productive. 


BARIK, H. OiJ/J. corruption of Bdrish (jij\j, from S. g) 

Rain., H. (,_5-Sj ) -^ statement shewing the quantity 

of rain fallen. 

__ y o 

BARIKA, or BARIKE, Karn. (2TS60, J3T)6D) A village 

officer who affixes the public seal to official papers. Any 
one who applies a public seal or stamp. 

BARI'KI VADU, Tel. (S^6 <J^^) A person employed 
to watch the standing crops. 

BARIKUDU, Tel. (O^e$jo) ( also BARIYA VADU, Tel. 
(JJ r> aoXro3-o&) ) and, less correctly, BARKI, per- 
haps for BARIKI) The low-caste man who discharges the 
lowest menial offices in a village, the sweeper, or 
scavenger, employed also as a messenger, watchman, 

BARIZ, H. (jj^>) A term in accounts. The half of the left- 
hand page in which the balance is entered. Account of 
the assessment of the land revenue on any estate, formerly 
entered in the middle of the paper prepared by the Za- 
mindar as an application for investiture in the Zamin- 
dari. See Berij. 

BAIUA, Beng. (?, perhaps for TSfl, abandoning, from S. ^"3f) 
alsoBARjAi and BARJAT, corruptly, BARJOY,BARJAUT(?). 
Forcing people to purchase goods at more than the 
market price. Bdrjd'i is said also to mean a grant of 
land rent-free by a Zamindar to one of his retainers, 
and an enhancement of the rents of the other Ryots so as 
to cover the loss arising from the grant. (Gladwin, Re- 
venue Terms). 

BARKA, BURKA, Thug. A leader of Thugs, one qualified to 
organize as well as head a gang. 

BARKALA, BCRKULU, H. (.d^j) An inferior tribe of Raj- 
puts found in Bulandshahar. 

BARKANDAZ, BCRKUNDAZ, subject to most extraordinary cor- 
&c., H. (P. Bark Jf^ , lightning, and anddz j\ Jol , who 
casts) A matchlock man, but commonly applied to a 
native of Hindustan, armed with a sword and shield, who 
acts as doorkeeper, watchman, guard, or escort. 

BAR-, BUR-KUYAN, H. (^^j>) A well not lined with 
brick (Oudh). 

BAR-, BUR-KHVVAST, pron., KHAST, H. (from P. j>, up, and 
^^uJji-, to will, or wish) A rising up. A breaking 
up of a court of justice. 

BARMHOTAR, more correctly, BHAHMOTTAR, q.v.,H. 


A grant of rent-free land to Brahmans for charitable or 
religious purposes. 

BARNAK-BRAHMAN, Beng. Os1%3tW) A Brahman who 
performs ceremonies for the lower classes. 


BARNAR-MATTI, H. (^jJU^Uy, ^Hf^) Coloured soil of 
two kinds, one tinged with yellow, the other yellow and 

BARNI, BURNEE, H. (^jV) An advance made for culti- 
vation or manufacture. 

BARNIS, BARNEES, Mar. ('<*TU. *(\H, from Bar, and nis, 
abbrev. of Pers. narvis .Hy , a writer) An officer under 
the Maratha Government whose duty it was to write the 
word Bar upon original documents, to intimate that they 
had been entered in the public register. 
Bdr-nisi, Mar. (rfaft, for P. ^yjy ) The making or re- 
gistering of copies of public documents, and marking 
upon them the word Bar. 

BARO, H. (j^j) Name of a high jangal grass. 

BARONKHA, H. (l^jj^j) A kind of sugar-cane with long 
thin joints. 

BAROTHI, H. (^jj?) A tribe of Ahirs in the Mynpuri 

BARRA, BURRA, H. 0^) A rope, especially one pulled on 
the 14th of the light half of the month Kudr, by two 
opposing villages. The party that breaks it, or drags it 
out of the hands of the other is regarded as victor, and 
retains the character for a year, when the contest is 

BARROH, BURROH, H. (j^j) Uplands on the right bank of 
the Jamna in the zilla of Etawa. 

BARSAT, BUHSAT, corruptly, BURSAUT, H. (CLjL^, from 

the S. W) Rains, the rainy season. 
Barsdti, H. ( JL^) A disease in the heels of horses. 

Relating to the rains or rainy season. 
Barsdti fasl, H. (J-fli^L.^) The rainy-season crop. 
The various kinds of grain and pulse sown during the rains. 

BART, H. (dJJ, ^trf) The rope attached to the bucket of 
a well. 

BART, BURT, H. (<-=^ S. ^fa) Maintenance, support, 
means of livelihood. 

BARTAN, BURTUN, H. (^j*) A vessel, a bason. InCuttack, 
a salt-sloop. 

BARTANIO, Guz. (H^. <r t a l l^tl) A village watchman ; a 
police peon : a guard armed with sword and shield, or 
with bow and arrows, never with fire-arms. 




BARTARAF, BUR-TURUF, H. (P. ji, off, and 

part, or side) Set aside, dismissed, as a plaint ; also, sub., 

Discharge, dismissal (from office). It is adopted in other 

dialects, as, Tel. BARTARAVU (&$&&<$). 
Bar-tar afi, H. ( ^j^jC) Dismissal, discharge. 
BARTUSH, BURTOOSH, H. (^jSJjj) Land sown with sugar- 

cane after rice. (Rohilkhand.) 
BAKU, Thug. A Thug who is considered by his tribe as a 

respectable person. 
BARUA, BUHOOA, less correctly, BARWA, H. (^j>, I^HHI) 

Sandy soil of inferior quality, a mixture of sand and clay, 

the same as Bhud or Blu'ir. 

BARUI, BURGEE, Thug. An omen from the cry of the jackal. 
BAHULI, Mar. (?) A measure by which the grain was 

measured in villages paying their revenue in kind. 

BARUNI, Thug. An old and venerable Thug female : (properly, 

S., the wife of Varuna, the god of the waters). 
BAHUNI, H. (<j.,b, S. <flt<!jl) A Hindu festival in honour 

of Varuna on the 13th of the dark half of Cltait. 
BARWAIK, H. (LLX)!,^) A class of hereditary Chaukidars, 

or watchmen, introduced into the south-east extremity of 

the forest tract under the Sewalik hills. 
BARWAR, H. (Jjjj, "KMlO A class of people in the north- 

west employed in cleaning and selling rice. A tribe of 

Rajputs in Gorakhpur and the adjacent zillas. 
BARWATIYA, Hindi ("tWlfsm) An outlaw, a vagrant See 


BAS, H. (j^b, S. *rra:) Scent, odour. 
Bds-banya, H.- (Luj, a dealer) A dealer in fragrant 

articles, a perfumer. 
Bds-mati, H. ( Ji-**wlj) A fragrant kind of rice and of 


BAS or Vis A, H. (u*>(>, S. ?rra:) A house, a dwelling. 
Bdsi or Vast, H. S. ( .y-V' ^raft) An inhabitant, a 

dweller. A native ; as Braj bad or van, a native of Braj. 
BAS, Bus, H. fa$l^) Letting lands newly cleared of thicket 

Basinia, Businia, less correctly, Basunia, H. faOyfHm) 

The head-man of a village (Rangpur). 
BASAIMPU, (?) Money advanced to a cultivator. (Ganjam). 
BASAK, BASAKI, or BASKI, Mar. (TOoR, ?titi1) Tax or 

toll for holding a stall in a market. 
BASANT, BUSUNT, H. (ij^w*, S. gwft) The season of 

spring, also (in Bengal), the small-pox. 

Basanti, H. (Ju*J, q*n?ft) Yellow, as the colour of 
spring, applied especially to the yellow garment worn by 
the Rajputs when about to sacrifice themselves in a hope- 
less conflict. 

Basant-pancliami, H. (Basant or Vasanta, and panchami, 
the fifth, from the S. TT^pft) The vernal festival of the 
Hindus on the fifth lunar day of Mdfjh; formerly ob- 
served as the beginning of the spring. 

BAsAT or BASAT, H. (\^uk , e>*> , from S. ^t, to dwell) 
Inhabited, land occupied and cultivated. 

BASAURI, H. (^^Lo, ^tU<<0) Ground-rent, rent paid 
for the ground on which the huts of a village are erected 
by such of the inhabitants as do not cultivate the village 

(<3S&, W;S.<5^), Karn! (Ktt&S) The sacred 
bull the vehicle of Siva ; also a proper name, that of 
the first teacher of the Lingayit sect. 

BASAVI, Mar. (TOft), BASIVI, Tel. Karn. ()&>) A pros- 
titute, but especially one who has been married or dedi- 
cated to the deity Siva, and waits upon the idol. They are 
also called Linga basavis, Garuda basavis, &c., accord- 
ing to the deity to whose service they are dedicated. 

BASGAT, H. (e^X*J, ^rrnr) Homestead. The site of a 
village, the extent of which is to be deducted from the 
lands paying revenue. 

BASGIYA, Hindi (ll^lT'im) Crops being choked and de- 
stroyed by weeds. 

BASIAN, H. (^UwU) A branch of the Gaur-taga tribe, q. v. 

BASIKAT, BUSEEKUT, H. (c^Cwj , from S. ^f , to dwell) 
Inhabited, peopled. 

BASINGA, Mar. (^rf^JTt or ^lfJ||) An ornament of gilded 
paper, silk, or other material in the form of a diadem, 
placed upon the heads of the bride and bridegroom on 
the second day of the marriage ceremony : it is supposed 
to counteract the effects of the evil eye. 

BASIT, BUSEET, inaccurately, BURSEET, H. (e^ou*?, 
The head-man of a village, the Mukaddam, or Patil. 

BASTA, BUSTA, H. (<U*j , the past part, of the P. verb 

to bind) A parcel, a bundle, a bale. A cloth in which 
papers or other articles are wrapped up. 

BASTI', BUSTEE, sometimes written BASATI, BUSUTEE, H. 
(^jiwj, qtiril, from the S. tps, to dwell) A village, a 
town, any inhabited place. In the South of India also, 
a Jain temple. 


Site or foundation of 

BASTU or VASTU, H. (yL-V> s - 

a house. 
Bdstu-pujd, H. (S. *Jn, worship) Ceremony observed on 

laying the foundation of a building 1 . 

BASU, Beng. (^? , S. ^ff) An adjunct to names borne by 
families of the Kdyath, or writer caste in Bengal, com- 
monly pronounced Base. 
BASUR or BASWARI, H. (jy^.i <_;'yJ, from S. *r$l) A bam- 

bu grove. 
BAT, BUT, H. (do, from S. ^Z, to divide) A partition, a 

division, a share. 

Batdi, Butace, corruptly, Betay, Buttaee, Buttai, Buttei, 
Buttaye, Bhutti/c, &c., H. (^jlL , njr|, also, ^) Di- 
vision of the crop between the cultivator and the landlord, 
or the Government in that capacity. The proportions vary : 
in some poor lands the share of the landholder may not ex- 
ceed a sixth ; in the Konkan it is a half: the more usual pro- 
portion was a third. Batdi-noasia was a divison which, in 
the Benares district, assigned nine-sixteenths to the cultivator, 
seven-sixteenths to the landlord. The portion in kind was 
early commuted in Bengal for a money payment. Beng. 
Reg. ii. 1795, defines Betay lands as those of the pro- 
duce of which Government or the collector of its dues is 
entitled to a certain proportion, the value of which, esti- 
mated at the current market price, is paid in money by 
the cultivator of the land." The proportion in kind is still 
receivable in some parts of the south. The word is also 
applied to a kind of joint interest in land, in which one 
party pays the Government assessment, and the other fur- 
nishes the labour : the seed and implements are provided 
jointly, and the nett produce or profit is equally divided. 
In Mar. Batdi means also difference of exchange. See 
Baldi-ddr, II. (P. j\3 , who has) A cultivator who shares 

the crop with the proprietor. 

Hisdb-i-Batdl, H. G_J!JUO-, an account) Accounts kept 
by the village accountants, in which the partitioning 
system prevails, of the particulars of the settlement be- 
tween the village and the Government. 
Batenth, H. (&AXUJ) Proprietor or holder of a share. 
Batndrd, Butrcara, corruptly, Butrvarra, H. (Uyu, 
M44KI, less correctly, Bdtndrd ]/\j&j ^TZMIll) A share, 
a portion. Division of a crop in shares. The partition 
of an estate by co-heirs (Act xx. 1836). Distribution of 
the lands of a village in allotments as originally made or 


agreed upon. The allotment so held which the occu- 
pant may let in subdivisions. 
BAT, BUT, Beng. (T5) Fallow-land, in Eastern Bengal. In 

common use, the Bar, or Indian fig, or banyan-tree. 
BAT, H. (culj, TOT) A weight. A measure of weight 

whether of stone or metal. 
Bdt-chhdp, H. (L_>l^srlj) Stamping weights and measures. 

The stamp upon them to warrant their accuracy. 
Bdt-chhdpi, Bdt-chhdpdi, or Bdt-chhdpni : the first and 
second vowels are also sometimes made short, as, Bat- 
chhapi, But-chhupee, &c., the word is also grossly cor- 
rupted, as, Baad-chhuppy, But-chhuppaee, But-chappa- 
nee, &c., H. (jjl^srb) Stamping weights and measures. A 
fee charged for applying the stamp. 

Bat-hard or Bat-khard, But-kuru or But-khura, H.(*^ju, 
j^^wu) A stone used as a weight. A weight in general. 

BAT, H. Beng. (<^>, Ttl) A road, a highway. 
Bat orBdtpdr,K. (j^ or jt>, ci;b, < *^\ Bdtpdra, Beng. 

(Ttiytt^) A robber, a highwayman. 

Bdt-pdrd or -pan, Beng. (TtTttSl, -"ft^) Robbery, 
highway robbery. Gang-robbery or Dakaiti. A robber, a 
thief ; also, in this sense, Bdtpdriya. 

BATAN, Hindi (^IfR) Place of assemblage of cattle at 
night in an open field. Puraniya. 

BATAH, BUTUR, H. (yo ) Land in a state fit for the plough. 

BATAWANi, Mar. ("MNTift, from H. lilL, to exhibit or ex- 
plain) A rough account of a tradesman framed from the 

BATELA, Mar. tew<JT) A boat from 50 to 500 kandis 

BATES, BUTES, H. (^r^, *^) A pa 883 ? 6 ' a pathway. 

BATHAN, BUTHAN, H. (^,1^, *I3T^) Pasture grounds. 

BATHIA, H. (U^) Aheap of dried cow-dung (Rohilkhand). 

BATHUA, H. (!^i) A kind of weed which springs up 
with the Rdbi crops and in the vicinity of water; also a 
pot-herb (Chenopodium album). 

BATI or BAHI, Beng. C^Ttlft, Tfft) A house, a dwelling. 

BATI, Uriya (QlfcD A measure of land equal to 20 manas. 
Bdti-tanki, Uriya (Q|S18) Land paying a quit-rent of 
one rupee per Bati, equal to 20 manas or bighas. 

BATIA, BUTEEA, H. (U!o) A passage, a pathway. 

BATIN, H. (..J^) A tract f land in Et * wa between the 
Jumna and the Ghar. 

BATIN, H. (A. ,jkl>, lit-, interior, internal) Private, do- 
mestic. In law, Property of a domestic nature. The con- 


cealed or internal meaning of a passage in a book of 
law or religion. 

BATKE, Beng. (<ii>c < P) A labourer in the salt-works. An 

BATMI or BATNI, Mar. faTH>ft or ^lrfft) Intelligence, news. 
B&tmi or Bdtni-dar, Mar. (j<J, who has) An intelligen- 
cer, a scout, a spy. 

lib,' iXao) Generation after generation : a term inserted 

in a grant to denote its descent in the direct male line : 
at present it is understood to imply the right of perpetual 
descent to heirs general without restriction. 
BATOHI, BUTOHEE, H. (^^ftyu) A wayfarer, a traveller. 
^yb) Gathering or heaping grain in one place at the 
time of harvest M 

BATTA, BUTTA, H. (&Ju, 1$\), BATTA, Beng. (Tt^l), BATTA, 
Mar. faff) Difference or rate of exchange. In revenue 
matters it applies to the amount added to, or deducted from, 
any payment according to the currency in which it is paid 
as compared with a fixed standard coin. Discount on un- 
current or short-weight rupees. A cess or charge im- 
posed to make up for any probable deficiency in the value 
of the coin. (It is often confounded, but incorrectly, with 
Bhatta, q. v.). 

Bdher-battd, Mar. (ll^i<t^l) Difference of value added, 
in opposition to Antabattd (w\ A <4 {I ), difference of value 
deducted, in exchanging various currencies. 
Sdjdr-batta, Mar. Rate at which various coins are cur- 
rent in the bazar with reference to a standard currency. 
BATTA, Kara. (^JJ,,) Rice before it is deprived of the chaff, 
Paddy, which is probably derived from this word. Corn 
in general. 

BATTA-VARTTI, Tarn. (LJI_!_6U IJc|<^l) Property held in 

severally, in contrast to that which is held in joint shares. 

BATTEMU, more correctly, BHATYAMU, q. v., Tel.(Q g n ^ J ) 

Daily allowance of food or money for subsistence. 
BATTENA-SETHI, Tarn. (?) An arbitrator among the right- 
hand castes. 

BATTNAUL-KAI, Tarn. (?) A tribe of weavers in the Madura 
and Tinnivelly districts who have a peculiar slang dialect 
BATTI, H. (^^Jo) A still for distilling spirits. A candle. 
A custom or police-officer stationed on the road to collect 
transit duties. 



BATWADE-PATRAK, (?) A tabular statement of pay due for 
a given term to every person on the establishment of a 
Kamavisddr or Mahalkarni, except the peons. 

BATWON, Hindi (*frl<fltl) Finish, the preparation of land for 
the reception of seed. Puraniya. 

BAU, Bou, H. (^J, TT7) The fee or perquisite of a Zamin- 
dar when a daughter of one of his tenants is married. 

BAU, Beng. (3) A wife. A son's wife. 

BAU or BAY, BAVI, Mar. (*TR, *TT=ft) A large-mouthed well. 
Bdiikhol, Mar. (*H=K<^3') A dry well, or one partly choked 
with rubbish. 

BAUCHHAH, H. (jlfs-y) Wind and driving rain. 

BAUL, Mar. (*T3I^) Moist soil over rock favourable for 
rice. Ground on the bank of a river, &c. 

BAULI, more correctly, BHAULI, q. v., corruptly, BOWLEY, 
H. (iJy> *?l <$1) Settlement direct with the Ryots; a 
lilnix or Ryotwar assessment. 

BAuNi, Beng.(3TFl) Hansel, the first money taken by a dealer. 

BAUTI JAMI'N, Hindi (^ift JK)H) Lands held by the owner 
of a village to give out to the Ryots for cultivation, 
sharing the crop. Puraniya. 

BAURI, Beng. (TfOTJT) A Hindu of a low caste, com- 
monly, by avocation, a swine-herd. 

BAVA, Karn. (23~3S) The son of a mother's brother, or 
of a father's sister if older than one's self; also a man's 
brother-in-law if he is the elder, and a woman's brother- 
in-law if older than her husband. 

Bavamaiduna, Karn. (O~9O^3j^OO.-\5) A man's brother- 

BAWAG, BAWUG, H. (liJjl?) Seed-time (Benares). 

BAWARI, H. d.Sjfc) A robber by profession, one belonging to 
a numerous tribe dispersed through India, and known in 
different places by different appellations, but called by 
themselves BAWARI. They are all Hindus, and use a pe- 
culiar dialect, which is said to be spoken in some parts 
of Guzerat. 

BAWERA, H. (x/.y) Sowing seed. See BOARA. 

BAYA, BYA, H. (Lw) A person appointed in bazars to 

measure grain. 
Baydi, Byaee, H. (,_^Uj) The weighman's fee or perquisites. 

BAYALU, Karn. (SOO&UJ) A field, a plain, an open space. 

BAYANA, Beng. (TfrRl) Earnest-money, money given to 

bind a bargain. 

BAYANAKKA, Beng. (TJTRtfl, from P. ^Iju, relation, 
and jsjj, event) A report or recital of particulars. 



BAYAT, BYAT, H. A. (?) Inauguration. The ceremony of 

admitting a person as a disciple. 

BAZ, vernacularly, BAJ, H. (P-J->, ^Tf) Again, back. 
Bdz-dmad, H. (P. j\>, again, and 4X0! , what comes) Re- 

turned, reported, resumed. 
Bdz-dmad ahkdm, H. A (*&) , orders) Return to the 

orders of the Court by the head criminal officer or 

Bdz-ddri, H. (P. ^^t having) Relinquishment of a 

claim of action, or withdrawal of a suit. 
Bdz-yiri, H. (P. j\>, again, and girl, from ^.^_f, to take) 

Taking back, resuming ; resumption of alienated revenue 

on lands. 
Bdz-ndma, also Bdz-i-ndma, H. P. (ifcobjU) A deed of 

relinquishment ; one abandoning or renouncing a claim, 

whether valid or not. 
Bdz-ydft, H., &c., sometimes dialectically modified, as in 

Uriya, Bdjidft ; or Bdj-ydfta, (from the P.j\j, again, and 

^yisb, to find, to obtain) Resuming, recovering; espe- 

cially resumption, either wholly or in part, of alienated 

lands, and again subjecting them to a revenue assessment 

Money refunded when in excess of the authorised col- 

lection. Any escheat or lapsed property falling to the 

Bdz ydfti, H. (P. ^Jj^,, a finding) The article recovered 

or resumed ; a grant of revenue, or a land-free tenure 

BAZAR, H. (P. j\JS) in the dialects which have not a s, 

BAJAH, Hindi and Mar. (^TWTT:), Ben. (TfSftS), Tel. 

(5~ D 33~~ 15 OJ) ) &c. A market, a daily market. A market- 

place. As opposed to a Bdzdr, a Ildt is held only on 

certain days ; a Ganj is where grain and the necessaries 

of life are principally sold, and generally wholesale. 

Bazars and Hats are sometimes included in Ganjes. 
Bdzdr-batla, II. The market rate of exchange for dif- 

ferent coins. 
Bdzdr- or Bdjdr-baithak, blunderingly, Bazar-heeticlt, II. 

(CJ^JUo , tjjofc, a place of sitting) A fee or tax for setting 

up a shop or stall, or for trading at a Bazar. 
Bdjdr-chalan, Mar. (4MI4X<#|) Current in the market, as 

Bdzdr-kharch, H. (P. >=-) Expenses incurred for mar- 

ket purchases ; daily or domestic disbursements. 
Bdzdr-nirakh, H. (P. .j> .]j\j) Mar. (TWKffH^f) Mar- 

ket rate of prices. Price-current. 

Bdzdr or Bajdr-phasyi, Kara. (& dSTotf&rO'h) fax 

or toll on articles brought to market. 
Bdjdrwdrd, Mar. (TT5Tn3T3T) Market-place. 
BAZAAT, H. A. Agency, commission. See Bizd&t. 
BA/I, H. (A. t.$Ao) Some, several, miscellaneous. (In the 
Hindu dialects it always becomes Bdji or Bdje, 

Bazi- or Bdji-bdb, H. (A. i-^b) Various or miscellaneous 
items. Head of a revenue account, comprehending various 
petty taxes and cesses. Also Bdzi-bdbat and Bdzi-dafa. 
Bdzl- or Bdji-jama, H. (A. *- ) Miscellaneous revenue. 
Aggregate of revenue derived from other sources than the 
Mai and Sair or land revenue and customs and excise ; 
as from fines for petty offences, fees, cesses, &c., most 
of which are now abolished. 

Bdzi- or Bdji-kharch, H. (A. -/-) Bdje-Ttharch, Mar., 
Bdja-MiarcliU, Tel., also corruptly, Bdzi-curtch or kurch, 
Miscellaneous expenses. An item in revenue accounts for 
sundry charges not included in the fixed regular dis- 
bursement. A deduction in revenue accounts formerly 
allowed to Zamindars to cover their claims to compen- 
sation for expenses incurred in the collection of the re- 
venue, the repair of roads and bridges, including some- 
thing additional by way of remuneration for their public- 

Bdzi-zamin or zumeen, H. (P. ( . J J^j, land) Miscellaneous 
lands : applied especially to La-kharaj lands, or lands 
exempted from assessment, and paying no revenue, or a 
light quit-rent only, to the Government, held under different 
tenures : according to some authorities, not inclusive of 
Chakaran lands, or those held in lieu of pay for public 

Bdzi-zamin daftar, H. P. (fi J ) Before the permanent 
settlement, an office in Bengal for the investigation 
and registry of miscellaneous rent-free tenures. 

BAZIQAR, H., or, in some dialects, BAJIGAR, BAJEEOUII, (from 
P. j'j, sport, play) A juggler, a tumbler; a low caste, 
living by sleight of hand and bodily tricks. 

BAZIK, A. (v^Jju) A kind of spirituous liquor made from 
grapes boiled down to about a third, whether before or 
after fermentation, prohibited by Mohammedan law. 

BAZzAz, H. (A.jljj) A cloth merchant, a draper. 

Bizti, H. (jjlj) A document bearing the seal or signature 
of a competent officer of the Mogul government authen- 
ticating a royal grant. , 



Bdzu-i-farmdn, H. A document giving effect to a royal 


BE, H. (P. ( ^j) A particle prefixed to words to imply ab- 
sence or privation ; as Be-bdli, H. P. Without arrears, 
paid up in full. 

Be-chhapar, Ben. (c^i'fsO Without a roof. Applied to 
the site of a village on which no huts longer remain, 
having been abandoned by the inhabitants. 

Be-chirdgh.H.(P. u>;mA ?]/>-, a lamp; without a light) 
Ruined, deserted, desolate (as a village). 

Be-ddkhil, H. (from (J&-J , entering) Dismissed, set aside, 
not admitted ; also, ejected, dispossessed (of land). 

Be-ddkhili, H. ( Jii-L), entering) Ejection, dispossession. 

Be-ddwd, H. (from the A. Jjj^O, a plaint) Relinquish- 
ment of a claim or suit. 

Be-dawd-patra, H. A. S. An acquittance, a release, a paper 
acknowledging the abandonment of a suit. 

Be-jd, H. (P. l- , a place) Improper, out of place, unsea- 

Be-jd-kurki, H. (^J>ji>, distraint) Illegal distraint, a suit 
for replevin. 

Be-kdr, H. (P.^ , business) Unemployed, without work. 

Bekdri, H. (P. i^w) An unemployed labourer. Incorrectly 
confounded with Begdri, q. v. 

Be-kasur or Be-tahxir, H. (Ay^3,^.uaJ) Without blame, 
innocent, acquitted. 

Be-ndmi, H. P. (from .li, a name) Nameless, fictitious, 
fraudulent; as a purchase under a false name, or land 
held in another name than that of the real proprietor. 

Bc-mdris, H. (A. CL^Ij, an heir) Bernards*, Mar. (^TCfft) 
Without heirs ; lands, property, &c. 

Bendris-mdl, H. A. Property that escheats to the Govern- 
ment in default of heirs. 
(There are many other such compounds, as they may be 

formed at pleasure.) 
BEB, H. (<*_^jj) A grass from which a twine is made ; also 

called BABAR. 
BEBARTTA, BEBURTTU, Uriya. Head officer of a tributary 

Tl ' ' ' 

BEDA or BERA, Hindi (^T) Ben. (C^S from S. ^f) A 

fence or hedge, an inclosure. 
BEDI or BERI, Ben. (<^t) A fetter. 
BEDA, BEDANU, plur. Bedani, whence commonly Beder or 

Vedar, Kara. (><?&, >&&, >?&&>) The name 

of a caste, or of members of it, 'who are considered as 


outcastes, or Chandalas, and live by the chase ; hunters, 
fowlers: they are considered in Mysore as coming origi- 
nally from Telingana. 

Bedara-halli, Kara. (&S8&>m A v iu a g e of Be'dars, 
or outcastes, living as hunters and fowlers. 

BEDDALU, Karn. (Qg^J) Tax upon the straw of the dry 
grain, the whole of which is taken by the Ryots. 

BEDDA-SISTU, Tel. (~^&^i) The summer crop. 

BEDIGA, Tel. (13QX) Q u i t rent. 

BEoin, BEGARI, also BIQAR, BIGARI, corruptly, BEEQAH, 
BEEOARAH, BAGARAH, II. (J\A>, ^j&->, from P. <_, 
and ^li, for ^& , who works, S. WTf.) A forced labourer, 
one pressed to carry burthens for individuals or the 
public. Under the old system, when pressed for public 
service, no pay was given. The Begdri, though still 
liable to be pressed for public objects, now receives pay. 
Forced labour for private service is prohibited. 
Beydri, II. Ben. (^LCw, STfft) The act of pressing 
labourers or servants. In Mar., Bujdr or Begdr (f^TTC , 
is the forced labour, Bigdri or Begdri (f<HJ|lO, 
the labourer. In Karnata, Beydri (>? A <38) i s 
the performance of the lowest village offices without pay, 
but requited by fees in grain, or rent-free land. 

BEHARA, Ben. (44^td'l, S. HIT;: ) A domestic servant, ' a 
bearer,' a palanquin-bearer. 

BEHDA, pronounceable BKHRA, also BEHARA and BEHERA, 
incorrectly BAHERA, Mar. (%?^T, %?^T) A document 
under the Mahratta Government, shewing the amount of 
all the fixed receipts and disbursements of the state, all 
establishments, grants, and endowments, and all particular 
transactions during the past year. It formed the basis of 
the collections of the ensuing year. A budget. A statement 
of ways and means. 

BEHJAH, (?) Cultivation of barley and grain mixed. 

BEHNAUR or BEHAN, H. (jfr, jirt^) Nursery for rice 
plants. (Eastern Oudh.) 

BEHRA, H. (K^Jo) Grass kept for pasturage. 

H. d_5>v#' P - lrv^' a snare ' a q uota ) A proportionate rate 
or subscription : assessment on a share : instalments paid 
by under-tenants to the landlord : distribution of an ag- 
gregate sum among a number of individuals, or a monthly 
collection from them according to circumstances. A sub- 
division of a Pattiddri or Bhayachdri estate, being an 



unequal fractional part of a Thok ; that is, a Thdk of 
three Biswas may be divided into three Behris ; one 

3 1 

containing two Biswas, one~jths, and one ^th of a Biswa. 

The share or interest of one of the coparceners in such 

estate. Beng. Reg. vii. 1822, s. 12. 
Behri-bandi, corruptly, Bhery-bundy, Bery-bundy, or 

Behry-bundy, H. ( ^ M t^rV^H ) O ne f 4 ^ e items for- 

merly allowed in the revenue accounts as abatements of 

the collection. An allowance for keeping causeways and 

embankments in repair, also for digging and repairing 

wells and other public works, the charge of which was 

borne in common by the Zamindars of a district, in pro- 

portion to their estates. 
Behri-bardr, H. (i]^, tax) Collection on shares of the 

revenue in kind. 
Behri-ddr, corruptly, Beyrydar, H. (P. .lii, who has) 

The holder of a share in the lands of a village. One 

bearing his quota in the assessment and charges. 
BEJHARA, BEJHUHA, H. (^ste) A mixed cropi generally 

of rice and barley. 
BEJOT, H. (P. j^, without, and II. <^->y^-, tillage) Unfilled, 

as land : applied also to a Ryot who has ceased to cul- 

tivate, and has thrown up his land. 
Bejot-jama, H. (A. **?) ^ statement in the public ac- 

count of the revenue leviable on the land left untilled. 
Bejot-zamtn, H. (A. ,jJ^j ) Land abandoned or untilled, 

as registered in the village accounts. 
BEJWAR or BI'JWAH, H. (j\js\>, from Bij, *>, seed) Per- 

quisite of the lower classes, consisting of a portion 

of the seed-corn brought away daily from the fields. 


BEL or Bit, H. (P. (Jjj) A sort of spade or hoe, a pick-axe. 
Belcha, or Belchak, or Belak, Belchu, Belchuk, Bduk, 

(CAlw, As^H, CJ^H) A small spade or hoe. 
Belddr, or Bilddr, H. (^jjjj) A digger, a delver, one 

who works with a Bui, a pick-axe, or a spade ; a pioneer, 

a sapper, a miner. 
JEL, H. ( J^AJ, S. first) A creeping plant, a sort of jasmine. 

A fruit-tree (^Ef/le marmelos). A spot on which the re- 

ceiving-pans of a sugar-factory are placed. A line marked 

out on a road, or in a garden, to shew the direction of 

any proposed work. 
Bel-bhanddr, corruptly, Belbundar, Mar. ( ^HllilO The 

leaves of the Bel tree and turmeric placed upon an idol. 

A form of oath. Taking such leaves from off the idol, 

and swearing by them. An agreement or promise satisfied 

by this oath. 
BELA, also BEHLA, H. (P. Bila, ILu, JJ^ju) Mar. BELE.V, 

(%^j) Money, or a bag of money, carried by a person of 

rank and wealth as he travels, for the purpose of dis- 

tributing or throwing among the poor. 
Beld-barddr, H. (P.^lt^j) An officer who distributes or 

scatters money among the poor on the part of a superior, a 

purse-bearer, an almoner. 
Beld-kharch, H. Expenditure of a man of rank or wealth 

in almsgiving. 

G) Q 

and other deriv. from &y, to grow) Growing corn, a 
standing crop. 
Belasdda-hola, Karn. (iS>$?3c>-vse>) A field of grown 

BELBUTA, H. (iXj^d-kj) A bush. 


BELE, Karn. (^^y) One-eighth of a rupee; also split 

BELHA, or BEYLHA, Thug. The person who selects the 

spot where the murder is to be committed. 
Belhai, Thug. Selection of the spot where travellers are 

to be strangled. 

BELKI. BELKEE, H. ( , i.w) A cattle-breeder, a grazier. 

BELLA, Karn. (O^) A coarse kind of sugar, commonly 

called Jagari. 
Bella-dale, Karn. (^g* 33 ^) A sugar-mill or press, 

Bella-daydna, Karn. (Ogo A dC3) A coarse sugar- 

BELWA, Karn. (OO^) A man whose business it is to gather 

the juice of the Tal tree, speaking Malayalim, though 

settled in Mysore. 
BELWAL, Mar. (?) High land. 
BENAP, Hindi (^TR, from P. t_j, without, and S. Km, 

measuring, corruptly changing m to n) Unmeasured, 

Benup-ka-pattd, Hindi (ihnTRT X J5T) A lease in which 

it is agreed between the renter and the cultivator that the 

original measurement and average rates shall remain 

unaltered as long as the cultivator pays the stipulated 

BENAUDH!, H. (lii^A.u) A name commonly given to the 

country between Allahabad and the further side of the 

Sarju river, also called Benawat. 


<j Q 
BENDE, Karn. ()O<S) A kind of hemp made from the 

fibres of the Hibiscus esculentus. 

BENGAT, BENGUT, H. ( ou^, ^TH) Seed : especially 
when lent for sowing to an indigent Ryot, who is to 
repay the same at harvest, with such addition as may be 
agreed upon. Benares. 

BENT, H. c^Ju?, ~^Z) The handle of a hoe, axe, or si- 
milar implement. Pronounced BIT in Rohilkhand, and 
BINTA in Dehli. 

BENTAGAM, Tarn, (possibly an error for Bandayam, q. v.) 
Mortgaged plough-land. (Travancore.) 

BEOHAR, H., &c. (jlayj, Jj'riVR, S. <<<^lO BEHARA, 
Karn (X6oc'O) Business, calling, trade, traffic, money- 
lending. A loan. ' In law,' legal proceedings. At Jabalpur, 
a Kdnungo. 
Beohard, Beohdrd, Beohdriyd, and less correctly, Bahord, 

!,) Behari, Karn. (>feoo>8) A 

trader, a man of business, a merchant, a money-lender, 
a creditor. A litigant, one who engages, or may engage, 
in legal proceedings. 

BKI>AR, II. (jtggf, *fMH, S. &HIHK:) Trade, traffic. 
Bepdr't, H., Ben., Mar., also pronounced Baipdri or 
Byopdri, and written Bayparee, Beopdrec, &c. ( i^ljJo , 
(ffliyj, ^"ItSt, WHJH, 'fVH^, S. *HIMKl) A trader, a 
dealer, a shopkeeper, a travelling trader or pedlar. A 
merchant, a grain merchant. 

BER, Mar. (^O Second or transverse ploughing of a field. 

BEHA, Karn. (XO) Trade, merchandise. 

BERA, H. O^Jj) A raft, a float, especially one on which a 
sort of paper and tinsel boat, with the face of a female 
and crest and breast of a peacock at the prow, is set afloat 
by the Mohammadans on the rivers of Bengal, with 
lights and music, in honour of Khaja Khizr, on the 
evenings of the Thursdays, especially of the last Thursday, 
of Bhddon (Aug. Sept.). Opulent persons amuse them- 
selves with being rowed up and down the river during 
part of the night in illuminated boats, having musicians 
and singers on board. The Berd is usually presented 
in consequence of a vow made during the previous year, 
in acknowledgment of some benefit, as the birth of a child, 
supposed to have been obtained through the intercession 
of the saint. 

BERAD, Mar. (^t3) A low tribe in the South Maratha country, 


inhabiting the hills and thickets, and subsisting by the 
chase, and by plunder. They are sometimes employed in 
police duties, and in garrisoning forts, and are also 
called Mdmosi. 

BERAGADU, Tel. (~3&"A~&o) A purchaser. 

BEHAJEE-KA PATrA, Hindi, (%TTft frt 1l) A lease of cer- 
tain rates to be paid by the Ryot for ploughing the soil, 
levied upon the crop raised by actual measurement. The 
amount paid is never to be less than that of the preceding 
year, and increases with additional cultivation, according 
to the usual rates (Puraniya). (The word is of doubtful 
origin, and may be a corruption ofBcnj, q. v. ; or of 
the P. be, without, and rdzi, assent.) 

BERAMU, Tel, (^3&&X>) Traffic, trade, a bargain. 

BERAR, H. (jU") In Baitul and the Dakhin the same as 
the Kdnunrjo of Hindustan, the village registrar and 

BERHA, H. (1&J#, S. ^Ej) A paling, an inclosure. BERII- 
NA, (lift^Jo, from the same S. root, ^P, to surround) 
means also to drive off cattle by force, to foray. 

BERI, BEREE, H. d.j?J^, ^ft from S. ^, to surround) 
BiRi, or BERI, Mar. (fWt, $ft) Iron fetters, or a chain 
for man or animals. A sort of basket with two ropes, by 
which water is thrown up from a pond or well to a 
higher elevation, when it irrigates a garden or field. 

BERI, Tel. (~&5Q) The name of a caste in the south of 
India, following trade, and claiming to belong to the 
original Vaisya caste. They also call themselves Chitti, 
or, more correctly, Sheti, from the S. SreshtM, a mer- 
chant ; but, as belonging to the left-hand castes, they are 
distinct from the Komatis or Chittis of the right-hand 

BERfj, also written BARIJ, and BERIZ, or BARIZ, Mar. 
(fc!Nl) BKHIJU, Tel. ( ^^ ) Karn. (O^&^) all 
from the P. j>, an account) The total sum or 
aggregate of an account. The total amount of a revenue 
assessment, the same as Jama ; the total assessment of a 
district. The items of the assessment on a Zaminddri, 
usually inserted, in former times, in the middle of the 
o-rant, and thence identified with that part of the document 


in which the entry was made, or 'the middle ' of the 
paper; also the nett revenue assessment, after allowing 
for village and other fixed charges. In Karnata the 
original Bidnur assessment was termed the Sliist; the 



additions made by Hyder and Tipu, the ShdmiL The 
two together constituted the Karim (? Kadim) Berij, 
or old or original assessment. The assessment of 1819-20 
is termed the Tarao Berij ; the Sdsrvata (S. perpetual) 
Berij is the permanent settlement. The term is more 
usually employed in the south than in the north of India 
to express the sense of a settlement of the Revenue. 
In Hindustan it more commonly referred to the entry of 
the Jama in the Zamindari grant. 

BESAYA, more correctly, VYAVASAYA, Karn. 

from S. ajqum) Cultivation, agriculture, farming. 
Besdyadava, Karn. (&;33o&&3) A farmer, a culti- 

Besdyaddbhumi, Karn. (Q?i ; 3c>oIx>Q$xr~ D Sj) Land under 

BESHI, H. (P. .j^Jj) Increase, surplus. Increased assess- 
ment, either on the general account, or any particular item 
of the revenue ; as corrupted, Beeshy and Beeshy- 
mamooli occur to express the additional duty formerly 
levied on the cultivator of opium. 

Beshi-jamd, H. (A. **) Increase of revenue or assess- 
ment upon that of the preceding year. 

Beshi-zamin, H. (A. l ^j ) Increase in the lands cultivated, | 
either by addition, or by more accurate measurement. 
Separate columns are kept for this and the preceding in 
the books of the village. 

BESTA, Tel. Karn. (~S~i) The name of the caste of fisher- 
men in the Madras and Mysore provinces, to which the 
palankeen-bearers usually belong. 

Bestarava, Bestaru, Karn. (>5i * plur. 23jO,b) ^he 
name of a caste in Mysore, comprising fishermen, lime- 
burners, and palankeen-bearers. (Probably the sume as 
the preceding Telugu word.) 

BETA, H. &c. (Uw) A son, BETI (^jJLw) A daughter. 

BE-TAN-MAL, H. (P. jj, without, ( Ji, tan, a body or person, 
and tndl, JU, property) An escheat, property devolving 
to the State in default of legal claimants. (This has 
evidently been confounded with Bait ul-mdl, q. v., which 
has thence been incorrectly interpreted an escheat 

BET- or BETRA-BANDI, H. (i^^oj, ^Joo^JLu, from S. vetra, 
%^, a cane or willow) APargana or Zamindari charge for- 
merly allowed to be set off from the assessment as being in- 
curred for mats or wicker work in which goods or treasure 
were packed for transmission to the Subaddr of the 
province, or to the court of Dehli. (Misprinted in the 

fifth Report, and so copied into the Glossary, Bedrh- 


BETH, H. (<&#) Sandy, unproductive soil. (Rohilkhand.) 
BETHIA, Uriya(GQO2)|) An impressed labourer, a Began. 
BETTA, or BETT, Karn. (^) High land, a hill, a 

mountain. The third and worst kind of land for rice, 

situated on high ground, and imperfectly irrigated, yield- 

ing but one crop a-year ; also called BORU-BETT. 
BEWARA, Mar. ('NH.O Discharge of business, settlement 

of a debt, &c. See Beohdr. 
BnABAR, BHABUR, H. (j-^>) The forest under the Sewalik 

hills. The name of a light black soil in the neighbour- 

hood of Baitul. 
BHABHUT, H. (cu^Juj, S. fojfTf) The ashes of burnt cow- 

dung, with which mendicants, of the Saiva orders chiefly, 

besmear their bodies. 
BnAcHA, also BHACHHU, Mar. (>TT^T, Hl^fc') A nephevr : 

BHACHI, (Xl^l) A niece : the son or daughter of a man's 

sister, of a woman's brother or sister, or of a husband's 

Bkdchej d^nidi, Mar. (HH*fi<4l$) The husband of such a 

Bhdchesun, Mar. (Ml3O The wife of such a nephew. 

BHADA, BHUDA, H. Ojy.) A kind of grass growing in a 
poor soil to the height of little more than a foot, making 
excellent fodder. 

BHADAHAR, BHUDAHUR, H. (^alj^j, ri5O Cutting grain 
when it is only half ripe. 

BHADAI, BHUDUYEE, H. (^J^, H^) The produce of the 
month Bhadon ; the grain, &c., gathered in that month 
Aug. Sept. 

BHADARIA, BHUDUREEA, H. (\)j&y, HSi.Vni) A tribe of 
mendicants of Brahmanical descent, professors of astrology. 
(Probably from Bhadra, S., auspiciousness.) 

>*fhfNn) A branch of the Chauhan Rajputs, residing 
chiefly in the provinces of Agra and Etawa, and in other 
places along the Jumna, whence the tract is termed 
Bhadawar. The Raja of the district pretends to be de- 
scended from an ancient family, the members of which 
enjoyed high consideration at the court of Delhi from 
the reign of Akbar, and his pretensions are admitted by 
the surrounding Rajas, who yield him precedence, and 
accept from him the Tilaka or frontal mark on their 




Cutting grain when half ripe. Stealing fruit from a tree. 

BHADE, Mar. (mt) BHADA, or BHARA, Ben. Oafal) 

BHATAK, Karn. ( ^> oUo) Hire, rent, price, recompence. 

Bhddatahiya, Ben. (>a| < Fl<<!) A renter, a tenant. 

Bhddekari, Mar. (ms*tf) One who lets out any thing 

for rent or hire, one who works for hire, a hireling. 
BHADON, corruptly, BAUDOOU, H. (^ySdg, HT^t', S. 

The fifth month of the luni-solar year (Aug. Sept.). 

Bhadommi, or Bhddui, corruptly, Bhddovey, Hindi, 

vn?"^) Bhddavi, Mar. (m^) Relating to the month 

Bhadon, or the harvest gathered in Aug. Sept. : autumnal. 


BHADRA, S., &c. (>TT5) The fifth month of the luni-solar 

year (Aug. Sept.) 

BHADRABAT;, Ben. (StJfOT) A younger -brother's wife. 
H., but in most other dialects also, (i^Jly, S. JTPl) A 
share, a part, a portion, a share in kind : tax, duty, the 
share of the Government. Share or portion of inheritance. 
In Hindu law, partition may be regulated amongst the 
sons according to the number of their mothers, or the 
wives of the deceased, which is termed Patni bhdga ; 
but this is allowable only where the usage has been long 
established as the custom of the family. The more regular 
distribution is according to the number of sons (putra), 
thence denominated Putra-bhaga. See Vibhdga. 

Bhdg-batdi corruptly, Bhugwuttee, H. (u5^ wl/lg. 
MNH<JI^) Apportionment of shares of the crop in kind 
between the cultivator and the Government 

Bhdg-batti (?) Bhdgavati, (from S. Blidga, share, and 
the possessive particle vati, belonging to, or possessed 
of). In Guzerat, division of the crop in kind, the 
Government taking one-half of the crop in the rainy 
season, and from one-third to one-fifth of that in the dry 
season, if the land be irrigated; (probably an error for 
the preceding). 

Bhdgddr, corruptly, Baugdar, H. (^'liil^J, MI'l^lO 
Bhdgiddr, Guz. (<Hl3[l^ 13.) A sharer, a partner ; 
also, in Cuttack, an accomplice. 

Bhdgddri, H. d_f;'^l#, WltJKl) Holding a share; the 
same as Pattiddri, in the Dakhin. 

Bhdgi, H. (wrft) A sharer, a partner; also, a share, a 

Bhdgi-ddr, Mar. (iTPT^Tt) A sharer, a partner. It also 
occurs Bhdgil and Bhdgeli. 


Bhdg-jot, Ben. (^''If^'fl*) Cultivation by the Ryot on 
the terms of sharing the crop with the Zamindar. 

Bhdg-hhamdr, Ben. OslftNtsI) The transfer of land, 
held on the condition last named, from one Ryot to 
another Ryot, the latter engaging to give to the former a 
half share of the produce. 

Bhdgwdr, H. (j\\aJ, HT'KlO Held upon a joint or 

sharing tenure (land, &c.) 
BHAGAT, H. ( Ui~ , corruption of Bhakt) A. religious 

mendicant, a worshipper of Vishnu. 
BHAGNAR, H. (y^l#, H1JRT:) A name given to the rich 

alluvial lands under the banks of the Jumna. 
BiiAGTA, H. (U#) A tribe of Ahirs. 
BHAI', BIIAEE, also BHAIYA, less correctly, BHAYA and 
BIIYE, H., &c. (^l^, U#, mt, $*n, S. mf) Ben. 
01t>) A brother, a natural brother ; also, a friend and 
companion ; metaphorically, a brother. It is especially 
applied also to individuals connected by community of 
origin and joint interest in a common ancestral property, 
proprietors of shares, either actually or conventionally, 
in the same village lands. (The derivatives and compounds 
may follow either form of the primitive, but those which 
take the second form, Bliaiyd or B/taya, are most frequent. 

Bhdi-ans, Bhaiydns, H. (^j*>\ uS^i ^it^I, from ^1, a 
share) The share or portion of a brother or a co-parcener. 

Bhaiyanx(-b'i<jhu, II. (^Ni^Wtn) An arbitrary measure 
of land, used by the brotherhood of a co-parcenary village, 
for apportioning the revenue upon the lands they cultivate. 
It is larger than that in common use upon which the 
revenue is assessed at so much per Bigha. 

Bhdi-band, Bhaee-bund, H. (Ai; i^lfl) A brother, one 
by lineal affinity, or one by community of origin and 
interest, or only by friendship and association. 

Bhdi-bandi, H. (^^ t_?W. Hl^l) Brotherhood, fra- 
ternity, actual or incidental. 

Bhdi-lat, Bkaeebut, or Bhdimad, Bhaeervud, or Bhybut, 
Bhyrcud, H. (c^oA#, HI^M, from bat or mad affix 
implying like to) As a brother or co-parcener, brother or 
partner-like (acting, engaging, sharing, &c.) 

Bhdibau, Ben. (^5t?>CT) A brother's wife. 

Bhaiyd-bdnt, H. ( H*lTOfc) Held in common, as a village. 
See the next. 

Bhaiydchdrd, or Bhaiydchdri, less correctly, Bhayachdra, 
&c., H. (};U-U#, i_^U-U#, H*TTtTO, ^JrreTrt, either 
from the S. chara, ^t, going, or dchdra, institute, fra- 



ternal establishment) Lands, or villages, or certain rights 
and privileges held in common property, either entirely or in 
part, as in the perfect, or imperfect Pattld&ri tenure by a 
number of families forming a brotherhood, originally perhaps 
descended from a common ancestor, but now not always con- 
nected by sameness of descent. Their several claims and lia- 
bilities are sometimes regulated by established custom, but 
they sometimes rest upon ancestral rights, the nature and 
extent of which are not always easy of determination and ad- 
justment, and require careful investigation. In all such 
fraternities the Government revenue is most usually 
paid through one of the number representing the whole. 
Any one of the co-parceners may let or mortgage his 
share to a non-proprietor ; in some places, subject to the 
concurrence of the rest of the fraternity. In such case, 
the original shareholder may retain his privileges of ad- 
ministering and voting, in regard to the interests of the 
community, as well as his share in the manorial rights 
of the whole to waste lands, water-courses and reservoirs, 
ground-rents on land let to strangers, taxes on trades, 
fees on occasional fairs, and a variety of other emolu- 
ments which are shared in common. 

Bhdi-hixxi, H. (from the P. <Las>~, a part) The shares of 
a brotherhood. 

Bhdijhi, Ben. (Vt^Vl) A brother's daughter. 

Bkdi- or Bhaiyd-jamd, H. (>TI^- HTTTSTTT) A fee paid to 
the head or heads of the village on settling the assess- 
ment of the revenue. 

Bhdi, or Bhaiyd-pansi, H. (,*> i_?W> *T$- *HnWt) 
The shares of a co-parcenary or brotherhood. 

Bhai-dmitnju, H., &c. (from the S. m^finrt^n) A Hindu 
festival. See Bhrdtri-dmitiyd. 

Bhdi-phot, Ben. (1^4<pii) Marking the foreheads of 
brothers with sandal, on the preceding festival. 

Bhdi-pud, Uriya, (S^IQGjep Lit., A brother's son, applied to 
a relation holding lands in a village on easier terms than 
others not related to the Zamindar, on paying a pro- 
portion of the revenue and village charges. 
BHAIMI, S. (bft, from Bhima, vffa) The eleventh of 
Magha, on which day offerings are presented to the manes, 
in honour of Bhima. 

BHAIS, Thug. One of the seven original clans. 
BHAITA, Hin. (hn) A stunted crop. 
BHAJANAPPURA, Mai. (aS3OOa_lit>) The palace of the Elia 


Raja of Travancore. A private residence in a temple. 

BHAJAWAL, Mar. (HI *l !'<!($') Burning the weeds off the 
ground before sowing the seed. Ground so burned. 

BHAJIDAST, Mar. (from >TT*ft, vegetables, and P. dost, 
C^v*it>, the hand) A tax levied in kind, either by the 
Government or the village officers, on fruit and vegetables 
brought to market 

BnAKAH, Mar. (HTcirO A plain cake of bread ; most 
usually applied to bread made from inferior grains, as 
holcus, millet, &c. 

BHAKSI, H. ( ^u^^> , *fWlft) A dungeon, a chamber in 
which revenue defaulters in native states are confined. 

BHAKSHYA, S. (TCJi:) Eatable, what may be legally eaten; 
in opposition to Abhakshya, what is not to be eaten, 
what is prohibited. 

H. (ei~#, S. bhakta, H^;:) A follower, a worshipper, 
one devoted to, as to a divinity, as Siva-bhaht, a follower 
of Siva ; Vishnu-bhakt, an adorer of Vishnu. 
Bhdkta, S. (deriv. of VT3K) A follower, a dependant, a 
pensioner, a religious sect or school, as those of Saivas, 
or of Vaishnavas. The right-hand worshippers of Sakti 
are also called Bhdktas. 
Bkakti,S. (^K) Faith, devotion, service, hire of labour. 

BHAL, H. (*TR$) A tribe of Rajputs, proprietors of lands 

in the districts of Bulandshahar and Aligarh. 
Bhdlxultdn, H. ( u ULfl!lyj) A clan of Rajputs, same as 
the Bhal, but freer from intermixture. 

Be ALA WAN, BHULAWUN, Mar. (H<$H<D) A letter of credit, 
one of introduction or recommendation. 

BniLE, or BHALU, Thug. The cry of the jackall an un- 
lucky omen. 

BH!MATYA, or BHAiNWATYA, Mar. (TT*35p, ^fa^Sp) A sl y 
thief, a pickpocket, a shoplifter, &c. 

BH!ND, commonly pronounced Bhdnr, H. (JTRJ, from the 
S. m?!5: , buffoonery) A native actor, mime, and jester, 
of a particular tribe, now usually Mohammadans, but 
sprung from the Hindu Bahrupiyas. 

BHAND, H., &c. (S. 'Joly. HHP) A vessel. Stock, capital. 
Bhanddr, or Bhdnddr, or Bhanddra, also Bhdnddr- 
hhdna, H., Mar. (WJJTT. U!iH!, mjilCI, from the S. 
HU!i|JIKO Banddra, or Bhanddra, Karn. (WoG'dO, 
2pO Q> SO ) A treasury, a store, a room where house- 
hold supplies are kept Villages managed by the Raja or 
Zamindar himself, his own peculiar estate, not rented or 
farmed to others. In Cuttack, also, a reservoir. 



Bhdnddri, H., Mar. (HHJilO) A treasury, a store. See 
the last. In Guzerat, a kind of guarantee-assurance to a 
creditor that a loan made by him shall be repaid by the 
borrower, without the surety's becoming personally liable. 
Also, guarantee or assurance to any person of the un- 
disturbed enjoyment of recognised office or property, 
granted on many occasions by the British Government to 
the creditors and officers of the Gaihrvar. 
Bhdnddri, H., Mar., &c. (from Bhanddra) A treasurer, 
a storekeeper. In Sylhet, a servant, an out-door servant. 
In other parts of Bengal, a steward. In Cuttack, also, a 

BHANDARA, BHUNDARA, Mar. (tfnrt) A feast given to a 
number of religious mendicants or Gosains. (Perhaps the 
same as Bandhdra, q. v.) 

BHANDARJ, BHUNDAREE, Mar. (H3TCO A man of a low 
caste, whose especial employment it is to draw the sap 
from the cocoa-nut tree, and convert it, by fermentation, 
into a strong spirituous liquor. 

Bhanddr-mdr, Mar. (H4H.HI4) A cocoa-nut tree reserved 
for the preparation of spirit, and not allowed to bear 
' fruit. 


Ben. (?!) Tarn, (urjs) &c. An intoxicating pre- 
paration of hemp (Cannabis sativa), either an infusion 
of the leaves and capsules, or the leaves and stalks 
bruised and pounded, and chewed or smoked like 
tobacco. According to Mr. Elliot, the natives of Hin- I 
dustan distinguish the Bhang from the Ganja plant ; the 
former bearing female flowers only, the latter male. 
From Dr. O'Shaughnessy's description, the term Bhang 
properly applies to the larger leaves and capsules, and 
Ganja to the dried plant with the stalks. From the Bhang 
is prepared the infusion bearing the same name. The 
Ganja is used for smoking. Bengal Dispensatory. 

Bhangi, H. (.^y., H*ft) One addicted to the use of 

Bhdngrd, H. Oj&lyj, HfatT) One who is addicted to the 
use of Bhang. 

Bhdngera, H. (i^JL^j, Hnkl) A seller of Bhang. 

Bhangela, H. (JhXi^j) Hempen cloth for wear, or for 

sacks, also sacks made of it 

BHANGA, Mar. (Him) A field, a division of a field. 

The name of a low caste, employed as 
sweepers, and in the most inferior menial offices. They are 
said to be of mixed origin, having sprung from the union of 
a Brahman woman and a Sudra man. They extend through- 
out Hindustan, where they are known by different appel- 
lations, as Mehtar, Haldl-hhor, &c. They profess to be 
Hindus, observing some Hindu usages, but in others they 
follow the practices of the Mohammadans, and can 
scarcely be considered as members of either faith. The 
name is probably derived from Bhang, for the Bhangis 
are generally addicted to the use of intoxicating drugs 
and liquors. 

BHANGA, Uriya, (C^1|) Correct weighment of salt 
Bhangd-moharir, Uriya, (A. a clerk, jjf*) An officer 
who superintends the weighment of salt. 

BHANGUNI, Tel. (?) Settlement of a dispute among Ryots 
by arbitration. (Ganjam.) 

BHANGURiA, H. (l^jJoL^j) A branch of the Gaur-taga 
tribe in Bulandshahar. 

BnANjA, H. (IsT'l^i *ftn S. H*3f, to divide) An arrange- 
ment by which three or four Ryots engage to assist each 
other in turn, either in preparing the crop or getting in 
the harvest. When it is the turn, or B/tdnjd, of the one 
to be assisted, the others contribute ploughs, bullocks, 
and labourers. 

15 HANS, Mar. (HHt) Heap of husks and grains of rice pro- 
duced from grinding in order to husk. 
Bhdnsal, Mar. (faaE) Husked rice. 

BHANSARA, H. (j^Ji^j) A branch of the Ahir tribe. 

BHANS-LENA, Thug. To defraud one another in the par- 
tition of the spoil. 

BHANTA, BHUNTA, H. (<SJiiyJ, 7t) A ploughman's wages 
in kind. (Rohilkhand. Elsewhere the word is JBhatta.) 

BHANWAG, BHUNWUG, H. (ki/jJL^) A small clan of 

BnAo, Ben. 03t>Q) Mar. (WR) Price of any thing, 
value of an article, market price or rate ; interest on 
money or seed advanced. 

BHAOLI, BHAOLEE, or BnAvALi, corruptly, BHOWLEY, BHA- 
WELEY, BEHAVILLEY, H. (^j^, *i<sl) Distri- 
bution of the products of the harvest, in previously 
stipulated proportions between the landlord and tenant. 
Rent paid in kind, instead of money. It is also possibly 
the correct form of Baoli, q. v. 
Bhdoli-khil, H. (Jj^ (_^;V^ LantJ recentl y brought 


into cultivation, and of which the cultivator is allowed a 
larger share of the produce. 

Bhdoli-pd, H., corruptly, Bhomley-pah, (U ^Jj\*>) Land 
long cultivated, in which the proportional share of the 
cultivator is less than in land of recent cultivation. 
BHAR, BHUH, H. (j#, S. HX) Full, complete (used chiefly 
in composition). 

Bhar-Jtas, Mar. (?) Land paying full rent. (Dakhin.) 

Bharpdi, or pace, H. (i_^_/V.) ^ ar- (W't.) A release 
in full endorsed on the back of a receipt (being properly 
the two last words of the phrase, main ne kauri bhar- 
pdi, the kauris have been received in full by me). 

Bharrvasul, Mar. (*Tt*J<5, from A. J^j) Full revenue 

Bharwasuli, Mar. (W<$1) A village, &c., from which 

full revenue is realized. 

BHAR, BHUR, H. (j#) One of the aboriginal races of 
Hindustan, called also Bdjbhar, Bharat, and Bhar- 
patrva. Tradition assigns for their original seat the whole 
country from Gorakhpur to Bundelkhand, and the Pargana 
of Bhado'i, properly Bhar-do'i, in Benares, is named from 
them. Many old stone forts, embankments, and excava- 
tions in Gorakhpur, Azimgarh, Jonpur, Mirzapur, and 
Allahabad, are ascribed to them. Amongst others, the 
celebrated fortress of Vijayagarh, or Bijaygark, is still 
called, after them, a Bharanati fort When met with 
they are found following the meanest vocations. They 
are especially swineherds ; and are considered as knowing 
where treasure is hidden. In the hills eastward of Mir- 
zapur there are some Bhar Rajas. The name may be 
possibly an abbreviation of Bhdrata, a native of Bhdrata 
or India ; especially as it is retained unaltered as one of 
their synonymes. 

BHAHA, H. (f,l#, HTCl) Ben. 0t5l) Mar. Bhdren, (u) 
Hire, wages, rent, recompense. In Bengal it is especially 
the hire of any inanimate thing, and therefore does not 
imply wages. 

Bharatiya, Ben. 0telfi*d) A tenant, a renter. 

Bhdrekari, Mar. (Misom.1) One who lets out houses, 
cattle, &c. One who hires them. A labourer, a hireling. 

Bharentoren, Mar. (mjiffif) A loose term for rent, hire, 

fare, &c. 

BHAR, or BHARA, H. &c. (,1^, J,^, S. nt, P. jlj) A 
load, a burthen. A rupee weight. A weight of gold equal 
to twenty tolas. 



Bhdri, H. (<_?;W^ Heavy, weighty, a load. 

BHARA, Mar. (>TTO) A bundle of grass, a sheaf of corn. 
Bhdrebhdt, Mar. (TTX*nw) Threshed rice, usually yielding 
half a maund per bhdrd, or bundle. 

BHARA, (?) A charge made to the Ryot who pays his rent 
in kind for the carriage of the grain to the place where 
it is sold. (This may be derived from Bhdr, a load, or 
from Bhdrd, hire ; in the latter case it should be written 
with the hard ?', Oj^j.) 

BHAHA, Thug. The dead bodies of the victims (Dakhini). 

BHARAHAH, Thug. A pitcher full of water. A lucky omen. 

BHARAi, corruptly, BHURRYE, BHURAY, BURRY, H. (<_i/^> 

Ht^) An allowance formerly made to the Government 
revenue officers in the provinces of Bareilly and Benares, to 
cover the cost of remitting the collections to the Government 
treasury, and of exchanging the different sorts of rupees 
received in payment into standard currency. A cess or 
tax raised on pretext of providing for such deductions and 
allowances, which was originally divided between the 
Raja and the Amil. Bharai was finally abolished by 
Reg. xiv. 1807, cl. 14. 

BHARAKI, Thug. A gun. 

BHARAN, BHARANA, or BHARBTA, H., Mar., &c. (yj^., S. 
HTJ5T) Completing, filling, rearing. Paying in full. (In 
the south) A row of betel-nut trees. 

BHARANA, Uriya, (QQC1) A measure of rice in the husk, 
equal to eighty gaunis. 

BHARANTU-DIBBA, Tel, (vOodo>|3) A platform or mound 
on which a salt-heap is raised. (From bharantu, a floor, 
and dibba, a heap.) 

BHARAT, BHURUT, also pronounced BHABIT and BARAT, 
H. (CJ^) Amount of rent paid by an individual, or a 
party (Dehli). 

BHARATA, Guz. C*"l^l) Measurement. An account opened 
by the debtor in his own handwriting in his creditor's book. 

BHARAT,corruptly,BHAROTE,Guz.( fi 1.R ( 'l) Abard. SeeBhdt. 

the country or kingdom of Bharata, the son of Dushyanta. 

BHAHAUNA, H. (^jj^) A load of wool. 

BHARAUTI, H. (^Jjj^) A release in full. 

BURBOONJA, H. ((sfyfrtf, from S. HTg, a frying-pan, 
and *Hjc|I, who fries) Mar. (H^jsn) also BHUJARI, or 
BHUNJAHI (Jntf, HTRt) Grain-parcher or fryer. 
The name of a caste employed in parching and frying 



different sorts of grain, pulse, &c. They are said to spring 
from a Kahar father and Siidra mother, and pretend to 
be distinguished into seven tribes, which do not inter- 
marry. There is also a tribe of Kayeths distinct from 
these, who follow the same business. 

E, H. (<_?rvj) A kmd of grass growing to the height 
of about nine feet, and used for thatching and making 

BHAHEKAHI, Mar. (n<<*0) A travelling cloth merchant, 
who buys it from the manufacturer, and retails it to the 

'MSAT, BHUHGUT, Mar. ( HtTTK, from S. K, full, and nfif, 
londition) Full complement of any thing, load, lading] 

IJiiARi, BIIUKKK, H. ((jf^j) A weight, that of the old 
Sicca rupee. In Cuttack, a weight of gold equal to ten 

.il'i'UKAKAN, Mai. (/3(Olo-J cftOitxafc) A superintendant 
or overseer of a kitchen. 

BHARIYA, H. (b^>, wfw) Land watered by irrigation. 
BHARKI, BHURKEE, H. (^jtf) A kind of land in Behar, 
superficially of a dark colour, but lighter when turned up 
by the plough. It is suited to both spring and autumn 
crops, but requires abundant watering. 
BHARNA, BHURNA, H. (lj^) Filling, completing, nourish- 
ing. Giving up property in payment of a debt 
UHARNA, H. (Ij^J, H^TT) The vessel that receives the 

expressed juice of the sugar-cane. 

BHARPATWA, H. (!yL>^,j) A branch of the Bhar tribe. 
BIIARTKUL, H. ( J^o^) One of the branches of the Gaur- 

Brahmans (for Bhurata-liul, of the race of Bharata). 
BHARTOT, BHURTOTE, Thug. The strangler, the person who 

applies the noose. 

Bhartoti, Thug. The office of strangler. 
BHARTRI, S. (>T3) A protector, a master, a husband. 
BHARTRI-HARI-JOGI, II. (^/)^-, ^frfi) An order of Hindu 
mendicants, who profess to have been instituted by Bhartri- 
hari, the brother of Vikramaditya, in the century before 

BHARUTIIAL, Mar. (?) A tax for liberty to graze cattle. 
BHARWAR, BHURWAR, Guz. (fH^Hl^ ) A shepherd, lead- 
ing a nomadic life, pasturing sheep, goats, and camels, 
and living on or by their produce in milk and wool. 
BHARWATIA, or BHARWUTTIA, (?) A feudal dependant or 
chief in a state of open insurrection against his liege 

lord, or against the State, committing robbery and de- 
predation on the country, and assuming the character of 
an outlaw. (Captain MMurdo, Bombay Trans, i. 271, 
derives it from Bhar, out, and ivut, country; but in that 
case it would more correctly be Baherrvatania ; for the 
words in Guz., as in other dialects, are Bdha.r or Baker, 
from the S. bahir, out, and n-atan, from the Arabic, 
country. Perhaps the aspirate is altogether incorrect, and 
the word should be Barrvdtia, q. v.) 

, pronounced also BHARJA, H., Ben., &c. (S. *TnSl) 
also BIIAJ, Mar. (>JT5f) A wife, one wedded according 
to the ritual of the Vedas. It .sometimes denotes a second 
or inferior wife, as distinct from the Patnt, the wife first 
married. It also applies to the female of the Nairs in 
BIIASAN, Ben. ( ; 3fTfa) The name of a class of Sirdars in 

the Kasiya hills. 

BHASAWAX, II. (Maim) A tax on boats carrying grain. 
BHASIIA, S. &c. (fnn) Speech, a speech, a form of speech, 
a dialect or language, commonly applied to Hindi. The 
plaint in a law-suit; (also Jllit'txlid-pudti). 
BiiASKAKA-sAi'TAMi, S. &c. (TRgi*;, the sun, and ^TWJft, 
seventh day) A festival in honour of the sun, held on 
the seventh of Magha. 

BIIASMA, or BHASM, H. (/>A^J, S. HWT) Ashes. 
Bhasma~sndna, S. (HWPTPT) Rubbing or smearing the 
body with the ashes of burnt cow-dung, a common prac- 
tice of the Saiva mendicants. 

Bkasmi, Thug, (from S. HW, ashes) Fine earth or sand, 
such as is best suited for the interment of those who 
have been murdered. Also, Flour. 

BIIAT, BHUT, also written BHATT, BHUTT, H. &c. (i^-yj, S. 
H^t) A title or cognomen of learned Brahmans, as 
Kumaril Bkat, and others. Also, the name of a particular 
tribe of Brahmans in the province of Benares, said to have 
sprung from a Maratha father and a mother of the Samaria 


tribe of Brahmans. A common title or appellation of 

Maratha Brahmans, especially of such as live by begging. 

BHAT, also BHARATA, H. &c. (cLsl^, S. HT7I, vrTCif:) 

BATTU, BHATTU, and BIIATRAJL-, Tel. (&^>, 2pfe-X>, 

The bard, herald, genealogist, and chronicler 
of ancient days, sprung from a Kshatriya father and Vaisya 
mother. The modern Bhat is sometimes said to have been 
born of a Brahman widow by a Kshatriya father. He fulfils 
the same office as his prototype, though with inferior dignity ; 



although in the west of India, where he is identified with 
the Chdran, his personal security is held sufficient for 
the payment of a debt, or fulfilment of an engagement ; 
its violation being followed by the voluntary death either 
of the Bhat himself, or of some member of his family, 
the retribution of which falls upon the defaulter. In some 
parts of India the Bhdts are distinguished as Birm- 
bhdt and Jaga-bhdt the former being hired on particular 
occasions to recite the traditions of a family ; the latter 
being the chroniclers of the family by hereditary descent, 
and visiting the members periodically, to take note of all 
occurrences regarding them. Both classes are as much 
dreaded for their rapacity, as respected for their reputed 
sanctity. In some places in Upper India the Bhdts are 
found forming village communities, and branching into 
various subdivisions. Some have become converts to 
Mohammadanism. The Bhdt of the village establishment 
appears to be of an inferior class. 

BIIAT, H. (cuty?) Advances to cultivators without interest. 
The name of a particular soil north of the Ganges, con- 
taining much nitre. In the Lower Doab and Bundel- 
khand the word means, Uneven ground. The more universal 
sense of Bhdt is, Boiled rice, from the S. Bhakta. In 
Maratha, and in other places in the south of India, it is 
applied also to rice in the husk. 
Bhutan, Bhutan, Mar. (HTiTO, HittJj, for ffiT-TO> S.) 


Bhdt-get, Mar. (HlrUIrt) A rice-field, land fit for rice 

BHAT, Mar. (*tt) An elevated spot of land, dry and fit 
only for the cultivation of inferior grain ; also a shoal, a 

Jikt'iti, Mar. (HTZ^) Rich soil along the banks of rivers, 
creeks, >.Vc. 

BHAT, Tel. (S^b) Rarn. Bhdte, (9* W) A road. In 
Upper India the word is always given with the initial 
unaspirated, /{tit. 
Bhdtsari, Tel. (^b.-od) A traveller. 

BHATA, Bui TU, or BHATA, incorrectly, BATTA, H. (*-y>, 
tl^j) BHATTA, BHATEX, Mar. (?wr, nr) BHATYAMU, 
Tel. (V*3cJ^3) Additional allowance. Extra pay or 
allowances to public servants or soldiers. Subsistence 
money, or additional allowances to officers employed on 
special duties, or in distant places. Often confounded 
erroneously with BATTA, exchange, q. v. 

BHAT GAUR, H. A sub-division of the Gaur Rajputs. 

BHATHA, H. (l$it#) The current of a river, the ebb-tide. 

H. ( LS i#, li#, or ^jfig, from the S. HI?), A furnace, 
a kiln, a still, a distillery, a liquor-shop. (InCuttack) 
also a fire-place for evaporating brine for salt. 
Bhathi ddr, H. (P.^lj, who has) One who manufactures 
or sells spirituous liquors. 

BHATIA, H. (<OJ^j) The poorest land in Sagar and Bun- 
delkhand. In the latter it is also termed more usually 
Bhatti and Bkatua. 

(C^UI^j) A man or woman who cooks victuals for tra- 
vellers in a Serai. 

BHATKARIA, H. A class of inferior Bais-Rajputs in Jonpur. 

BHATNAGAR, H. A large tribe of Kayeths who derive their 
name from Bhatnir. 

BHATOLAR, H. (JJto) Land granted to Brahmans bearing 
the designation of Bhat. 


BHATT, or BHATTA, BHUTT, BHUTTA, H. S. (iJ^J, **$:) 
A learned Brahman. In some parts of the south of 
India it especially designates a Brahman who professes a 
knowledge of the Vedas, or belongs to a family in whicli 
they have been taught. 

Bhattdchdrj, H. (_.^U-llyj), Ben. (^gibl^), both from 
the S. Bhattdchdrya (HjfT^THih) A learned Brah- 
man; one who teaches any branch of Sanscrit lite- 
rature. In Bengal it is also applied to any respectable 
Bhatta-mdnyam, Tel. Kara. (V^&r^gO) Land granted 

either rent-free, or at a low rate, to Brahmans. 
Bliatta-vritti, also Bhatta-vartulu and Bhattvartti, Tel. 
Tarn, (from S. ^f%t , maintenance) An assignment of reve- 
nue or lands granted to Brahmans at a low rent, or rent- 
free, for their subsistence ; the lands in such case being 
mostly held in severally. The term sometimes desig- 
nates a village, the lands of which are permanently dis- 
tributed among hereditary sharers. 

BHATTA, BHUTTU, Karn. (V^-o) Rice in the husk, com- 
monly called by Europeans in the south of India Batty, 
in the North, Paddy, both derived apparently from this 
term, which again is derived from the Sanskrit Bhahtu, 
properly, not raw, but boiled rice. 

BHATTA, H. (&#) Ploughman's wages in kind. 

BHATTA-GUTTA, BHUTTU-OOOTTU, Kara, (ep - o Xo n ) 



An addition to the revenue assessment in Mysore, accord- 
ing to the productiveness of the soil, originally fixed by 
Sivapa naik, one of the petty chiefs of Mysore. 
BHATTI, BHUTTEE, H. (^^w) A Rajput tribe of the Yadu- 
bansi race, ruling in Jesalmer, and giving their name to 
the Bhatti country Jbetween Hisar and the Garhi. 
Bhattidna, H. (dCJUl^) The tract occupied chiefly by the 

Bhatti tribe. 
BHATTI-KARI, Mar. (?) An extra peon employed to collect 

outstanding revenue. 
BHATTI-KUMBHAR, Mar. (?) A tax in kind or money levied 

formerly upon potters in the Dukhin. 
BHATUA, BHATUIHYA, Beng. (^^Tt v5lTfis*l1, from Bhdt 

^Sfis, boiled rice) A servant who serves for his food. 
BHATULA, H. (<*la$j) Bread made from the flour of the 

Arher and other sorts of pulse. 
BHA:TUVA, H. (*iii) Light dry soil, yielding only an au- 

tumn crop. 

BHAU, corruptly, BHOW, Mar. (TT3i) A brother, a cousin. 
It is affixed respectfully to the names of persons, as 
Bhaiiyardi, Mar. (HI*M^T) Any terrible defeat; lit. the 

defeat of Parasuram Bhau at-Panipat. 
Bhdiii, Beng. (t ( S?>) A younger brother's wife. 
Bhaiij, (5Tt>S^) An elder brother's wife. 
BHAUNRI, Uriya (C^oQl) A salt village; a place in which 

salt-works are set up. 

BHAUNHIA, Uriya (QCoQle||) An account of all the lands 
of a village, specifying the fields according to their num- 
bers, with the name of the cultivator, the length, breadth, 
square contents and species of land and cultivation. 
BHAVA, S. &c. (>TRT) The eighth year of the cycle. 
BHAVANTI, H. (?) A house built after the customary Indian 
fashion, having externally four dead walls, in one of which 
is the entrance to an external quadrangle, surrounded by 
chambers, or sometimes with one chamber only at each 
angle, connected by an open viranda or roofed passage. 
BHAVAYA or BHAVAIA, Guz. CHHo il) An itinerant actor, 

dancer, and musician. 

BHAWA, Mar. (>TRT, from *rra) A husband's elder brother. 
BHEDA, Tel. ( V^" ) Levying a contribution from the other 
Ryots, to enable one who has been unfortunate, to pay his 

BHEDI, or BHERI, Beng. (.C5*S\) A dyke, an embankment. 
Bhedibtmdhi, Beng. (5\ta^ft) An embankment. 

BHEDI YA, H. (l.J^, Jtf^n) Soil in which various kinds of 
crops are grown (from S. ihj, difference), 

BHEJ, II. (^Ayj, nT, Rent, a proportionate share of it, an 


Bhej-barar, corruptly, Bhej-barrar, H. (j^ss^i , RtTT;) 
A tenure frequent in Bundelkhand, in which the propor- 
tions of the revenue or tax (Barar) payable by the common 
proprietors of a village are subject to periodical or occasional 
adjustment, and in which balances of the revenue and of 
village charges arising from the fraud or dishonesty of a 
sharer are made good by rateable contributions from the 
other sharers. Strangers are sometimes introduced into 
over-assessed estates on condition of paying the Barar ; but 
their admission is not a necessary incident of the tenure, 
the essential feature of which is the re-adjustment of the 
shares. The term is also applied to a village in which 
tliis tenure prevails : it is said to be a Bhej-bardr gdon. 

BIIEI.I, H. ( ( Jj-| ( j) A lump of coarse sugar, usually consist- 
ing of four or five Sers (8 to 10 pounds). 

BHET, or BHENT, corruptly, BHETE, BHAINT, H. (ci-J^ 
Cl~xx#), BhetM, Ben. (5I1) Interview, introduction; but 
more commonly the presentation of a gift made to a superior 
on occasion of being presented or introduced to him ; a com- 
plimentary gift, a Nazar. A present made by the 
cultivator to the collector or farmer on settling his assess- 
ment. In the south of India, the offering of a small pre- 
sent, as of one rupee, to the European collector by the 
Patel, or head of the village, on the settlement of the 
revenue for the year. 

Bliet-bakrd, H. &c. (]> ^J&>, i*<*l) A present made by 
the villagers to the governor of a district on his coming 
to the village ; lit. the present of a goat, which is the 
original usual offering. 

Bheli, Ben. (C5&I) A present at a visit or meeting made 
by the mother of the bride to the mother of the bridegroom 
to propitiate her good will to her daughter-in-law. 
Bket-patra, H. A deed of gift made on being introduced 
to a superior or public officer. 

BHIAN, Uriya (Ql2)|6l) A statement of the particulars of an 
estate ; the value of produce, amount of revenue, and dis- 
tribution among the cultivators, with their names and 
numbers; the basis of the settlement. See BHAUNRIA. 

BHIHAR, H. (/#) A tribe which, according to tradition, was 
one of the primitive tribes of the Upper Doab. They were 
expelled from Nirauli and the neighbouring districts by 


the Bir-gujar Rajputs. In the Doab they are commonly 
called Beimhar, and in Rohilkhand, Bihar. 

BHIKH, H. &c. (X^#, S. fifSJT) Alms, asking for alms, beg- 
ging, giving alms. An item in the allowances formerly made 
as abatements from the revenue ; a small sum so deducted 
on account of charity or alms-giving by the village or the 
Zamindar. The term occurs in most dialects, with or without 
modification, as Bhiksha and Bhik (ftfSJT, fNO Marathi. 
Bhikhtt, H. (y^H, from S. Bhihshii, ftr^, or Bhih- 
shuJta, fHKj4: ) A beggar, a mendicant ; especially the 
Hindu of the fourth order. In the present day, in the 
south of India the Bhihshuh may have a wife and family; 
or the term may be applied to a Grikastha, or house- 
holder, subsisting upon alms, being used, in fact, in its 
general acceptation. 
Bhihhdri, Beng. (T^Usll, from finsn) A mendicant, a beggar. 

BHIL, BHEEL, H. (Jjy, S. f>TWl) The name of a wild 
race inhabiting the mountains and forests of Malwa, 
Mewar, and Kandesh, and in the Dakhin to the north of 
Poona. They subsist partly by agriculture, and partly by 
the chase, and in former times were notorious for their 
depredations. They are also found settled in the villages 
of the low lands, and are employed as the village watch- 
men, as guides to travellers, and in various menial offices, 
for which they are remunerated by fees and perquisites ; 
sometimes by small grants of land. The Bhils of the 
Company's territories are much improved, and follow 
agriculture steadily : a number are incorporated as a lo- 
cal militia under European officers. 

BHIMARATHI, S. (ffamTt) The seventh night of the seventh 
month of the seventy-seventh year of a man's age, after 
which a person is exempt from all instituted observances, 
it being considered the end of his natural life. 

BHIMJODIIA, Thug. A small bird, a sort of cuckoo. 

BHINNAOOTRA, S. (Jbhinna, fa^, different, and gotra, iffa, 
family) One not belonging to the same general family. 

BHIXNODARA, S. (bhinna, different, and udara, "3^, womb) 
A brother by a different mother, a half-brother. 

BHIR, H. (fA^j) A crowd, a mob. 

BHIS, H. (^j^j^j, S. f%ST.) The edible root of the lotus, or, 
more correctly, the fibres of the stem ; also called Basend, 
Bhisenda, Bhastnr. 

BHISHMASHTAMI, S. (^T^IB^) The eighth day of the 
month Magha, when libations are offered to Bhishma, the 
son of Gangd. 



BHI'T, H. (c^JV, S. fT%) The wall of a house. 
BHIT, BHITI', or BHI'TI, H. (d-^, ^^, ^Ji-J-tf) Ground 
either naturally or artificially raised, and fit for various 
purposes, as for the site of a house, or of a village. 
Mounds confining a tank or piece of water. Raised 
ground near a tank for planting the Piper betel upon. 
Vestiges of an old house. The old or main land of a 
village, that which has been always cultivated, in oppo- 
sition to that which is gained from the river, or by allu- 
vial deposit; also, but apparently erroneously, Bita, 
Beeta. Although somewhat differently spelled, especially 
with regard to the last consonant, which is the hard t 
instead of the soft, the word has probably the same 
origin as the preceding one, or S. Bhitti, a wall. 

Bhitauri, H. (<_5^^.AXyj) Ground-rent, rent paid for the 
site of a house by one not a cultivator of the village 

BHITARIA, H. (b^JL^j, from^jix^j, within, S. ^THRTO A 
domestic, male or female, one admitted to the inner 
apartments of a dwelling, a guest at a marriage-feast 
who is admitted to eat with the relatives of the bride. 
BHITHI, Thug. A pair of travellers. 
BHOG, BHOGA, or BHOGAM, corruptly, Bogum, H., but 
occurring in most, or perhaps all the dialects, sometimes 
slightly modified, (cL/j^>, S. jfW) Enjoyment, fruition, 
use: possession, of two kinds, savedha or savddha, with 
obstruction, and nlrvedha or nirvddha, unobstructed, un- 
disputed ; corruptly, saroedhbhogy and nirrvedhbhogy. 

Bhogya, H. S. (WTJJ) Any thing that may be used or 
possessed. (Tel. Bhogyamu, Ep^XgKXD) 

Bhogadhi, or Bhogyadhi, H. S. (from bhoga, or bhogya, 
and ddhi, wftlJ, a pledge) A pledge or deposit which 
may be used until redeemed. 

Bhoga-bandhah, or -bundhuk, or Bhogya-bandhak, H., 
&c. (vftiR^ir, S. Bhogabandhaka) Tel. Bhog-bandd, 
(eS^Xeoo'O ) A kind of bond or mortgage in which the 
article pledged or mortgaged may be converted to use, 
as land, houses, cattle, trees, &c., the profits of which 
are to be appropriated by the lender or mortgagee in lieu 
of interest- 

Bhogabandd-sanadu, Tel. (^"^^r^O The document 
by which a usufruct bond or mortgage is settled. 

Bhoga, or Bhog-dar, H. &c. (P. jlt> , who has) One in 
the possession or enjoyment of any property. 

Bhogadhihdr, or Bhogy&dhihdr, H. S. (from bhoga or 



bhogya and ^fVoKTT, a right) The possessor of the 
usufruct of pledged or mortgaged property. 
Bhoga-ldbha, or -labdhi, the latter very corruptly Book- 
labby, H. &c. (iffrTcJS'Wt, Hl'I^fJH:, from Idbha or labdhi, 
S. acquiring) Usufruct in lieu of interest. 
Bhogotra, or Bhoyottar, corruptly, Bhogitevottur, H., 
&c. (Jyy(it fr m S. vffrT and T3T, subsequent, or 1, 
what preserves) A grant of revenue for the enjoyment or 
use of an individual, especially of a Brahman or religious 
Bhogi, H. &c. (S. Hfaft) The person who enjoys or 

possesses any thing. 
BHOGA, H. S. ()ftiT, enjoyment, as before) The food offered 

to an idol. 

Bhoya-mcniilapa, H. S. (from mandapa, a temple, lit., 

pleasure-temple or chamber) That part of the temple of 

Jagannath where the food to be presented to the idol is cooked. 

Bhoga-murtti, Mar. (from S. ^f&i a form) An idol 

carried about in processions, representing the principal 

idol, which is never taken from the shrine ; also, fig., The 

head of a concern, one who has only the benefit of it ; 

also, the active manager under a nominal head. 

BnooHivA, Hindi (jftftTTT) A small basket in which the 

sower carries his seed. 

BHOI, BHOEK, incorrectly, BHOYEE, H. Mar. (i_?^J, *ft^) 

An individual of a caste whose business it is to carry 

palankins, and who is at other times a fisherman. Also 

read Boi, q. v. 

BHOJAN, H. ( ( .f^yf>, S. ftH) Food. Eating or taking food, 

feeding, entertaining. 

Bhojan-kharch, H. (A. ^^-, expense) Table expenses. 
Brdhman-bhojan, Ben., Feeding Brahmans. 
BHOJPATHA, H. S. (Hl^ij^:) The birch tree, or rather its bark. 
BHOPI, BIIOPYA, Mar. (Trtft, >ftun) The priest of a village 

temple, generally a Sudra. 
BHOTI, H. (JTtift) Labour. 

Bhotihdr, H. (Tfrft^n:) A labourer. 
BHRATRI, S. (mff) A brother. 

Bhrdtri-datta, S. (^, given) What is given by a brother 
to a sister on her marriage ; one sort of Stri-dhan, or 
woman's wealth. 

Bhrdtri-dmitiya, S. (feirta) A Hindu festival on the 
second of Kartik, on which sisters give entertainments to 
brothers, in commemoration of Yamuna's entertaining her 
brother Yama. 



BHRIGU-BANSI, H. A tribe of Rajputs deriving their origin 
from Parasurama, the stem of the Barhoulia clan. 

BHRITA, S. (fiTJ) Hired, a hired servant or labourer. 

BHRITI, S. (>jfir:) Hire, wages. 

Bhriti-rvpa, S. (from ^q, form, nature) A reward given 
to a person in lieu of wages for the performance of a 
duty for which stipulated payment or hire is improper, as 
for the performance of a Sraddha on behalf of another 

BHU, or BHUMI, S., but current in most or all the dialects, 
occasionally modified, as, BHUM or BHOOM, BHU-IN or 
BHOO-EEN, or BHUN, BIIOON, &c., H. (y^>> ^f*y^.> iji^' 

lifaV' etftf' S> 1J' ^' *jf' t: ^ Earth land i ground, 
soil, (lihum, as derived from the P. Jii'im, ,jj, is said 
to be applied to uncultivated land only, but the Persian word 
was no doubt originally the same as the S. bhumi ab- 
breviated, signifying land in general, earth, the earth). 

Jihti-bandu, Tel. (W^eooSo) Boundary of a field or an 
estate, particulars relating to it. 

Dhu-bundu-jdbitu, Tel. (83T n E><T', from the A. <xkuU) The 
ground statement, shewing the total extent of the lands 
of a village, and their distribution as arable, garden, 
and unproductive, and distinguishing those held free of 
assessment. Particulars of the boundaries of an estate. 
Also, Bhu-band-lihftd, Bhu-band-Mgsebu, and similar 

Bhu-danam, or Bhuml-ddnam, S. (from <^TT, donum) A 
grant of land, or of the revenue assessed upon it. 

Bhu-ddna patra, H. &c. (m, a leaf) A deed of grant of 

Bltui bhdren, Mar. (>T^Tr5) Ground-rent. 

Bhiipati, S. (from ^ifff!, a lord) A prince, a sovereign, 
a landholder, a Zamindar. Also Bkumipati, Bhumipa, 
and Bhupa. 

Bhu-srvdmi, S. (from yifHH . master) Landholder, pro- 
prietor, prince, sovereign. 

Bhumi, H. (from S. wftr.) Earth, land. (In Rajputana) 
Hereditary landed estate held free of assessment. 

Bhumid, H. (Lj^j^, from *jfH:) A landlord, a proprietor 
of the soil. Descendant of the founder of a village. The 
head of a village or Pate'l. Among the Bhils, a guide. 

Bhumyd, ' Mar. (*WJT> f rom S. *rfi?:) An old inhabitant 
of a place, one whose family has been settled there for 
several generations. 

Bhumah, Mar. (WToff) In Nagpur, a village officer who 



performs the worship of the boundary deity, and attends 
upon the Government revenue officers when they visit the 

Bhumltd, Mar. (MHokl) The tutelary divinity of a village, 
or of its boundaries, or of the soil, or any particular spot. 

Bhumidmat, Bhoomiawut, H. (tUjU-c^j) A general 
plundering, especially the depredations of petty chiefs 
holding lands of which an attempt has been made to dis- 
possess them, or from which a revenue not heretofore 
paid is demanded. 

Bhumi ddhd, H. ( la>l J .e^y^) Being burnt (as a corpse), 

being reduced to earth. 
Bhumi ddr, H. (P.^b, who has) A landholder, a pro- 

prietor. A head-man. A chief. 
Bhumij, H. (from |fiT, and f, born, Earth-born) A caste 

of low Hindus numerous in Ghatslld. 
Bhumika, H. &c., (wftnir) A landholder, a proprietor. A 

head-man. A military chief. 
Blwi, Uriya (CQJQ, probably a vernacular corruption of 

Bhu'i, from wfT, earth, land) A village accountant. 
Bhoi-mul, Uriya (GQIQgR.) A district accountant: also 

the salary or perquisites of the village accountant. 
Bhuin dagdkd, H. (IftJ^J^^o, from B/iuin, and ^m, 

burnt) Gifts at marriages and funerals,- some earth being 

burned before their presentation. (Eastern Oudh.) 
Bkuin-hdr or Bkun-hdr, Bhooeen-har or Bhoonhar, H. 

OV*ltt<J> jVjtf' from l ' le S - ff'T' and^Tt, who takes ; 
in the vernacular terms the n is of very nasal enunciation) 
A tribe of Hindus settled in great numbers in the districts 
of Gorakhpur, Azimgarh, and Benares, the Raja of which 
last is a member of the clan. They claim to have been 
originally Brahmans; and although they admit that the 
distinction is impaired by their having become culti- 
vators, which pure Brahmans should not be, they do not 
wholly abandon their pretensions, and style themselves 
Thakurs, a title common to both Brahman and Rajput 
tribes. Many of their subdivisions have names which are 
common to them and the Sarwaria Brahmans, as Sandal 
Gautam, Dikshit, Upadhyaya, and Pande ; and those 
which have not identical appellations, have titles con- 
necting them with the same stock; thus, the Sankar-war 
take the title of Misr, the Donwar that of Tewari, &c. 
This renders their account of themselves credible, and 
they are probably Brahmans degraded by being cultiva- 

tors, their usual avocation. The term may also designate 
a landholder in general. 
Bhulhdri, H. (H^?TTfl') Land let at a low rent to 

tenants liable to be called out for military service. 
Bhuin mdli, H. (^JU ^ftf) A Hindu of a low caste 

engaged in the lowest menial offices. 
Bhun-bhdi, Bhnon-bhaee, H. (^IgjJ^j, from S. rfH, and 
tJTtt, a brother) A man invited by a proprietor to reside 
in a village upon a portion of land assigned to him to cul- 
tivate for his own benefit, but which he may not dispose 
of: a land or estate-brother. 

Bhundari, Bhoonduree, H. (^jj^w, from S. rfVO A 
small patch of cultivation. Land let rent-free to the vil- 
lage servants, or to indigent relations, or paupers, tem- 
porary occupants. The term also occurs, Bhundd, Baundd, 
and Bhaunddri. 

Bhuniyd, H. (wfifTT) The head of a village. In Cut- 
tack, one of the former petty chiefs holding lands by 
tenure of military service. 

B/tun-jari, (?) A term of the south-west provinces. Lands 
held by those who first brought them into cultivation, or 
by their direct heirs : they cannot be alienated or trans- 
ferred, and, in default of direct heirs, escheat to the 
Bhuydn or Bhuyi, H. (from S. ^jftt) A landholder. A chief 

holding by military service. A head of a village. 
BHUUA, H. (sJ^j) Soil of alight inferior quality. (North- 

west Provinces) Sandy soil. See BHUH. 
BHUDKI, BHOODKEE, H. (?) A well sunk for purposes of 
irrigation, either in the bed or immediate vicinity of a 
river or watercourse : if near them, a channel is cut for a 
supply of water from the main stream to the well. 
BHUNGAi, BHOONGAEE, H. (^l^^j) The name of a tax 
levied by the Raja of Bijpur on part ofthe forest-produce 
of Tappa Sattisgarh, in Mirzapur. In the official report 
of the Settlement of the Tappa, the term is said to be 
derived from Bhunga, an axe. 

BHUKSA, H. (L^>) Name of a tribe inhabiting the forests 
from Sabna on the Sarda to Chandpur on the Ganges, 
claiming to descend from the Powar Rajputs, having been 
expelled from Dhar, and taken refuge, first in Oudh, and 
finally in the hills bordering on Kamaon. They are di- 
vided into fifteen clans, twelve superior, three inferior. 
BHUKTAN, Beng. (^^"O Making additions to stock. Add- 
ing new sums to what is paid off. 


BHUNDIA, H. (LijJj^j) One who cultivates with a borrowed 

BHUNJA, H. (>jn) Parched grain. 

and BOODA, also BHUDA, BHUDUH, H. (jytf, Aytf, pro- 
perly written with the cerebral d, as T5) An unproduc- 
tive soil, consisting for the most part of seven-tenths of 
sand and the rest of clay, with very little vegetable fertility, 
being the third in common enumeration. Varieties of it are 
termed Bhud-khdki and Bhud-pdrdni. It is also de- 
scribed as land not retentive of moisture. 

BHURA, H. (}jf\f>, jn) Land belonging to a village lying 
farthest from the inhabitants. 

BHURARI, BHOOBUREE, H. (^^y^j) Corn remaining in 
the ear after it has been trodden down, especially appli- 
cable to the grains of the Rabi crop. 

BHURDAND, Mar. (*n?J<B5) Money paid, or a fine imposed, 
to counterbalance a profit unjustly suspected of having 
been improperly made. A fine, a forfeit Money op- 
pressively exacted or carelessly lost. 

BHUHI, BHURBHURI, Hindi (^J^j-yJ, f^ft, i^Sjtfjtft ^J WCi ) 
Light sandy soil. 

BHURSI, BHUHI', Mar. (*T$ft, vrrt) Mould. See BURA. 

BHUS, BHUSA, BHOOS, BHOOSA, also with the vowel short, 
BHUS, &c., H. ((j~y(>, ^yj), Mar. (w*TT, >TOT, *, 
Wjr), S. (TO:) The husk or chaff of corn. The straw. 
Bhusd- or Bhunsd-jins, (,^Ji-LJ^j) All kinds of 

grain in husk. 

Bhusdr or Bhunsdr, corruptly, Bhursar, Mar. (from >J^n) 
A generic term used chiefly in marketing, for grains, 
grasses, and esculent culms. 

Bhusari, Mar. (>TOTTft) A grain-dealer, a corn-chandler. 
A petty shopkeeper or chandler ; also one who husks or 
cleans grain. 

Bhusauri, also Bhusehrd and Bhusaula, H. (i.SjyyJ, 
\jfcuyj , djZ,^) Room in a house where straw is kept. 
Bhutsdwan, H. (^j^j^) A tax on boats carrying grain. 
Bhusra, Bhoosra, H. (^K^J) An inferior kind of wheat. 

BHUT, Beng. ( ; fT>) Rescission of an order. Reversing 
any thing. 

BHUT, BHOOT, also BHUTA, H. &c. (from S. >m, been, be- 

come, past part, of >J, to be) A ghost, an evil spirit. Any 
living being. A material element, (in law) Matter of fact, 
the real state of the case. 

Shut- or Bhuta-bali, H. &c. (S. ^f^5, a sacrifice) Offerings 


to malignant spirits, or to ghosts and goblins. Offerings 

to demons or spirits at funerals. Offerings to all creatures. 

Bkuta chaturdasi, S. &c., ("qnt^ft) The 14th of the dark 

half of As win, when offerings are made to malignant 


Bhuta-devatd, H. &c. (S. ^in) A spirit worshipped as 

a divinity. 

Blmt-hundd, Mar. (?) A tax on witches or persons pro- 
fessing to exorcise evil spirits. 

Bhut-hhet, H. (from S. WH, and ^ipc, a field) A field or 
land granted to the Piihan for the cost of sacrifices to 
propitiate the evil spirits (South-west frontier). 
BMta-yajna, S. (ijjf , sacrifice) Worship of all creatures ; 

also, offerings to evil spirits. 
Bhutyd, Mar. (*J25JT) A mendicant devotee of the goddess 


BHtJT, II. (tZJj^.), Vt7, but it is probably only a various 

spelling of Bkur *C$, q. v.) Land irretentive of moisture. 

BHUTTA, H.(lXyj) Indian corn, maize. Mar. (*TCT, *TJT) 

An ear of Indian corn. 

Bhute- or Blnittc-c/wr, Mar. (^-, wf^t) A petty thief. 
BHYNS, H. (,_^Ju^) A buffalo. 
Bhynxsonda, H. (?) A tax or cess for the privilege of 

grazing buffaloes. 

BIAJ, also BIAZ, H. (^>, ^^T^\ VYAJ, q. v., Mar ( l atT3T) 
Interest on money or grain. In the north-western provinces, 
the interest paid by the cultivators on the advances made to 
them by the shopkeepers for their subsistence and repair 
of agricultural implements, for seed, and for the Government 
revenue. What is borrowed between Asharh and Kiirtik 
they repay after the autumn harvest, with 2 anas per 
rupee, or about 12 per cent., addition. What they borrow 
between Aghan and Phalgun they repay with the same 
addition after the Rabi. Kket harm. 
Bidju, H. (j-Ljo) Capital put out at interest. 
Bidj-khaibdr, Uriya (e||ffS1|QQ|Q) Usury. 
BIAR, H. ( ; Lw ) Seed-bed (Delhi). Evening (Sagar). Waste 
land fit for cultivation (Lower Doab). Subdivision of a 
village, synonymous with Patti, q. v. 

BIAS, H. (i.l.*j) Land prepared for sowing in the fol- 
lowing year. Land under preparation for rice. 
BIBAD, Ben., but also in most dialects, (f^TfTf, more 
correctly, S. vivdda f<(i^i ) Dispute, argument, con- 
troversy; a suit at law. 
BIBHAG, Ben. &c. (f<iM, more correctly, S. vtbhdga 



Portion, partition, division. Share of in- 
BICHAR, Ben. &c. (fwfa, more correctly, S. VICHARA, 

fa^Kt) Discussion, consideration, investigation, trial. 
Bichar-karttd, Ben. &c. (Pola^l) A judge. 
Bichdrak, Ben. &c. (TT5t3^) An investigator, a com- 
missioner, a judge. 

(fadir^ifi, from (t(4MI, a mat, a bed, &c.) A petty 
dealer who does not keep a shop, but carries his goods 
to a fair or market, or exhibits them in a street, or on 
the steps of a door, on a mat or cloth spread on the ground. 
BICHWAI, BicHWAXi, II. (from #, intermediate, ^sfsX , 

^j!s^"?) An umpire, an arbitrator, a middleman. 
BICHRA, Hindi (qfan) Seeds sown for the purpose of 
raising plants to be transplanted, especially rice seedlings. 
BI'DA, H. OAM) Mounds, raised ground (Oudh). Perhaps 

a corruption of Bihar, q. v. 
BIDA, H. (IjJ, from the A. c^j) BIDAY, Ben. (fTfffa) 

Taking leave, granting leave, dismissal. 
BIDAAT, H. (A. Ll^-cJo) Novelty or change in religion, 

heresy, schism ; also, oppression. 
BIDANIYA, Ben. (P*\ifa<il) An umpire. 
BIDAR, Hindi ('qfl^O A sort of rake or harrow worked by 
oxen to loosen the soil and extricate weeds from among 
the standing crops of young rice. 
Bidar-parotd, Hindi (=fl<^MClrtl) Dressing the rice crops, 

first by raking, and then passing a roller over the field. 
BIDARU, BIDURTJ, Kara. (23<$C<0, >&>) A bambu. 
BinARU, Tel. (2X^60) BIDARA, Earn. (esCS&) A troop 
of grain carriers, or Banjaras : their camps : a herd 
of loaded cattle, a number of bullocks carrying grain, 
grain in a heap. In Karnata, also, a load of any other 
articles, as Ara.ltbidd.ra, a piled heap of cotton packs; 
Kobaribiddra, a heap of cocoa-nuts in bags, &c. 
BIDHI, H., and in most dialects, (^ftJo, S. vidfti, f=rfv:) 

Rule, precept, prescribed rule or ceremony, statute law. 
Bidhibat, H. &c. (ftrfv^Tr, more correctly, Vidhivaf) 

Conformably to rule, precept, or law. 

BilHKEYAVARU, Karn. (E>w^OCXX>Saj) Persons carry- 
ing corn, cotton, &c., from one part of the country to 

BIBIGE, Tel. (2>~A) A favourable or quit-rent. 
BIDIKE, Kam. (ffitoO) A herd of loaded cattle, the pile 
of their loads. 


BIDRI, H. (tjjjOo) A kind of mixed metal of copper and 
tin, of which vessels and hukka bottoms are made ; so 
called from its being originally made at Bidar. 

BiDu.Tel. (2S&>), BipuKApu, Kara. (&>O~c):5j) Waste, 
uncultivated land. 

BI'GA, or BIGANU, Karn. (20?^, B>X<\&) The father of a 
son's wife or daughter's husband ; a person related by 

Bigati, Karn. (ES^AQ) A sister-in-law, the mother of a 
son's wife or daughter's husband. 

BIGAR, corruptly, BEEGAH, Mar. (f^rrR) Forced labour, 

compulsory and uncompensated service. See Begdr. 
Bigdri, also, Begari, Mar. (fViml) A forced or pressed 

H. (l^jlw) BIGHA, Mar. (fam) A measure of land, 
varying in extent in different parts of India. The standard 
Bigha, of the revenue surveys of the north-west provinces 
is equal to 3025 square yards, or g-ths of an acre. In 
Bengal, the Bigha contained only 1600 square yards, or 
little less than jd of an acre. In Benares it was, at 
the time of the settlement, determined at 3136 square 
yards. In other parganas it was equal to 2025, to 3600, 
or to 3925 square yards. A Kachha (an immature or 
crude) Bigha is in some places a third, in others only a 
fourth of a full or standard Bigha. Akbar's Bigha con- 
tained 3600 Ilahi-gaz, which have been considered as equal 
to the 3025 square yards of the Bigha of Hindustan. 
Mr. Elliot specifies the following as some of the va- 
riations found in the Upper Provinces : 

Bighas. Biswas. Kattas. 

Parakhabad ------ 100 acres=175 

East and South Gorakhpur- - =192 
Allahabad & part of Azimgerh, =177 
Part of Azimgerh & Ghazipur, =154 
Bijnur -------- ,, =187 

In the Upper Doab (Kachha) - =582 

In Cuttack the Bigha is now considered to be an English 
acre. The Maratha Bigha is called twenty Funds, or 
400 square Kathis or rods, each five cubits and five 
hand-breadths : as the rod varies, so does the Bigha : 
under the Aadil Shahi dynasty it was equal to 4383 
square yards, or only 457 square yards less than an 
English acre. The Guzerat Bigha contains only 284^ 
square yards. 

Bighati, or Bigltdoti, corruptly, Bcgehree, Becgotee, Bee- 
ghari, Bighari, Bigharni, H. (, 3.**J, . J^UXw) Accord- 









ing to measurement by Bighds; as revenue assessed at so 
much per Bighd ; also, division of lands by Bighas 
among coparceners. Settlement of the revenue per Bigha, 
with reference also to the quality and produce of the 
lands, generally made at a money rate, but sometimes in 
kind. A coparcenary village, in which the lands are dis- 
tributed among the sharers in Bighas and their fractional 

Bighd-ddm, H. (from ddm, Jj, price) Settlement of the 
revenue at so much per Bigha, especially in villages 
held in common, in which the lands are apportioned in 
Bighas, and the assessment proportionably rated. 
Bigha-ddn, H. (?) Rate levied on the sharers of an im- 
perfect Pattidari village, to make good any deficiency of 
revenue left by the produce of the land held in common. 
(? If this and the preceding are not essentially the same.) 
Bighd-daftttfi, corruptly, Beghah-duftery, H. (from the 
P. .Xjii , a record) Official record of the measurement of 
the lands of a district in Bighas in the time of Akbar. 
Bighdrvani, corruptly, Begownee, Mar. (ftrtJTWt) Assess- 
ment of villages at a stipulated rate per Bighd. Reduction 
into Bighds of measurements by a different standard. 

BIGHA, BEEGHA, Thug. A term used by the Thugs of 
Behar and Bengal to express a share of the spoil. 

BIHAN, Hindi, (<nVi) Seed. Puraniya. 

BIHAND, BEEHUND, H. (tXAy>) Land cut up by torrents, 
broken land abounding with ravines. 

BIHAR, BEEHUR, H. (J&o) Sterile land, land uneven and 
broken into ruts and ravines. (No doubt the same as 
the preceding, differently pronounced). 

BIHNOR, BniNONp, H. (^ji$.j, f^ffe) Land on which the 
plants of rice or other grain are sown for transplanting. 

BIHRI, H. ( (Jj&!> P- irV^> a share) A subscription, a con- 
tribution, an extra cess or assessment. In Benares, a 
ward or street rate, or a contribution from each house 
for cleaning and repairing the drains. (See Behri : the 
words are no doubt the same, slightly varied in pronun- 

Bfj, BEEJ, H., and in most dialects, CsfV, S. vija, 1 Ttaf) 

Seed, lit. or fig., as origin, cause, commencement, &c. 
Bijdi, H. (,_jW., (<HI^) A portion of seed corn which 
the poorer classes are allowed to take from the field ; see 
Bejrvar : also the portions of corn given to the village 
smith, carpenter, barber, and washerman, by each cul- 



Btjdwari, Kara. (>?23~e) J5) Extent of land computed 

according to the quantity of seed required to be sown 

in it (Mysore). Allowance for such corn (Madras). Read 

also Bijrvari. 

Bijkhdd, H. (<*( ftt) Advance of seed and food to 

agriculturists (Rohilkhand). 
Bijmdr, H. (jtc ~*>, from mdrana, destroying) Failure 

of germination of the seed. 

Bij-parava, Tel. Land actually sown (Bellary). 
Bij-parmia, (? prameya) chi patti, Mar. (?) An account 
kept by the village accountant of the quantity of land 
sown, and the amount of revenue due upon it. 
Abij, or Nirbij, H. (from S. bij or vij, with the privative 

a or nir prefixed) Seed that does not germinate. 
BIJAK, H., and in most dialects, (CiAsru) A note of grain 
when stored ; thence, a note or memorandum attached to 
any article of trade or transport, as a ticket, a label, a 
list, an invoice. 
BIJAR, BIJUR, II. (fSTU) A sort of soil in which the cerealia 

are generally sown (Lower Doab). 
BIJHERIYA, H. (Ij^-USTb) A tribe of Rajputs in the district 

of Gorakhpur. 
BI'JHONIA, H. (bJj^su) A tribe of Rajputs in the Zilla of 

BIHISHTI, H. CJiwwyJ, from the P- ei**#, paradise) A 

BIKRI, H. &c. (i_j/J, from the S. faiWO BIKRAY, BIKRI, 

Ben. (Pji3>M, fT3pt) Sale, selling. 
Bihri-gola, Ben. Uriya, (ft^tZfffal) A salt store where 

Government salt is sold by retail. 
BIKWAN, H. ()') A branch of the Gaur-tagd tribe 

(North-west Provinces). 
BIL, Ben. (fo^, S. f^5, a hole) A lake, a pond, a swamp, 

low marshy ground. 

BIL, H. (Jju) A spade, a hoe. See Bel 
Bilddr, H. (yljJjj) A digger, a miner, a pioneer. See 


BEELABUNDY, H. Ben. (^yJJudij, P<i=ii<inl, possibly 
from l<ll , to arrange, to allot, or a vernacular variety 
of Bchri and Behri-bandi, q. v.) An account of the 
revenue settlement of a district, specifying the name of 
each Mahal, the farmer of it, and the amount of the 
rent. In the north-west provinces, Bila-bandi usually 
means an arrangement for securing the payment of the 



revenue. In Behar it is said to imply the annual dis- 
tribution of the portions of the lands among the Ryots 
for their respective cultivation. 

Bila-ddr, H. (j't) <xb) A collectorof the revenue (Central India). 
BIL, H. A. (a contraction of the Arabic preposition < >, bi, 
and article al, ^\, prefixed to many words, forming 
compounds in daily use, several of which are employed 
technically as well as generally) In, with, by, &c. 
Bil-ijmdl, H. (A. JUs'b) In the whole (as an estate 
without co-parceners. 

Bi-l-aks, H. A. (^jjUS'a) On the contrary. 

Bi-l-fail, H. A. (JjuJLO In fact, indeed, actually. 

Bi-l-kul, H. A. (Jilj) Universally, entirely. 

Bi-l-maktd, Bil muqta, corruptly, Bilmoohta, Bilmokta, 
Bilmugta, H., but adopted in various dialects, (A. jlaJUJb) 
According to agreement, stipulated, fixed, consolidated; 
applied especially to a tenure by which a Ryot holds his 
land at a fixed rate per plough or per Bigha, or to the 
engagement by which his rent is fixed for a given term, 
without liability to enhancement. In Benares it was ap- 
plied to the fixed or consolidated revenue, including in one 
aggregate the Mai, or land-tax, and Abwab, or miscella- 
neous cesses. In the Northern Circars, Bil-makhtd, Tel. 
(53^ aT" ) was applied to a fixed quit-rent or revenue 
assessed at a rate below the usual standard. In the 
South it implies land or a village held at a fixed rate. 
See Agrahdram. 

Bil-mahtd Indm, H. A. (A. 

A grant of land at a 

Consolidated revenue, 

low fixed rent 
Bil-maktd jama, H. A. 

stipulated assessment. 
Bil-maktd-muhhdsa, H. (A. <Lols-) A village held 

either rent-free, or at a low stipulated quit-rent 
Bil-maktd pattd, H. A. (H. tjjr) A lease for a gross 

aggregate rent, one in which the land-tax and all other 

cesses or Abwabs were consolidated. 
Bil-maktd Rdl, H. M. (^fj) Consolidated rent or assess- 

ment, aggregate rate per Bigha. 
BILA, H. A. (iu) Without; a preposition and prefix to many 

terms in common use. 
Bild bandi, H. (P. ^&i>, a binding) Doing any thing, 

as cultivating land, pending the final adjustment of the 

Bild sltarat, or Bild mashrut, H. (from A. la^t, an 

agreement, or io^i^c , agreed) Unconditional, absolute : 

a grant of land or the like without any condition, as of 
service, &c., being attached to it. 

BILA, BEELA, see Bela, H. &c. (P. 2Lu) Money distributed 
to the poor from the private funds or privy purse of a 
man of rank. According to Gladwin (Vocabulary), Funds 
appropriated to the support of the ladies or other mem- 
bers of the family of a Nawab. 

BiLGlRi, Thug. An extensive jangal or waste, a convenient 
spot for murder. 

BILHA, Thug. A great enemy of the Thugs. A leper. A 
man deprived of his nose and ears. One much emaciated 
by sickness. 

BILIA, Thug. A brass cup ; technically, a place for mur- 
dering or burying the victims. Bilia marjana (? for 
mdrjana), to clean the cup, i. e. to choose a spot where 
to commit murder. 

BILKHARIA, H. (Si j-^) A. tr ibe of Rajputs of the Bachgoti 
Chauhan stock, so named from Bilkhar in Oudh. 

BILLADUQU, Tel. (?) An allowance of grain made to the 
person appointed to measure it. 

BILU, Karn. (^) Waste, uncultivated land. 
Bilddahola, Karn. (>^~3<5T3O) A field lying waste. 

BI'LU BITTI, Karn. (&$> 23 _^ > ) The quantity of seed 
required to sow a given extent of land. 


BIN, Mar. (^', from S. ^tn) Seed, especially as kept for 


BinbinwaU, Mar. (tfTftHdbl) Seeds, slips, roots, or any 
thing of the kind for sowing or setting. 

BINA, BEENA, H. (l*#) A sort of long grass. 

BlNAHA, BlNNAHA, BlNNAPA, Karn. ( <&>, ED^Sb, 

S>!^>^> > f rom S. vijnapti, folrffr) Petition, respectful 

statement or request. 
BINAHAH, BINUHUR, H. (^Ju ) A'gatherer of cotton (from 

iL , binnd, to pick). Benares. Elsewhere termed Paihdr, 

Paihara, or Pul. 

BINAI, BINAWAT, H. (tjUj, cyjlL) Weaving. 
BINAULA, H. (ddJiJ) Cotton seed : it is used as fodder for 

BINAURIA, H. (tojj*) A weed which grows in fields sown 

for the kharif crops : it is used as fodder. 
.BiND, BEEND, H. (JJLw) A reed, a rush, a landmark. 
BINDA, Mar. (fsfel) A mass of cotton or cordage rolled 

together, a small load or bundle (of sticks, grass, &c.). 



BINDA, BEENDA, H. (IAJUJ) A kind of rope made of grass 
or of the fibres of the Arher plant 

BINDERI, Thug. A sword. 

BINDU, Thug. A Hindu. 

BIPAKH, Ben. (S. fo*W, S. r<4MIS|) An opponent (in a suit). 

BIPAL, H. ((J-JJ, S. f<4M<$) A measure of time, either the 
same as a Pal or second, or gth of a second. 

BIPHAI, H. (,_5*Jj) also, BHIPHAI, (.y^j) S. (.Vrihwtpati, 
<jj5*Mfn: ) Thursday. 

BIB, BEER, H. () Pasturage, grass land. 

BIRA, BEEHA, H. (^Jo, ^faj) Rate of rent of lands ac- 
cording to the quality of the soil and value of the crops. 
Bird beshi, H. (P. ^j^-w , surplus) Increase of rent with : 
increased value of produce. 

BIRA, BIRA, or Biiu, corruptly, BEREE or BEEDEE, An- 
glicised BKTEL, H. (x^w IjJj, ^ftTT, ^T>, S. '<ir<5'<*T) A 
Pan or Paun, or small pieces of areka-nut, spice, catechu, \ 
and sometimes a little quick-lime, rolled up in a leaf of the 
piper-betel, to be slowly masticated, answering the pur- 
pose of an aromatic, astringent, and alkalescent condiment. 
It is much used by the natives of all parts of India, and 
is commonly presented from one to another, in token of ; 
civility or affection. It is also given in confirmation of 
an assurance of a pledge or promise, and among the 
Rajputs is ^sometimes exchanged as a pledge of defiance. 

BIRANA, or, vernacularly, BIRNA-KHAH, Hindi, (fl<HU=IT, 
from S. 4li.l!l) A tough coarse grass spreading over j 
uncultivated lands which are inundated yearly, and re- 
movable only by digging. 

BIRAR, Dakh. ( Xj) A drove of bullocks laden with grain, 

The Mohammedan tribes retain many Hindu customs, so 
that, as Mr. Elliot remarks, it is almost doubtful which 
religion they prefer. According to some of their traditions, 
they migrated into the Doab from Dajore, in the Macheri 
country; to others, from Deosar, in Jaypur, whence 
they were expelled by the Kachwahas. Rathor tradition 
places them in the vicinity of the hills bordering Rohil- 
khand in the fifth century. 

BIRHAD, or BIRHAR, Mar. (f^^TT) Lodging, residence in 

a lodging for a time. 
Birhdd bdjdlen, Mar. (fJ-li*<Mlc5) A traveller's bag 

and baggage ; lit., Lodging and bedstead. 
nirhuil hari, Mar. (fa^lScfcO) A lodger. 

BIRHANA, H. (U'jfcjj) Lands in which culinary herbs are 

BIRHERIA, H. (bjJJkjj) A branch of the Chumar tribe. 

BIRINJ, H. P. (>) Rice. 

cotton, &c. ; also BIRKI, 

BIHAR, Thug. The fighting of cats, or their cries when 

BIKBANI, BEEHBANEE, H. (^l^JJ, from vir or bir (Lat. vir) 
a man, and bdni, a form of the possessive affix, having a 
man, or husband) A term used among the Jats, and in 
the north-west provinces, to designate a man's own wife. 


(f}~yji) One of the thirty-six royal races of Rajputs, \ 
settled chiefly along the Jumna, from Rohilkhand to 
Mathura. Their chief town was Anupshehcr, the rulers of 
which, as well as the branch of Katehr Birgujars, are 
Hindus, but the other tribes are Mohammadans, although- 
adopting the Hindu title of Thakur along with the Mo- 
hammadan appellation, as, Thakur Akbar Ali Khan. 

Birinjdri, II. (.P. \ 1 , who brings) A dealer in rice fol- 
lowing camps ; more correctly, Banjdri, q. v. 
BirinjphaJ, H. A sort of rice. 
BIRJIA, H. (Usyj) A division of the Ahir tribe. 
HIHKA, II. (^j) A pond, a small well. 
BIHMBHAT, H. (UD^JU^) A branch of the Bhat tribe, 
whose office is the recitation of ancestral exploits at family 
festivals. They are hired for the occasion. They reside 
permanently in villages and towns, and do not lead a 
migratory life, like some of the other Bhats. See lihdt. 
BIIIODII, Ben. &c. (Hifll*f, from the S. virodha) Liti- 
gation, opposition. 

BIRKA, H. (s"^) Gram and barley sown in the same field. 
In the Delhi district, chana or gram injured by wet. 
In East Oudh, a ceremony connected with the building 
of a house. 

BIRRA, H. (s^, but more correctly, *j)>, detail) Entry of 
the different crops of the village lands under separate 
heads in the Patwari's account. 

Birrd-bardr, H. (;^jr? but apparently either a various 
reading, or an error for Behri-bardr, q. v.) Collection in 
kind (Central Doab). Mr. Elliot suggests its derivation 
from 'Birat,' separation on account of the crops being 
divided before appropriation, or from the Birra of the 

BIRT, or BRIT, H. (ci^, from S. vritti, ^fwt> maintenance, 
support, means of livelihood) Grant or endowment to any 
person for his maintenance, or for religious and charitable 


objects. Proprietary right, whether acquired by purchase, 
inheritance, or grant, heritable and transferable, subject 
to payment of revenue, either to Government, or to the 
Raja or Zamindar, when not specially exempt. A right, 
custom, or privilege derived from the performance of 
offices, whether secular or religious. A right to perform 
certain offices claimed by different castes. Fees to family 
priests. Birt, as used in Gorakhpur, has been supposed 
to indicate a peculiar tenure ; but it does not seem to 
have any especial sense, or to be more than a local 
term, equivalent to other terms indicating a grant of 
land, either rent-free or at a stipulated rent, being merely 
a grant of land made originally by the Rajas of Gorakh- 
pur and Benares, and held in absolute and hereditary 
right upon payment of a stipulated rent or revenue to 
the representatives of the original granter. The rent is 
liable to occasional adjustment, and to increase, if the Govern- 
ment demand on the Raja be increased. Although not liable to 
be dispossessed as long as the rent is paid, yet the occupant 
may be ousted, for a time at least, during which he is 
entitled to Malikiina. He is also considered as at all 
times entitled to the Jalkar and Bankar, or products of 
the waters and the woods. Revenue Report, Commons, 
App. iii. 81, par. 380. Various kinds of Birt are specified 
as recognised in Gorakhpur : as 

Jlvan Birt, H. ( ei^J etf*?- > li l -> maintenance for living ;) 
An assignment by the Raja to a younger son and his 
descendants of villages in perpetuity, granting them by 
Patta, or deed of lease, and receiving a fixed sum as rent. 
An allowance to the family of an old servant deceased. 

Jlitni-tit Birt, H. (L^-^J ci^jy, from Mama, to die) Com- 
pensation in land to the family of a man killed in the 
service of the Raja, chargeable with half the rent of a 
village held as Birt on the usual terms. 

Sanhal]) Birt, H. (d.y <^_^j** , from S. Sanka.lpa, 5<*<d4:, 
a vow) A religious grant to a Brahman, and held at first 
rent-free, but latterly subject to a small payment. 
liirta, IL (in Nepal) Grant of land rent-free in absolute 
property and for ever. 

Birtid, H. (UJi/) One holding a Birt, or subsistence 
grant of any description, upon the terms of the grant. 
In Gorakhpur, the Birtias, according to Mr. Elliot, pay 
a fixed yearly sum, equivalent to 20 per cent, of the 
Government revenue, on account of the Raja or superior 
landholder ; but they are the owners of the soil, and 


exercise the entire management of their villages, not 
liable to be ousted, holding- an hereditary and transferable 
tenure, and subject to enhancement of rent only when 
the Government revenue is increased. (They do not ap- 
pear, therefore, to differ essentially from Ryots holding 
hereditary property under a Zamindar, and not liable to 
dispossession as long as paying their rent ; except that 
they are analogous to village Zamindars in excluding the 
district Zamindar from interference in the management 
of the villages.) 

BIRWA, H. (Ij^j) A tree. In East Oudh, The labourer em- 
ployed to raise water with the Beri, q. v. 
Birrvdhi, H. (^Jt>^j>) An orchard. (From Birrvd, a tree). 

BISAH, H. (sLuj) Purchase, buying. 
Bisahru, H. (j iy*^) A purchaser. 

BISAL, Thug. A person intended to be killed, but who has 
clothes round his neck, or some hindrance to strangu- 
lation. A victim awkwardly handled. A Thug with 
traces of his crime on his dress. 

BI'SANAM, Mai. (?) A second or lighter crop (Travancore). 

BISANDHI, Thug. Fetters, any metal utensil. 

BiSAli, H. (^L*J) Loan of seed, to be repaid with increase 
after harvest. 

BISAT, H. (ciAujJ, less correctly, LL*;) Mar. (falflnr) 
Stock, capital, goods, means. 

BISATI (A. JLiJ, JsLwJ, from the A. kwJ, a bed, a car- 
pet) A pedlar, a hawker ; a trader not keeping a shop, 
but exposing his wares on a carpet or mat spread on the 
ground. (The notion is the same as is expressed by 
Bic/thditi, q. v., and the terms are probably confounded.) 

BISEN, H. (yjJgaij) A powerful tribe of Rajputs in the 
eastern parts of the north-west provinces, the head of 
whom is the Raja of Salempur Majjhauli. 

BISH, corruptly, BEESH and BEESHY, H. &c. (^j^>, also 
written and pronounced BIKH, jj, S. f^m, visha) 
Poison in general, but usually applied to a root used 
sometimes in medicine (aconitum ferox). The fibrous 
stalk of the lotus (from S. f%^j). 

BISHA, Uriya ( QCI| ) A brass weight equal to 20 

BISHKAPRA, H. (^Cio) A kind of spreading grass used 
in medicine (trianthema pentandra). 

(c^MX^j, S. faujj, vishnu and prita, wfaf, grateful to, 
beloved by) whence also, Bishnuprit, Ben. 
2 A 



Lands held rent-free by Brahmans, or religious persons, 
professing the especial service of the deity Vishnu. 
Bishnprit-ddr, H. (P. j\3, who has) A Brahman holding 
lands granted in honour of Vishnu. 

BISHNOTTAH, corruptly, BISHNOWATTUR, H. &c. (^JjjLio, 
S. fowfaT) Land held rent-free by Brahmans profess- 
ing the worship of Vishnu, or granted in honour of that 
divinity : hence also, Baishnavottar (from Baishnav, a 
follower of Vishnu). 

BISHNOWI, H. ((^yyoio) A tribe of growing importance in 
some parts of the north-west provinces, combining Hindu 
and Mohammedan practices and belief, generally terming 
themselves Sheikhs, but adding the title to a Hindu name. 

BISIIT, H. (ci-M^j) A provincial term in Kamaon for a 
kind of Tdluliddr, appointed by Government 

Bisi, BEESEE, H. (^*jj) A measure of weight, commonly 
a Vix or Vix'i, equal to five Sers. In Garwhal and 
Kamaon, a dry measure ; also a measure of land equal to 
20 nalis, and 4800 square yards. In Rangpur, a land 
measure equal to 10 dltans. 

Bisi, BISEE, Uriya, (q1) A fiscal division of the county 
a province or district paying revenue under the Hindu 
Government of Orissa : also termed Bishe (from*haya, 
fipnK, a country). 

Bissofi, or Bixhiiyi, read also, Bisaye, (?) Uriya, The chief 
of a district in Orissa, collecting the Government revenue, 
and exercising police and judicial authority. The Des- 
mukh of the Marathas. 

BISNI, Thug. A Thug, a thief, any one living by plunder. 

BISODHAN, Ben., Uriya, &c. (f3Z*ft*R, S. f^IIVH, lit., 
making clean or pure) Acquitting, discharging, as 
a debt. 

Bitodhan patra, Ben. &c. ( T35, a document) An ac- 
quittance, a receipt, a written discharge or release. 

BISWA, H. (5^wJ, f<4<y, from bis i/~Ju , S. vinsati f^Sjfif 
twenty) Lit., a twentieth, but applied especially to the 
twentieth part of a Bighd. It is also used to express a 
proportionate share of proprietary right in a village which 
is conventionally taken as a Bighd, divisible into twenty 
parts distributed among the sharers ; as, a holder of five 
Biswas is proprietor of one-fourth ; of ten Biswas, of a- 
half ; of one Bisiva, of one-twentieth ; of half a Bisrea, 
of one-fortieth, &c. 

Bisrva-bardr, H. (^, TOt, tax) Assessment or col- 
lection of the revenue upon the Biswas or shares of the land. 

Biswaddr, H. (P. j\& , who has) The holder of a share or 

shares in a coparcenary village. 

Bigtvaddri, H. (P. j_)^, having) Proprietary tenure in 
Biswas, or shares so designated. Also the tenure of in- 
dependent village communities holding under a superior 
Talukdar, as in Aligarh, Mynpuri, and Gorakhpur. In 
some places, as in the Delhi district, the term is equiva- 
lent to Pattiddri or Zamindari. (In that case the deri- 
vation is probably different, and it may come from the 
S. visrva f^I, all, whole). 

Bistralt, Mar. (T^oir, from S. f^rfff, twenty) The 
twentieth part of a Pad, which is the twentieth of a 
Jilyhd. The Bisivah is one square Kdti, or rod, which, 
however, varies in length. 

Bimnili, Uriya (QCJJCll) Land assigned to the Khan- 
ddyat, or head of a division called a Klianda (or, more 
probably, the land assigned to the Bissm, the H. Khund 
and U. Bixhtt meaning the same). 

liisirdnsa, or Jiisiriiiisi, II. (ilUo'yuJ , from Bisva, and S. 
^51 nnxa, portion) The fraction of a Bixnm, usually 
the twentieth. 

BIMM', II. d_sy^, fa'jft) The holder of a Bisma, or share, 
in which character the person may be appointed by a col- 
lector of revenue to collect the dues of the other sharers. 
Alienation of lands on a low quit-rent or payment of a 
fine (East Oudli). In the north-west provinces it some- 
times implies a deduction of two Biswas per each Bigha 
cultivated by under-tenants, claimed as his right by the 
landlord or lessor. 

BITA, BEETA, H. (tfhn, more correctly, perhaps, Bum, 
q. v.) Lands of a village that have existed from time im- 
memorial, in opposition to lands recently acquired by 
alluvial deposit. 

BITA or BHITA, Thug. A hundred. 
BITAUBA, H. (}jf>J.) A heap of dried cow-dung. 
BI'TAUHI, Hindi (sftltrO A. tax upon artificers and shop- 
keepers for permission to work or trade in a village. 

BITHAK, H. (l^J^b) Ant-hills (East Oudh and Benares); 
also a seat or platform where people meet to converse. 
See Baithali. 

BIT KHET, H. (e^J^ i-i^) Lands on which forced or un- 
requited labour is demanded from the Ryots by the owner 
of the village. 
BIT- or BID LA VAN, corruptly, BITNOBEN, Hindi (f^7 or 


A kind of medicinal salt, commonly known as 
black salt, formed by fusing common salt with Emblic 

BITRA-BANDI, H. (L<& J/j) Arrangements for securing 
the revenue (Sagar). See BILA-BANDI. 

BITT \DAHOLA, Kara. (S>j| B dSvBeJ) Afield left fallow. 


BITTE, Kara. ( ?4) Performance of inferior offices in a 
" ' cJ 

village, as porterage, &c., for fees in grain, or lands 

exempt from revenue. 
BITTE-KHADI, Kara. (K>jaJ~EQ) A cess levied in lieu 

of a piece of cloth formerly exacted annually from each loom. 
BITTIYAVA, BITTIYALU, Kara. (S&30&3, ik3&xrs<JO) A 

VjJ tU 

free porter. 

-> ? _Q 

BITTE YETTU, Kara. (53 t^cOJo^) A tax levied in Mysore 
in lieu of bullocks formerly required from the villages 
for the conveyance of grain to the Paligars. 
BITTUVADU, (23Q^,3OJ) Sowing seed. 
BITU, BEETOO, Thug. Any person not a Thug. 
BIYUTAT, H. (tiilJjJo, pL of bait, a house, lit, house ex- 
penses) A term applied to lands in the neighbourhood of 
Agra that were assigned originally to members of the 
royal family, but had come under general cultivation. 
BIZAAT or BAZA AT, A. (c^c^aj) Agency, commission, in 
which the profit on the sale accrues to the proprietor of 
the article sold, and is not divided between the owner 
and the agent. Capital. Stock in trade. 
Bo, H. (jJ , root of Bo-nd, to sow) Cultivation. Sowing seed. 
Boai or Board, (<_j'j? , \j*]> ) Sowing seed. Time for sowing. 
Boyar, H. (jij>, ^<lO Land that never lies fallow. 
Bob, H. (4->y) Sowing grain by the drill (Bundelkhand). 
Boi bdchh, II. (<t-'o t_$y) Assessment to be realised on 

actual cultivation (Delhi). 
Boni, H. (ir>^) Sowing. Seed-time. 

BOBHATA, Mar. (^fvn<n) Notoriety. Publicity of what ought 
to be kept quiet. General outcry. A clamorous com- 
plaint or accusation. 
BODA, H. (bjj ) A buffalo. 

BODAR, BODUR, H. (/Jj?) A place to stand on whilst 
throwing up water with the Dauri, or basket, from a lower 
to a higher level. 

DDHA, Ben. (i^tSl) A security, a bondsman, a bail. 
AMI, Tel. (?) The chief of the left-hand caste in Dindi- 
gul. Gl. 5th Rep. 
BO<;.\MU, Tel. (eJ^X&W, from S. jftir, enjoyment) The 
dancing-girl caste. 


Bogamu-vddu, Tel. (J X5x><xT"Cio) A dancing girl. 
Bogamudi or Bhogandi, Tel. (2S~*XoQ, sT^XcD) 
A dancing girl. 

BOGASE, Kara. (VsX ,0) The two hands joined so as to 
hold any thing ; whence it comes to imply the small per- 
quisites granted to the village servants measured by 

BOHAUDIA, H. (bOy&jj) A cultivator who has not a plough, 
and either works with a hoe or a borrowed plough. 

BOHNI, H. ( v _ s iay) BAUNI, Ben. (^ft), BONI, Tel. 
Kara. (*''), Mar. CTlfi) The first money received 
during the day, or the first ready-money sale by shop- 
keepers and hucksters. Handsel. No credit is given for 
the article first sold. 

BOHRA, incorrectly, BORAH, H. (]^>^, S. vyavahdri Hl^tO, 
a trader, a man of affairs), also BOH!RA, BOHARI, or Bo- 
HARI, Mar. ("fl^KI, sfffrct, sff^TCt) A banker. A money- 
lender, or merchant of a particular tribe so called, usually 
receiving any article of marketable value in payment of 
money advanced. The Bohras appear to have originated 
in Guzerat, where they became converts to Mohammad- 
anism, but they are settled in many parts of central and 
western India and in the north-west provinces. 

Boi, BOEE, Tel. (U* CXXJ~) A man of the fisherman-caste, 
but whose usual avocation is also the carrying of litters 
and palankins, and who is employed as a domestic servant 
at Madras, where the word is pronounced like, and con- 
founded with, the English boy : " also written and 
pronounced Bhoi," q- v. 

BOIDU, Tel. (^COJ^>&J) A man of the cow-herd or 

BOJH, H. U:=-y), Ben. BOJA or BOJHA, (i^tRl, Ctf\, 
Hindi (^JRj) A sheaf or bundle of grain or grass; also, 
a load, a burthen. A load of corn equal to five Dhokus, 
but the measure varies in different districts, and also ac- 
cording to the crops. The first of the pans placed for 
receiving sugar from the boiler. 

Bojh-latal, H. (^Gj t&-j>) Division or shares by stocks 
tor bundles of mowed corn (Rohilkhand). 

BOKA, H. (&jJ, ^cRT) A basket, pail, or leather bag for 
throwing up water ; possibly connected with the Anglo- 
Saxon term J3uh, Bouk, Bucket. 

BOKKASA, Karn. (C^g^ 3 ) Treasure. 
Bokkasadamane, Karn. (>Sg><5^oe3) A treasury. 

BO'KKENA, Tel. (?^~ 6 ~|-^, from the H. boko) A bucket 



for drawing water from a well. A leather bag for baling 
out water. A grain or corn bag. 

BOLA, H. (ly, from liJo, to speak) Verbal agreement be- 

tween two parties. (In the Delhi district) agreement 

between the village lessees and cultivators as under-tenants. 

Bolans, II. (,.i!j.>) Making over one's share to 


Bolansi, II. OguJiSjj) The holder of a share properly be- 
longing to another. An adopted heir. (This and the pre- 
ceding are current in Benures and East Oudh, from 
bolnd, to speak, and ans ^t^I, a share). 
BoLKHA'rorBoi.EKHUT, elsewhere written BHOLKAT, (?)Mar. 
One of the accounts kept by the Kulkarani, a debit and 
credit account, shewing the amount received from the cul- 
tivators, and how it has been disposed of. 
BOI.WAN, Mar. (*flcfcM<U) Ceremony of conducting a bride 
to her husband's house ; also, dismissal of the bridegroom's 
friends and attendants. Ceremony of propitiating Bliutus 
or evil spirits, who have entered a village, to induce them 
to leave it, and conducting them with music and in 
procession to the confines. 

BOMBYA, Mar. (^farO A person in office at CJaya, who, 
when a party of pilgrims arrives, precedes them, making 
a noise by beating his mouth. 

UOMKAR, Mar. (?) A class of weavers in Kandesh. 
BONBA or BONDA KOYYA, Tel. (Z5"*0<$, zJ^o " T '0&) 

Stocks for confining petty offenders. 
BONDU, Tel. (sS^OQJ) A field or crop dried up for want 

of rain. 
Bondu-pon-adam, Tel. (?) Parched or dried-up crops, 

yielding no grain. 
BONTALU-RASJ, Tel. (?) Ears of Jatcdri retaining the grain 

after threshing. 

BORA, H, Ben. (*;}?) A sack for holding rice. 

BORO, H. Ben. (TtZ3l) A sort of rice sown in January 

and reaped in April : it is sown in low swampy ground, 

ornear the banks of a river where irrigation is not required. 

Uorofaxl, H. Ben. (J^a) The season of spring, or that 

in which the Boro rice is reaped. 

BOTTU, Tel. Karn. (ji>) A drop. A spot. An ornament 
or spot-mark on the forehead of a bride at the time of 
marriage. Sectarial mark with paint or ashes on the 
forehead. Also jj- 4 th of a pagoda. 

BOTTU, Tel. (~*&) The husk or chaff of grain after 


BRAHMA, S. (masc. Brahma, 1 S?tT) One of the chief Hindu 
deities. The agent in creation. The creator. 

BRAHMA, with the final vowel short ( - 3?() The first cause 
of all things. The Supreme Being. Also, the Vedas 

or, in Tamil, PARAPPAN or PIRRAMANAN, corruptly, 
BRAMAN, BRAMIN, &c., II. (^.^1^, S. rr?n^) A man 
of the first order or caste of Hindus, properly charged 
with the duty of expounding the Vedas, and conducting 
the ceremonies they enjoin : in modern times, engaged 
not only in such duties, but in most of the occupations 
of seculur life. The Bruhmans of the present day are 
distinguished into a variety of divisions and subdivisions, 
between most of which no social relations exist. The 
first distinction is between those who maintain a sacred 
fire and are thence termed Agniliotras and those who 
do not, by far the larger proportion. A more universal 
distinction is that of the five Cfaura and five Drdvira 
races. The first are the Kdnyahulija, or Brahmans of 
Kanuj ; Xdnimrat, or north-west of India; Gaur, or 
Bengal ; Maithila, or north Bahar ; Utkala, or Orissa. 
The second are the Drdvira, Tailanga, Karn&ta, 
Jlalitinix/itra, and Gurjar, or Guzerat Brahmans. 
Each of these has various subdivisions. According to a 
Jdti Mala, or list of castes current in Hindustan, 
the principal are thus enumerated: 1. KANYAKUBJA, 
four : Sarjupdri, Samaria, Jijhaulia, and Sanaudhiyii. 

2. SARASWAT,ten: Bhdradrcdji, Sipoli, Chaini, Sudhani, 
Bhdrati, Khukati, Rankhati, Soli, Mali, Graham. 

3. GAUR, six: Gaur, Pdrihh, Bdhimi, Khandelrvdl, 
Sdrasn-at, Sutthrvdl 4. 5. The Maithila and Utkala 
Brahmans have but one order. Of the five Drdviras, 
the DRAVIRA properly so termed has three divisions: 

Bddam, Brihatcharan, Ashtaaahasra. 2. TAILANOA 
has six : Teltjhdnya, Belnad, Begindd, Karnahammala, 
MvnganM, Kdsalndd. 3. KARNATA, two : Badfjalndd- 
Silndd. 4. MAHARASHTRA, eight: Kardde, Chitpd- 
wan, Desastha, Yajurvedi, Apastambha, Abhir, Serabai, 
KayastUpralhu. 5. The GURJAHA Brahmans are of 
eighty-four tribes ; the principal of which are the Ndf/ara, 
Mora, Aud'iah, Mervdra, Sri-yaw, Khedewal, and 
Bhmnhar : (some of these names are very possibly 
inaccurate.) There are also two classes considered ad- 
ditional to the whole, Sdkadmpi, who came latterly, it is 


said, from Sdkadrvipa, and Gaydli, said to have been 
made Brahmans by Vydsa. Each of the above has an 
infinite number of subdivisions. The Kanouj Brahmans, 
from whom the Brahmans of Bengal are reputed to spring, 
are said to have been divided, after their settling- in Bengal, 
into a hundred and fifty-six families. Of these, one hundred 
are to be found in the portion of Bengal termed Varen- 
dra, and fifty-six in that termed R&rh. Of the former, 
eight, and of the latter, six are considered Kulina, or of 
good family, or noble ; a classification ascribed to Balal 
Sen, a Raja of Bengal in the twelfth century. The 
first are named JIaitra, JBftima, Rudra, Vdgist, Santd- 
mani or Sandydl, Ldhuri, Bhdduri, Sudliu-vdgisi, and 
Bhadara. The fourth and fifth names are not unfre- 
quently met with, the rest seldom. Those of the Bark 
Brahmans are more common: they are Mukhuti or 
Multkarji, Gdnguli, Kanjldha, Goshdla, Bandygati or 
Banarji, Chatati or Chatoji. 

( riismft) A female of the Brahmanical caste, the wife 
of a Brahman. 

Brahmackarya, II. (W5I, from Brdhmana, and Charya,^^, 
practice) The condition of the religious student. Leading a 
similar life, or one of continency and self-denial. Mendicancy. 
Brahmachdri, H. I. C^V, f r 'n<HU and ^lO, who fol- 
lows or practises) A youth of either of the three first pure 
classes during his pupillage, and while studying the 
Vedas. A mendicant who professes to have prolonged 
the period of studentship, and to observe through life the 
practice of study, poverty, and continence. In general, 
however, an ignorant vagrant. 

Bralimdduya, corruptly, Bremhaday, Bramadayum, Bra- 
mandoyan, Bumadya, H. S. (^3t, for rilsSUU, and dddya, 
'ai^T(, what is received) Any grant or perquisite ap- 
propriated to Bmhmans. In the Carnatic, a twentieth 
of the Government revenue was formerly considered as 
payable to the Brahmans for religious purposes. 
Brahmahatyd, S. (^3T?iin) The murder of a Brahman. 

Any crime of like enormity. 

Brahma, or Brahman-jdi or -jaec, Mar. (ddMI^) A 
man of a mixed race, sprung from a Brahman father and 
woman of inferior caste. He is usually engaged in 
service, agriculture, or trade. 

Brdhmandbhojand, S. &c. (MIJUn*ft*l<IT) Distribution of 
food to Brahmans. 


Brdhmanadivya, S. Mar. (ST'sOT (<'=<() A form of oath : 

making oath while holding the feet of a holy Brahman. 
Brdhmanjan, Mar. (from S. 5PT, a person) A Brahman 

entertained in a Brahman family as a menial. 
Brahmavdsitti, T. (l^CTlOO-l [76*514^, spelled Pirama- 

vdsittf) A Brahman village. 

Brahmottara, corruptly, Burmhotur, Bruhmutter, Bro- 
mutter, Barmautar, Burmuter, Bermertur, &c., Ben. 
Uriya Oc^lOT , S. sT3t, A Brahman, and ^HT, uttara, 
what comes after or belongs to, but the derivation 
and form of this compound, notwithstanding its very 
general use, are not quite certain. It is sometimes 
written Brahmatrd, as if derived from S. trd, what pre- 
serves, from the root ^n, trd, to preserve or protect, but 
the correctness of this is doubtful) Land granted rent- 
free to Brahmans, for their support and that of their 
descendants ; properly as a reward for their sanctity or 
learning, or to enable them to devote themselves to re- 
ligious duties and education. Such lands have not un- 
frequently fallen into the possession of lay proprietors. 
Brdkmanmdd, Karn. (?) A term used in the Nagar dis- 
trict of Mysore for the garden country. 

BRAJ, or BHUJ, incorrectly, BRIJ, H. (~.jt , from the S. 
vraja, '3f, a cow-pen or pasture) The tract about Ma- 
thura and Brindaban, the residence of the juvenile 
Krishna, and the scene of his boyish gambols with the 
Gopas and Gopis, or cowherds and milkmaids. 
Brajbdsi, Brujbasee, corruptly, Brijbasi, Birjebassy, 
Birjebussic, and Birjebaussie, H. S. (lit., an inhabitant 
Vdsi or Bdxi of the district of Braj) An armed atten- 
dant, one carrying arms, as a sword and shield, or 
sometimes a matchlock, and employed as a doorkeeper, a 
guard, or an escort. He is always a native of Western or 
North-Western India, and is thence identified with a 
Hindu of Braj. 

Braj-bhdshd, or -bhdkhd, H. S. (from S. >TRT, speech) 
The dialect of Braj, the form of Hindi spoken in the 
neighbourhood of Mathura and other parts of the north- 
western provinces, and in which the most popular poems of 
the Hindus are written ; as, the Ramayana, by Tulasi Das. 
BRAT, or BRUT, corruptly, BURT, H. (ciJ^, S. vrata, 1 3TT) 
A vow, a fast, any self-imposed religious obligation. 
(The word is improperly confounded with Birt and Brit. 
See the next.) 

BRIT, H. (ci.^, S. vritti, ^f^, means of subsistence) A 




grant of land or other means of support to any one. (In 
the spoken dialect the word is most usually pronounced 
Birt, q. v.) 
BRITTANT, H. (ei-oU^, S. <4^|>H, vrhtdnta) Information, 

news, intelligence of a transaction or occurrence. 
Brittdnt-patra, H. (.patra, a leaf) Record of a decision 

pronounced by a Panchuyat. 

Bu, BUA, BUBU, H. (y , \j>, j)ji) A sister. Bud is also an 
aunt by the father's side. Bubu in the west of India is 
a lady. 

BUD, BOOD, H. (from the P. Jy, third person preter. of 
yjiJjj, to be) Being, state or condition of being, espe- 
cially with reference to the past It is used in Hindi 
chiefly in composition ; as, Bud-bash, a residence, Bud- 
nd-bud or Hast-nd-lud, remission of rent on failure of crops. 
BUDH-GANGA, BooDH-GuNGA, H. (iX&sjj; from Buil/i, 
pronounced Burhj or Burha, old) The old bed of the 
Ganges, traceable below Hastinapur, and also below 
Soron and Kampil. 

BUDHAVARA, vernacularly, Budhwdr, or Budhbdr, S. &c. 
(^preTC, from Budha, the planet Mars, and vdra, a day) 
BUDIBUDAKI, Karn. (tX)Oeo0^6) A class of religious 

mendicants in Mysore. 
BUDIDE PANNU, Tel. (eaj-oa~3?Sj;^ f rom i u dide, ashes) 

A fee for permission to burn a corpse. 
BUDIT, BOODEET, Mar. (VTbf) A loss, a sum of money 

given up as lost Money imprudently invested. 
Buditkul, Mar. (^rhfgs^s) A bad debtor, one not 

likely to pay. 
Budit khat, Mar. (from hhat, ^m, P. a writing) A bond 

not expected to be discharged. 
Budit kharch, Mar. (^, from p.) Expenditure with- 

out return. Head of an account specifying losses. 
Budit khdten, Mar. (<j/)rfWlif) An account or register 

of bad debts. 

Bunni, BURKI, Mar. (tliohl) A hole or pit dug by the side 
of a stream to collect water for distribution in irrigation. 
BUDRUKH, Mar. (^tf. dialectic corruption of P. Buzunj, 
^Jjj>.' great) Venerable, dignified. Greater or upper, as 
fields or towns opposed to lesser or lower: also, senior 
as opposed to junior, or major to minor. 
BUGARA RASI, Tel. (?) A heap of unwinnowed grain. 
BUJHARAT, H. (cu^l^., from Ul$s-y, to explain or cause 
to understand) An audit or adjustment of accounts. 

Bujhonta, H. (lii^s 1 ., from lif-jJ, to understand) An 

abstract account of a village proprietary, made out annually 

by the Patwarf, shewing the profit on each share. 
BUK, BOOK, H. (CJ^j) Land recovered through the reces- 

sion of a river (Rohilkhand). 
BUKARA, BOOKAHA, H. (*j6j>) Land left by a river, but 

rendered useless by a deposit of sand (Rohilkhand). 
BULANDI, BOOLUNDU, H. (from the P. buland, JoJj , lofty) 

High land. 
BUN, Hindi fatf) The quantity of grain given to a labourer 

for a day's work in weeding, from two-and-a-half to three 

Scrs of rough grain (Puraniya). 

BUN, BOON, H. ( (i ^) Coffee in seed, before it is ground. 
BUNDELA, BOONDELA, H. (iSljjJy) A spurious tribe of 

Rajputs, who give name to the province of Bundclkhand, 

corruptly, Bundlecund. They are descended from the 

Garhwars of Kantit and Khairagarh, and first settled 

in Bundelkhand in the thirteenth or fourteenth century. 

There are few genuine Bundelas in the Britisli portion 

of the province, except in the Pargana of Panwari. 
BUNDU, Karn. (Xr*O&3) The coffee plant (Mysore). 

Bundu bij, Karn. (from S. vija, seed) The coffee berry. 
BUNGA, or BONGA, H. (<*)j?) A stack of straw. 
BUNGAH, corruptly, BOUNGA, H. (P. li;), Mar. BUNUGEN, 

(*j<ijij) Followers, suttlers, and baggage of an army. 
BUNT, BOONT, II. (ooy) Unripe grain or pulse (Cicer 

BUNYAD, II. (P. iU*j), Mar. (^*)l<) Lit, foundation, but 

applied to offices or appointments which have existed 

from time immemorial. 

Bunyddi, Mar. ('M'l<fl) Original, fundamental. 
Bunyddi thalkari, Mar. (^Sofirt, landholder) The origi- 

nal landlord or proprietor of an estate. 
BURA, BURHA, Mar. (TO, 5^) Mould. 
BURA, BOORA, H. (*#) Redeemable mortgage (East 

BURANT, BUHANT, Mar. fet?, TOT) A place overgrown 

with grass and bushes. A thicket of low bushes. 
BURA-TUKRA, BOORA-TOKRA, Ben. (?) An account of village 

receipts and disbursements made up for six or eight 

months by the Patvvari, and balanced. The balance is 

carried to the demands of the rest of the year. 
BURI, Ben. (5f) An inundation, immersion of a tract 

under water. A measure of value equal to five Gandas, 

or twenty Kaunris. 


BURI'DA, BOOREEDU, H. (P. WJ^, lit, cut) Fields cut by 
stealth (Rohilkhand), 

BURKA, Mar. (?) A subdivision or share of the lands of a 
village, varying from ten to fifty, each comprising a cer- 
tain number of fields, but not a defined quantity of land. 
Burkd chi Ml, Mar. (?) The managing Ryot who appor- 
tions the Burkas and the revenue among the other cul- 
tivators. Dak/tin. 

BURKI, Mar. (?) A structure of masonry for drawing 
water from rivers and nalas. 

BuRRi, BOORREE, H. ( ^j ) Sowing seed by dropping it 
from the hand into the furrow, instead of sowing broad- 
cast or by drill ; also read GURRI and GULLI. 

BUHUD or BURAD, Mar. (j^ 1 ?, ^ts) The name of a caste, 
or individual of it, whose occupation is mat-making. He 
is sometimes enumerated among the village servants. 

BUTADU, Tel. (ZOO^&i) Household expenses. 

BUTARAD, Hindi (MHK<^) A name given to extra cesses 
upon the cultivator. Puraniya. 

BUT-FAHOSHI or -PAROSHI, Tel. (from P. but, an idol, and 

parmarish, cherishing) A tax levied on different trades 
in a town or village to defray the cost of celebrating the 
worship of the tutelary divinity. A tax levied on the 
festivals of the inferior castes and the drums beaten on 
such occasions. In former times, also, a fine imposed by 
a Guru, or spiritual guide, to expiate certain breaches of 
the laws of caste. 

BUTTAWAL, (?) Tamil. Land newly cleared for cultivation. In 
the first year it is exempt from rent, in the succeeding 
years it pays the Government revenue in progressive 
fourths, until, in the fifth year, it is fully assessed. 

BYABASAY, for S. VYAVASAYA, Ben. (^JTSTfa), S. Oqmim;) 

Trade, business affairs. 

Byabatdyt, Ben. A tradesman, any one engaged in affairs 
or business. 

JYABASTHA, for S. VYAVASTHA, Ben. CW^l) A statute, 
a law. A written opinion or dictum on a point of Hindu 
law drawn up by Pandits. 

JYABAHAR, Ben. (^J^t^), S. 0*rT?n:) Custom, usage. 
Business, profession, affairs in general. A suit at law ; 
whence, also, Bydbahdrik, one engaged in affairs, in a 
suit, &c. 

JYAH, H. GsLu, S. fspn?) Marriage. 

JYAJ, H. (^-Iw) Interest. See Bidj. 


BYAJU, H. (j-L.u) Principal bearing interest. See Bidjy. 

BYANA, BYARA, Kara. (5~3ra, STc>#) A piece of pasture- 
ground attached to a village, and assigned as a perqui- 
site to the head-man, who lets it out for the grazing of 
cattle at a charge per head. 

BYA"PAR, H. Ben. (jljUj, nmiO Business, affairs. 
Bydpdri, H. (^ULw, S. *rnmrfr) One who transacts busi- 
ness of any kiud, a merchant, a dealer, a trader. (It 
occurs in most dialects, slightly modified, as, Bepari, Bai- 
pdri, Beopdri, Byopdri, Byaupdri, &c. 

BYAURA, H. (.])>, S. 3re?K:) Detail, narration, statement 
of circumstances. 

BYAY or BYAYHAR, (^>,jl^J^, S. *mi) Expense, expen- 

BYOHAR or BYAUHAR, properly, BYABAHAR, as above, or 
VYAVAHAHA, H. (jbt^jo) Business, affairs, trade, calling. 

BYOHAR, H. (j&jJJ, from the S. 'anTfTt) A loan. 
Byohard or Byohdri, H. 0/bjJu, ^'jfcj-w, S. 
A creditor, a lender. 

CASTE, Eng. A word applied to the distinctions of birth, 
tribe, and occupation, which separate the people of India 
of the Hindu religion, and preclude their eating, drinking, 
and smoking together; their using the same vessels ; 
their intermarrying ; and other relations of social life. 
The lower orders of Indian Mohammadans pretend to 
similar distinctions ; caste being in all cases matter of 
pride, not of humiliation. The word is derived from the 
Portuguese Casta, race, species. 

CHABEJJA, CHABENI, H. (l*#*- (jko-> & ^HK to chew) 
Parched grain. 

(iS,ijAj- , *NiKI -^l) A raised bank or terrace de- 
tached from the residence, sometimes covered over, on 
which persons sit and converse. A kind of summer- 
house or pavilion. A place where the head of the police 
is usually stationed. A police-office or station, or the 
magistrates' court. A room or hall used for public meet- 
ings of the villagers. A custom-house or station. A 
guard-house. A market-place. A stone platform erected 
as a boundary mark. 

CHA"BUK, corruptly, CHAWBUCK, H. (i^LU-) A whip. 
Chdbuk-suwdr, corruptly, Chawbuclt-sreaar, H. (P. 
a rider) A rough rider, a groom, a jockey. 



paternal uncle, a father's brother. 
Chachi, or ChdcM, H. &c. (g 

brother's wife. 

Chacherd, H. &c. (\Jfs^") Connected through a paternal 
uncle ; as, Chacherd-bhdi, A first cousin, the son of a 
paternal uncle. 

(/s^~, _/==^~ , ^^T) Land that has lain fallow for a 
year or more, but not a very long time : on being taken 
under cultivation the produce was divisible for the first 
year in the proportion of one share to Government and 
three to the cultivator : after a year of cultivation it was 
placed on the footing of fully cultivated land of the same 
CHACHAB, H. (j-{-) A Hindu festival held after the 


CHACHAR, Ben. ( oloa ) Land on the banks or in the 
bed of a river, from which the water has lately been 
dried. Inferior fallow land. 

CHADAH, CHUDUR, H. (P. j&-) A sheet or cloth. 
Chadar anddzi, H. (P. i^yjljol, throwing) A ceremony 
among the Sikhs : when a man marries a widow a 
sheet is thrown over the parties. 
CiiADARti-GUDDi, (?) Kara. Boundaries of an estate or of 

village lands, including waste. 
CHADAVU, Earn. (&r Q &<)) Increase of price or rent. 

See Charhai. 

Darchaddvu, Kara. (&a/'5~c>c^i) Disposing of the 
Government share of the crop to farmers at an advanced 
CHADH, pronounced also CHARH, Mar. (^S 1 ) Increase, ad- 

vance (as of assessment or price, &c.) 
Chadhpatti, Mar. ("MiMgl) An extra cess. 
CHADI, Tel. Kara. ( t3~O ) An accusation, slander, defa- 


CHAH, H. (P. xU.) A well. 
Chdhi, or Chdhi-zamin, H. (^jJ^j, land) Land irrigated 

from wells. 
Mahiti Chdh, H. (from A. la^s-*, surrounding) Land 

watered by wells in alternate years. 
CHAH, CHUH, H. (<t-) A platform, a pier-head. 
CHAHAR-SHAMBA, H. (P. iju-i^l^) Thursday. 
CHAHAR-SU, H. (P. j\q*. , four, and y* , a side) A square, a 
quadrangle, a market-place. 


CIIAHAL, H. ((J^^-) A strong soil, ranking between those 

termed llausli and Danhar (Dehli). 
CHAHAL SITUN, H. (P. J^-, forty, ^y^, a pillar) A 

pavilion, a chamber, a summer-house supported by forty, 

i. e. many pillars. (Also with the II. numeral, Chdlit, 

forty, ChdUx-xiliin). 
CHAHALDA, Mar. (^?S^l) A tax formerly levied on Ban- 

jaras in the Dakhin. 
CHAHIL, or CIIAHIRA, H. (JjfiU-, KU-) A tribe of 

Rajputs in Hisar, mostly converts to Mohammedanism. 

They nevertheless retain charge of the tomb of Goc/a 
Chaithdn, a Hindu prince now esteemed a saint. 
CHAHLI, CHUHLEE, H, (^J^*-) The wheel on which the 

rope revolves at the top of the well. 
CiiAiionA, II- (ty^a-) Rice dibbled in a field after being: 

sown in a separate bed. A fine sort of rice. 
CIIAHOTRA, or CHAHUTHA, Mar. ("q^-41, ^? 1 5T, from T?, 

four, and 4wt, subsequent) Interest at four per cent. 

per month. 

OHAHFH, Mar. (^T|t) A long measure of land. Accord- 
ing to one statement, equal to 120 square B'tyhds, to 

another, to 150 JJif/Iuis. 
CIIAHVAHI, Mar. ( "M 1,^ ) The drag rope of a plough or 

of the bucket of a well, to which the head pair of oxen 

are yoked. 

Chdhvari mot, Mar. (^TSfTt *fc) The bucket of a draw- 
well worked by bullocks. 

CHAIL, H. (J^*-) Land twice tilled (Rohilkhand). 
CHAIN, H. ( ( j^-) Cultivated land. 
CHAIN, H. (^J^) A low caste of Hindus. 
CHAINA, H. (<tu.-) An inferior kind of grain. A sort of 

millet (Panicum pilosum), also called C/tena and China. 
C/tdinhltati, Ben. (Ftf^"tft) A spot in the salt-works 

where the drainage of the baskets is collected. 
Chain la.ban, Ben. (FffiPT^) Basket salt. 
CHAIT, or CHYT, properly, CHAITRA, H. &c. (ui^A*-, S. 

%^) A month so called (March April) beginning with 

the sun's entrance into Pisces. 
Chaiti, H. (^fift) Relating to or produced in Chait, as, 

the spring harvest. In Bundelkhand it is usually so ap- 
plied, denoting the Roll, or spring crops. 
CHAITYA, S. (%Rl) Any large tree in a village, held in 

peculiar sanctity : an altar, a monument. A Buddhist 

temple or monument. 
CHAK, CHUK, corruptly, CHUCK, H. &c. (^J>-, ^lf, S. 



, a circle or district) CHAKU, or CHEKU, Tel. 

A portion of land divided off; as, the detached 
fields of a village, or a patch of rent-free land, or any 
separate estate or farm. In old revenue accounts the 
term was applied to lands taken from the residents of 
a village, and given to a stranger to cultivate. In the 
north-west provinces the subdivision of a Pargana formed 
under cl. 88, Settlement Circular of 1839. In the Dakhin 
survey the term is used to designate a field within a 
field, when it is necessary to subdivide a field without 
changing the number or series of the larger portion of 
the land into which a village is divided. 

Chak-bandi, ChuJtbundee, H. (^li-uks-, l lM<{'l) De- 
termining the limits or boundaries of a detached piece of 
land, an estate, or Chak. The limits of a police or 
revenue jurisdiction. 

Chak bardr, Chuk burdr, H. (j\j> a tax) Collecting the 
rents of a Chak according to its size or productiveness. 

Chak ndma, Clu/lt ndi/ni, II., or Chekundmd, Tel. (P. (to'J 
a document) A register of the extent and boundaries of a 
detached or separate piece of land, or of a separate village. 
A grant authorising individuals to hold alienated lands, 
and specifying their limits. 

Chak ndma (irdzi, H. (A. .g^jz, See Ardzi) A docu- 
ment given to a Zamindar from whom a portion of land 
has been taken by the Government for public or other 
purposes, defining the extent, boundaries, and quality of 
the land. 

Chak tukra, H. (v*A^- and X^o, a piece) A plot or par- 

cel of a landed estate. 

CHAK, Ben. (E*) A square; also, a market-place enclosed 
by building. It has also the sense of the preceding. 

Chak bandi, Ben. (b^ffl) Building a square, connecting 

the buildings round it. 
CHAK, Thug. Suspicion. 

Chalt-bele, Thug. A dangerous or suspicious place. 
CHAK, H. Ben. (CJU-, Ffa, S. ^ra) A wheel; especially 

1 applied to the pulley through which the rope attached to 
the bucket of a well passes. Also a mill. Also the rings 
of baked clay used in sinking a well, and a vessel in 
which sugar is manufactured. 
Ckdkd, Ben. (FW) Awheel, a discus. The upper portion 
of the salt-boiling furnace. 
HAKALAVADU, Tel. (r^~^V^r&> ) A washerman. 
CHAKAH, CHUKUR. H. &c. (j-> S. CHAKRA, M3, in 

which form it occurs in most dialects) A wheel, a circle, 
or any thing revolving in a circle. 

Chakar-bardeshi, (?) H. Compound interest 
CHAKAR, CHAKUR, H. (P. jA-, *UnO A servant. 

Chdkard, Ben. (tl^al) Land given in reward of past 

Chdkardn, H. (properly the plural of jf^-> servants) 
Allowances of land, or the revenue derived from it, pro- 
fessedly appropriated in Bengal to the pay and support 
of the public officers and servants of a village or Za- 
mindari, including the Zamindar, Kanungo, Mokaddem, 
Patwan, and the Peons and Chaukidars. Under the an- 
cient system the lands so appropriated were exempted 
from the Government assessment in favour of the Zamin- 
dar, but this was disallowed on the formation of the 
decennial settlement. Ben. Reg. viii. 1793; ix. 1825. 

Chdkardn-zamin, corruptly, Chakeram-zemeen, Chakeran- 
jemmy, H. (chdhardn, as above, and P. zamin, ( ,^-*j , 
land) Lands exempted from revenue on the plea of being 
appropriated to maintain the public officers and servants. 

Chdkari, H. (,_jr^l-) Service. Allowance of land, &c., 
for public officers and servants. Service land. 

Chaharid, incorrectly, Chdkrid, Mar. (-MI(iO*u) Applied 

to land held revenue-free, on condition of performing 

some office, or discharging some obligation. Service land. 

CHAKI, CHUKEE, (?) Karn. An extra assessment in Kanara. 

CHAKI, Ben. (Ftft, from S. ^3i) A mill, a grinding 

stone, an apparatus for spinning twine suspended from 

the hand. 

CHAKIRI, Mai. (.Q_l<bl<l) The fibres of the husk of the 

cocoa-nut, of which rope, or kayar, is made. 
CHAKIYARA, Mai. (-OJOcftlcaioro) A class of out-caste 


CHAKKA, CHUKKA, H. (&-, from chahra, a wheel) A 
circular lump of clay, used to press down the smaller arm 
of the lever employed in raising water from a well. A wheel. 

CHAKHAND, Uriya (Q|1(Q,) A measure of length, half a cubit. 

CHAKKALU, Tel. (*-5|J) Small bubbles of salt that rise 
upon the first ebullition of the brine. 

CHAKKAN, CHAKKALA, MalX^-ldSftrrb, -a_l<fiS,oeji) Anoil 


CHAKKARA, MaL (.Q-lcearo) Coarse sugar, made from the 
juice of the cocoa-nut and other palms. 
ChaltkarakJialla, Mai. (^Jc66>,fD(fiftg_|_) The tdri, or 
juice of the cocoa-nut, from which coarse sugar is made. 



CHAKKAT, CHUKKUT, H. (c>^-) The loss of a chaJt, or 

plot of ground, by inundation. 
CHAKKI, H. (^J^-) A handmill, a grindstone. 
Chahhi ndma, H. (XU) A song sung by women at 

weddings, while grinding a perfumed powder. 
Chahhi ndur't, H. ((_yl>) Presentation of perfumed pow- 

der to the bride and bridegroom, and the female as- 

sistants by whom it has been prepared. 
CHAKKILI, Tarn. Mai. (&<5>{\6S\') A low-caste man, work- 

ing in hides and leather ; a currier, a shoemaker, the 

village shoemaker. Apparently corrupted to Cltuchler, 

the word in common use among Europeans. 


CHAKKU, Karn. C 33 "^) A pack or bale of raw cotton. 


CHAKKUBANDHI, Kara, (argo&of^) Land measure. 
CHAKLA, CHUKLA, corruptly, CHUCKLA, H. (^- 
or CHAKLA, Ben. (t><fli, FfasTl, from the S. 
A large division of a country, comprehending a number 
of Parganas ; first introduced as a recognised local di- 
vision in the reign of Shahjeluin. Bengal was divided 
by Jaffir Khan, about 1772, into thirteen Chalilas, each 
under a separate superintendant of finance. At different 
times, and in different parts of the country, the Chalda 
seems to have varied in extent, and in its subdivisions. 
In modern times it is applied to the part of a town 
chiefly inhabited by prostitutes. In Mar., besides a di- 
vision of country, it also means the court or office of the 
magistrate of a ward. 

Chahld bandi, corruptly, Chuchlabundy, II. ( ^j -JJo 1- ) 
The distribution of a Zamindilri or of a province into 
Chahlas, especially for financial convenience. 

Chakle ddr, H. ( .Ij ^^J-) The superintendant or pro- 
prietor, or renter of a Chahla. 

Chakle ddri, H. (^W |_j^-) Superintendence or pos- 
session of a Chahla. The right of occupancy as admitted payer 
of the Government assessment, with such fees or privileges 
as usage may have attached to the office or possession. 

Chakle kharcli, H. (~j*- (_j^f-) Expenses of the whole 
Chahla or district, charged in proportion to each Ryot, 
under the old revenue system of Bengal 

Chahld nan-is, H. (^^y K-) The accountant of the 
revenues and charges of a Chahla. 

Chahli, Mar. (^en ( $']) A division of a village in some 

Chahalyd, Mar. (^<*^m) An officer of police, a magistrate. 
CHAKHA, S., but it occurs in all dialects, most commonly 

unchanged, but sometimes slightly modified, as, Chahar, 
Chahi, ClidJi, (^ff) A wheel, a discus, a quoit, any 
thing circular or revolving, lit. or fig., as a potter's 
wheel, an oil-mill, a period of time, a district, a province, 
a region. An ancient small gold coin in Mysore, usually 
10 fanams. In Mar. also, a rule, a regulation, an extra 
cess or tax. In Karndta, the extra assessment of 1720, 
which was to cover the interest of money advanced by 
the Raja to pay off the demands of the Sahuhdrs or 
Bankers on the Ryots. (The word is incorrectly printed 
in the 5th Report, p. 804, Chuches, for Chucher, whence 
it has been entered in the Glossary Chuchees, as a 
separate word.) 

Chahramii, Tel. (\,cXO) A wheel, &c., (being, in 
fact, the same with Chahra.) An ancient coin current 
formerly in the south of India, equal to J5th of a Pagoda. 
Cltahrdwal, Chakrairiili, Mar. (S. "MjftHdb, ^SiT^t) 
Compound interest, (from chakra, revolving, and dvali, 
a range or series). 

Chahravarttl, H. S. (^(Mftl) A prince, a ruler, an 
emperor. A name borne by some families of Brahmans 
in Bengal, corrupted commonly into Chucherbutty. 
Chahra-vriddhi, S. (chahra, and vriddhi, yfij, increase) 

Compound interest. 

Chahra-vantige, Tel. (^3o8~K) An extra assessment 
of jcth under the Mohammadan Government. 

CIIAKATI, or CHUKTEE, Mar. ("shrift) A scrap of writing 
paper, a notd a passport, an English letter. 

CHAKRI, Ben. (S. FIR) An oilman. 
Chdhrikudu, Tel. 03-^&&3) An oilmaker. 

CHAKWAEN, H. (^^-*-) A small class of Rajputs in 

CHAKWAND, H. (vjJ^Ls-) A common weed, bearing a long 
legume, growing from eight inches to two feet high, 
used by the poor as a potherb. 

CHAL, H. (Jl*-) Habit, practice, course of life ; as, Dad- 
chdl, a man of bad habits ; Su-chal, one of good habits, 
of respectable conduct. 

CIIALA, (?) Mai. The hut of a slave in Malabar. (Possibly 
Said, q. v.) 

CHALAB, Thug. Early part of the evening, between sun- 
set and dark. 

N, CHULAN, also CHALAN, corruptly, CHELLAUN, 
CHILLAUN, CHULLAUN, H. &c. (^j^j ^^- > fr m 
(Jo-, S. ^J, to go, sending off, despatching, [goods, &c.]) 


A document sent with goods, treasure, or individuals ; an 
invoice, a voucher, a pass, a passport. The post-office list 
of letters forwarded, &c. Ben. Reg. x. 1819. 
Chaldn-ddr, H. (P. j It) , who has) A person who accom- 
panies a despatch or remittance, and has charge of the 

Chalani, Chaldoni, or Chalni, H. 

from the v. Lil-, to go) Current, circulating (as coin). 
Chalantd, (from lil-, to go) Passing, moveable, vendible, 
saleable. Duties formerly levied by Zamindars on goods 
passing through their jurisdiction. Ben. Reg. xxvii. 1793. 
Ctialanti-jdedad, Uriya (QRfiQ|^OIQ) Moveable or per- 
sonal property. 

CHALAN, Ben. (l>tl<) Sifting any thing, passing it through 

a sieve. 
Chalani, Ben. (bM-fl) A sieve. 

CHALAVADI, Kara. (&rV^T'&) A low caste. (In My- 
sore) The servant of a TAnga merchant carrying a large 
ladle with chain and bell on his shoulders, (in Telingana) 
A Siidra who goes from house to house to give notice 
of a death. 

Chalavddi ayu joti, Karn. (afi)ST30 eso&O &&) f ax 
levied on the preceding in a village. 

CIIALAWAN AMDAXI', Hindi (-M^NH ^tH^nl) Statement 
of collections sent with the collections to the Zamindar 
by the Patwari (Puraniya). 

CHALI, erroneously, CHOWLKE and CHOOLEE, Mar. (^igfl) 
Land that bears the highest rate of assessment, culti- 
vated by permanent inhabitants of the village agreeably 
to allotment, by which each cultivator has a fixed pro- 
portion of the lands of highest, medium, and lowest 
assessment. Hereditary land held at a fixed rate, which, 
after being brought into cultivation from waste, may 
be assessed at a rate proportioned to its quality, and 
to custom. It is sometimes said that a Ryot cannot throw 
up his Chdli land. 

CHALI, Ben. ( *t I fc;J ) A thatch, a shelf, a gang or separate 
station of convicts engaged on public work. 

^HALIGARAVU, Tel. (*->9AOc^)) Soil sandy on the surface 
with black earth underneath. 

ILIPANDILI, Tel. (OeJaJOQeJ) A shed where cool 
water, &c., is distributed to passengers. 

or CHALIE GUENY, Karn. &c. (2cF59 ~K^3^ probably 
from the S. ^<$, chala, moving, going) Tenancy-at-will, 


or occupation on paying rent for a short or indefinite 
Chdli gaini-chitu, Karn. ( 8o-?jb ) An agreement or lease 

for a short time, usually for a year. 
Chdli gaini-gar, Karn. ("A ^3 A do) A tenant-at-will. 
CHALISI, H. &c. (P. ^^ujJU-, forty) CHALSI, CHALISA, 
Mar. ('MICE*"!, ^tfaETn) An aggregate of forty, as of 
forty sers, forty cubits, &c. Also a period of forty days 
of impurity from the birth of a child, or death of a 
relative. A period of quarantine. The great famine in 
Hindustan of 1783 is known by this name, from its oc- 
curring Samvat 1840. 

CHALI SIDAKKA, Karn. (&J-<)Qg) Ri ce husked. 
CHALIT, H. (e^^Lj-, S. Mf<JFif , lit., gone) Moveable or per- 
sonal property. 

CHALIYAN, Mai. (-2_]OeTlOQjnrt>) A weaver. 
CHALKI, (?) H. A crop raised by irrigation. 
CHALLANIDOHA, Tel. ("^^^ O) A cold gentleman, a 
European functionary of a calm and gentle temperament, 
a highly complimentary designation. 

CHALTI, H. Mar. (^Jb*-, ^cjJiTt) Passing, moving, cur- 
rent In Dehli, Cultivated lands. In Masulipatam, Gross 
measurement of the grain after gathering. 
Chalti da/tar, H. (P.jJJA, an office) Under the Maratha 
Government, the records required for current business. 
That portion of the Peshwa's register which was always 
in the hands of the Farnavu, or Secretary of State. 
CHALTU, Hindi (^c57t) Land in cultivation. 

CHALU, Tel. (Teu) A furrow. Ben. (Fta) Rice cleaned 
fit for cooking. 

CHAMA, Mai. (-2JOQ) A kind of grain, a sort of millet 
(Panicum miliaceum). S. Sydmd, (^qiil). 

CHAMAN, Thug. A Brahman. 

CHAMAH, CHUMAR, H., but in most dialects also, 
Ben. CHAMAR (FfatS) Mar. CHAMHAR ( 
from the S. Charma-Ura, or worker in skins, 
A man of a low caste, whose business is working in 
hides and leather, a currier, a tanner, a shoemaker, a 
harness-maker, and the like. Chamdrs are said to be 
descended from a Brahman father and Chanddl mother, 
according to some authorities : in the north-western 
provinces the Chamdrs are considered as divided into 
seven classes, who do not eat together or intermarry : 
they are known by the names, Jatuti, Kaean, Kuril, 
Jaiswara, Jhusia, Azimyerhia or Birkeria, and Kori 



or Korchamri. The last are most commonly weavers. 
Different tribes of Chamdrs are also known in the 
Dakhin, as Sultangerh, Marathi, Paradosh, Parties}, 
Haralbhakt, Ddbdli, Woj, and Cliaur. 
Chamar-gaur, Chumur-gour, H. (jf ./**") A division of 
the Gaur Rajputs. The highest class, although from 
their name liable to the suspicion of intercourse with 
Chamdrs. They affect to call themselves Chaunhar- 
gaur, from a Raja named Chaunhar ; or sometimes 
Chiman-gaur, from a Muni called Cltiman. 
Chamrdwat, H. (dJjl^**-) Perquisites or privileges of 

CHAMARA, Ben. Mar. (oNfl , S. ^TT*R:) The bushy tail 
of the Tibetan ox set in a handle, and used to drive away 
flies. In H. Chaunri, (^y^>-). 

CHAMAYEN, CHUMAYEN, H. (^U^-) A small class of 
the Gujar tribe in Panipat Bangar. 

CHAMBAL, CHUMBUL, H. (J>x*-) A log of wood with 
grooves, fixed on the banks of canals, and used in draw- 
ing water for irrigation. 

CHAMCHOIU, H. (^j*- f^-, lit., skin stealing) Adulterous 
connexion with the wife of another, 

CHAMIA, Thug. Those of the gang who assist in seizing 
and holding down the victim. 

CHAMOSIA, Thug. The person who holds the hands of the 
victim (Dakhini). 

CHAMPAKA CHATURDA?I, S. (jwj<*, a yellow flower, and 
Mflt^l) , fourteenth lunation) A Hindu festival on the 
fourteenth of Jyeshth, when the flowers of the Michelia 
Champaka are offered to idols. 

CnAN, Mai. (.2J06"o) A span, a span measure. 

CHANA, CHUNA, corruptly, CHENNA, CHUNNA, H. (Us., 
^n) A kind of pulse commonly known as gram (Cicer 
arietinum). Three kinds are usually reckoned in the 
north-west provinces, Pila, Pack-mil, and Kam. The 
last is an inferior sort, also called liaksrva, Chaptdi, 
and Kasdri. Pachmil is a mere mixture of the first and 
last sorts. There is also a small kind called Chani 
and J3atori. Chand, to the eastward of the upper pro- 
vinces, is frequently called Rehla and Lona, but in general 
Lona is applied to an acidulous salt which forms upon 
the leaves, and is collected for chemical purposes. Chand 
also implies a species of plant, of which the seeds are 
often mixed with corn, giving it a disagreeable taste. 
(Vicia of one or two undescribed species). 

CHANAMBU PAHATI, (?) Mar. The name of a servile caste 

in Anjengo, employed apparently as domestic servants. 
CHANAMIA, H. (Lx^ia.) A tribe of Chandrabansi Rajputs 

in Jonpur, Azimgerh, and Gorakhpur. 
CHANAN, commonly from the plural SnANAR, Mai. (XLJO. 

pnoonrt)) A man of a tribe whose business it is to extract 

the sap from the palmyra tree, a tdri drawer. 
CHANAPPAN, Tarn. Mai. ((ffcncrLJLJdor) A weaver of coarse 

cloth for sacks, of hempen cords, &c. (From Ghana or 

Sana, hemp.) See Sanappan. 

CHANATTAM, Mai. (.OJ 05*30(3)0) Favourable or privi- 
leged rent of land granted to persons liable to be called 

out for occasional work or service. 
CHANCHAK, CHUNCHUR, H. (/=?v , ^^) Land left un- 

tilled for a year or more, but not for a very long interval. 

CHANCHAni, H. (^s 1 ^-) Inferior grain, as Mung or 

Jawar, remaining in the ear after being trodden out. 
CHANCHARU, Kara. (&^OarOJ) A tribe of savage people 

tenanting the forests in the south of India. 
CIIANCHIO, Guz. (Hl*Kl t> ll) The name of a tribe, or 

of an individual of it, inhabiting Guzerat, Kach, and 

Sind, and wearing a large long-pointed turban. A pirate, 

a sea-robber. 

CnAND, H. &c. (JoU-, S. ^5:) The moon. 
Chdndi, H. (i^JJl>-) Silver. (From Chand, the moon). 

A tax formerly levied by the Zamindars of Bengal. 
Chdndni, H. &c. (^yuX>l-) Moonlight, an awning. 
Chdndni Chauh, H. ( CJ^j>- .J AJU-) The principal mar- 
ket-place of any considerable city. 
Chdndni fiaran, Hin. (^T^fi c|il.*!j) The practice of Brdh- 

mans, Chdrans, and others, of wounding themselves, in 

order to extort alms or payment of a debt. 
CHANDA, CHUNDA, H. (Ijot;-, from the P. Cliand, >&-, 

how much) Subscription, quota, assessment 
Chandd aogdhi, H. &c. (^lijl !AX-) Levy of rent or 

revenue from the Ryots, according to their shares or 

proportions. See Aogdhi. 
CiiANDA, Ben. (Fftfl) A subscription, a collection of 


CHANDA, H. (KJol*-) A common station of the revenue survey. 
CHANDA, Thug. Cloth. 
CHANDAI, Tarn. (c^r^OTOS) A fair, one held annually, 

the mela of Hindustan. 
CHANDAL, CHANDAL, H., and most dialects, ( 



S. ^31<?) A man of a low mixed caste, sprang from a 
Sudra father and Brahman mother. In common use it 
is indiscriminately applied to all low-caste or out-caste 

Chanddlid, H. (UJlJOs-) A tribe of the Bhangis, who 

might be also termed Ckanddlas. 
CHANDAM, H. (*oJU-) A small tribe of Rajputs in Allaha- 

bad and Jonpur. 

dana, H^T, sandal, and ydtrd, TrRT, or utsava, TRT^:, a 
festival) The ceremony of offering sandal paste or other 
perfume to an idol. A festival held at Purl in honour of 

H. (P. <DljJi9-, <Uj.iXX-, from chand, >&>-, some, how 
many) Sundry or miscellaneous, applied to a division of 
the Sair, or a variety of petty taxes, under the Mogul 
Government ; as, 

Chandina Alamyanj, H. A tax on all persons engaged 
in trade at Dacca, from one to two rupees per annum. 

Chandina baj/intri, H. d_fJJJ(s>-(>) A tax on musicians. 

Chandina, Uriya (S^Qlfl) Ground-rent, rent of land 
on which a house is erected. Tenure derived from such 
payment (It is probably from the P. <Sj!jJk-, like the 

Chdndinaddr, Uriya ( SVC1>Q|Q ) A person paying 
ground-rent, and holding his house and garden by that 

Chandina damdhdri, H. ( ^'jbJuJ ) A tax on exhibitors 
of snakes, monkeys, and bears, or fakirs, jugglers, &c. 

Chandan-khuri malial, (?) H. A tax formerly levied in 
Rangpur upon the sale of hogs, abolished since the de- 
cennial settlement. 
3HANDAVA, Hindi (*rm) Shaft of the share of a plough. 

IANDEL, H. ((Jj*xU-, ^^y, perhaps from Chandra, the 
moon) A numerous tribe of Rajputs, originally from 
Mahoba in Bundelkhand, but now scattered over the 
north-western provinces : they claim to be of the Soma- 
bansi, or lunar race, and gave their name to the district 
of Chanderi or Chandeli. In the lower Doab they are 
divided into four tribes, bearing the several Hindu de- 
signations of a ruler or king: as, Raja, Rdo, Sana, 
and Rdirat. 

JANBELI, H. (^jLjJLaO A very fine sort of cotton cloth, 
originally fabricated at Chanderi, on the left bank of 

the Betwa, from a kind of cotton grown at Ainardrvati 
in Berar. The thread, when of fine quality, is sold for 
its weight in silver; and the cloth is of so costly a 
description, as to be worn only by persons of the highest 
rank in native courts. 

CHANDIVALA, Karn. (8s-OtSSy) Earnest money, hansel, 
also what is given to dissolve a bargain. 

CHANDIYA, H. (bjJtv) Deep places (East Oudh). 

CHANDLA, H. from Chdnd, the moon, (iljJU-) A small 
wafer-like ornament of gold or other metal worn on the 
forehead between the eyes. The ceremony of affixing the 
ornament on the foreheads of persons present at the 
drawing up of a marriage contract, as the ratification of 
the agreement. 

CHANDRA, S. (^5:) The moon. 

Chandra Grahana, S. (from HT^HS, seizing) An eclipse. 
C/iandraseni Kayastha, S. Mar. (^5*rft cfiTTW) A caste 
of writers in Puna, who pretend to be descended from a 
Raja named Chandrasena, and therefore claim to be re- 
garded in some degree as Ksliatriyas, and to be entitled 
to perform the ceremonies of the Vedas ; a claim not re 
cognised by the Brahmans. There are two divisions : the 
Patani Prabhu, and the Darvani Prabhu. The former 
are found at Bombay and other towns, the latter at Goa. 

CHANETH, H. (<U.u-) Drugs for cattle. 

CHANGAB, Thug. A thief of any kind. 

CHANGEL, H. ((Jj&-) A herb growing among ruined 
buildings. The seed, used in medicine, is termed Kliabdji. 

CHANGlJLi, Kam. ( a/oXj^S ) Daily hire. 

CHANK, or CHANKA, H. (ulXiU-, &l>-) A stamp fixed 
on the side of a stack or heap of grain, when the heaps 
are to be divided ; or when, after division, they are left 
in charge of one of the sharers. A piece or pieces of 
cow-dung placed on a heap of grain, to protect it from 
the evil eye. A ceremony observed in the threshing-floor, 
when the winnowed corn is gathered into a heap. It is 
variously observed in different places, but the essence 
consists in reverentially and silently circumambulating 
the heap, finishing the process with a short prayer. 

CHANK, CHUNK, or more correctly, SANKH, H. (CAis-, 
^AU*, S. ^fa) A conch shell. When entire, with the 
greater end cut off, it is used as a kind of horn formerly 
blown in war, but now at the worship of idols. Cut in 
segments of circles, it forms ornaments for the fore-arms 
and wrists of women. The chief supply of these shells 
2 D 



is from Ceylon, and when the volutes turn to the right 
the shell is held in peculiar estimation. 

CHANNANGI-NELLU, Kara. (&rO<So%c3ew) A kind of rice 
grown in Mysore. 

CHANNEL-MARA, or CHANNEL-VARI, (?) Names of a small 
additional money tax on the cultivators of Karnata under 
the old system : (apparently, Channel is the English word 
connected with the local terms for cess or tax, being a 
charge for keeping up the water-courses necessary for 
irrigation, or a tax on fields so watered, as being more 
productive ; also denominated Channel fees. <3th Rep. 
p. 9GG.) 

CHANTI, H. (.j^^) Cesses levied from artisans and others 
(from Chdntna, to squeeze). 


Undressed rice, but cleaned of the husk. 
CHANTA, Mai. (.O-inff)) A fair, a market. 
Chanta nagaraw, Mai. (.O-IPWOGOroo) A market town. 
Chantavila, Mai. (^JOW^Jlej ) Market price. 
CHANTRAM, Mai. (^J(Q8)o) The office of a petty district 

Chantrakhdran, Mai. (^LJ(n5)cftdft,0(Do6) The petty trea- 

surer in a district. 

CiiANwAN, CHUNWAN, H. (^'y 1 *-) A small sort of millet 
CHAP, Beng. (Ftt) Mar. (^n) A weight or block used 
to press down any thing, a press, a screw press ; an im- 
pression, a seal (but in this sense the original word is 
more correctly Chhdp, the initial being aspirated. The 
substitution of the unaspirated Ch has probably arisen 
from confounding the two words. 

Chdpd, Beng. (Fttl) A weight, a cover, any thing laid 

upon another to press it down ; treading down clay or 

salt to press it together, pressing salt together for weigh- 


Clidpd dar, Uriya (SV|a|Q|Q) The officer who puts the 

salt into the scales. 

Chdpa gattu, Tel. (*3~~ J ^P^ ) A bank or mound on which 

salt is placed immediately after it is taken out of the pans. 

CHAPANI, (?) Asam. Islands formed in rivers, or any 

alluvial deposit. 

CHAPATA, or CHAPATI, H. (^U*-, ^l**-) A thin cake of 
flour and water, without leaven, slightly baked or toasted 
over an open fire. 

CHAPAVANI, Kara. (SFBSjciaK), from H. Chhapna, to be 
hid) Concealment of lands in order to defraud the revenue. 

CHAP-JARIB, H. (<^o^-L_>l-) Gross measurement of the 
lands of an estate : (perhaps from Chap, in one sense, a 
bow, and jarib, a land measure, a bow-shot, or bird's-eye 

CHAPOLALU, (?) Tel. Watering by hand. 

CHAPPA, Tel. Kara. (^jj*, a dialectical form of Chlidpei) 

An impression, a stamp, a custom-house stamp ; the straw 

of an inferior kind of grain. 

Channehatte. Kara. 

) The office of a custom- 
house where goods are stamped. 

CHAPPAR, CHAPRA, Karn. (*^l^, 2^&) A thatched 


roof, a shed ; any temporary thatched structure, as for 
the celebration of a marriage, giving water to travellers, 
a mat, a screen, &c. The Chhappar, of Hindustan and 
Bengal, q. v. has not such a range of meaning. 

CHAPRAS, II. (\^-]j^-) A badge, a plate worn on a belt 

as a mark of office. 

Choprax!, H. ((jyul^.1*-) A messenger or courier wearing 
a chaprds, most usually a public servant. 

CHAPHE, II. (t,^ 1 * 1 * 1 -) Cakes of cow-dung after drying, used 
as fuel. 

CHAPRI, CHUPREE, H. (^x^-) A puddle : a small kind of 
pulse somewhat resembling millet. 

CHAR, CHUH, H. (_/*-) A sand-bank or island in the current 
of a river, deposited by the water, claims to which were 
regulated by Ben. Reg. xi. 1825. Pasturage, fodder. 

CH.ARA, H. (>i)l-) Grass, food for beasts and birds; fodder, 


Chardf/dh, H. (sol^-) Grazing ground, afield, a meadow. 
Charm, or Chardu, H. ( ^Jj*- , ^*-) Pasture lands, fields 
appropriated to the grazing of cattle. Sending out cattle 
to graze. Rent derived from pasturage. 

CHAR, Thug. A strangler, peculiar to certain classes. 
Chdrai, Thug. The office of strangler. 

CHARA-PAIR, or CHAR-PAIR, Karn. (fcnjtf^S, tfl>tfj 
Duties on grain levied from the peasantry, whether it be 
of their own growing or purchased for re-sale. A tax 
on villages of various items. 

CHARAGI, Thug. A Bairagi. 

CHARAK, Ben. (F3^, also written &?, from the S. ^tR, 
a wheel) CHARKH, H. (P. ^f-, a wheel) A wheel 
or lathe for turners' work, cleaning cotton, &c. ; a sugar- 
mill. The ceremony of swinging suspended by hooks 
passed through the skin, above each bladebone, and con- 
nected by ropes with one end of a lever traversing an upright 



post with a circular motion. The apparatus for swinging 1 . 
Charakgdchh, Ben. (FsT^Ttt^') The upright pole or mast 
supporting the horizontal lever on which the swinging 
is performed. 

Charah-ptij/t, Ben. (S. lift, worship) The swinging festival 
held on the Sun entering Aries. As a religious obser- 
vance it is confined to Bengal, but the swinging is practised 
in other parts of India as a feat of dexterity for obtain- 
ing money. 

Charaki, Ben. (t?af<?) A small wheel, a reel, a machine for 

separating seeds from cotton. 
CHAKAKKA, Mai. (.o_l<0<65>) Goods, merchandise. 
CHARAN, H. (^j^), CHARANI, Ben. (FsTfift) A meadow, 
fallow land, grazing ground. 

Chardn, Ben. (FsTft) Pasturing or attending cattle. 

Chardramnd, Hindi ('m.H.'HT) Lands appropriated for 
grazing, in consequence of being left unploughed for 
more than a year. Puraniya. 

CIIARAN, II. ((j^W-, "1K<!|) The name of a caste analogous 
to, or identical with, the li/idf, following the profession 
of bards, heralds, and genealogists ; and held in like 
estimation, so that their personal security is considered 
sufficient for engagements of the most important descrip- 
tion, the breach of which involves the death of the surety, 
or of some of his family. They also subsist by carrying 
grain, salt, groceries, and the like. The latter, in Central 
India, are styled Kachili Chdrans ; those who are not 
engaged in trade are the Maru Chdrans, or Chdrans of 
the desert, or the sandy tract east of the Indus. 
CHARANAMRIT, H. (S. ^nBff, foot, and ^Pfit, ambrosia) Water 
in which the feet of a Brahman has been washed ; also 
with UdaJia, water, Charanodaka. 

HARAS, incorrectly, CHURRUS, and CHERRUS, H. ((_//-, 
^CH) The resinous exudation of the hemp plant, possessing 
strong intoxicating powers, and the basis of all the 
inebriating preparations of hemp : see Bhang and Ganja. 
Also, a large leather bag or bucket used for drawing 
water from wells. 

HARAYAM, Mai. (.QJOrOOCOJo) Spirituous liquor; rum, 
arah, any intoxicating beverage. 

Chdrdya kata, Mai. (.2_iOrOOCQJc9>S) An arak or spirit 

Chdrdya hdran, Mai. ( -2J9<oOca>c&>ororr6) A distiller or 
vender of spirituous liquor. 

I Chdrdya kuttumata, Mai. (.QJO(oDQ!2Jce6>,arg)2<m ) Contract 

with Government for the sale of spirituous liquors. Spirit 
or arak farm. 

CHARDEHAT, H. (from char, four, and A. dehdt, culftJ, 
villages) An estate formed of the lands of four villages, 
or a subdivision of four villages set apart from the 

CHARGAN, CHURGUN, Mar. (HVHU) Grazing ground, pas- 

CHARH, corruptly, CHUR, H. (*^-) Rise; lit. or fig., 
Increase, augmentation of revenue or rent. An item of 
the public revenue in Bombay. 

Charhdi, or Charhdii, H. d.?^*-, J^}?"' ^ rom ' > * ! 5r?"> 
to mount, to rise ; or lilacs- , to raise) Mounting, ascend- 
ing. Raising, as price or rent. 

Charhdit, H. (i^ola^s-, from '-*&}=-, to mount) A 
trooper mounted at the expense of the State. Also 
Charhwdya, &c. 

Charhanddr, incorrectly, Churunddr, (j\&J&j^ ) A servant 
accompanying a cargo of goods, a supercargo, a pas- 
senger by a boat or vessel. 
Charhdwd, H. (!jl^-) Offerings made to idols. Raising 

in price, &c. 

Charhtd, or Charhti, H. (ljiJ-, ^5^^-) Increase of 
price, making additional profit, settlement of revenue at 
a progressively increasing rate. 
Cltarhtd-patta, (Liu) H. A lease for a term of years at a 

progressively increasing rent. 
Chc'rhivi, H. (,_$y&^>-) Raising, as rent or price. 

CHAHI, CHUREE, corruptly, CHURREE, H. ((_?/-) Jawar 
sown close and not suffered to run to seed, but cut un- 
ripe, and used as fodder for cattle. In the Lower Doab, 
a small portion of rent-free land. 

CHARI-KAGAJA, Uriya (S^QSISIS?) Paper of pleadings. 

CHARHLI-PHOLLU, Thug. Time between sunrise and noon. 

CHARKHI, H. (^_f*^-, from the P. ^-j^~< a wheel, S. ^rai) 
The pulley, or rather spindle, by which water is raised 
from a well by two water pots tied to the ends of a rope 
that passes over the cylinder, and are raised alternately. 
A spinning-wheel. 

CHARMAJODA, Mar. (from S. 'epij, leather) A pair of shoes 
exacted periodically by the head village officer from the 
village shoemaker, or a money cess in lieu of it. 

CHARMAK, CHARMAKARA, Mar. (S. ^*f?off, *^wbKK) A 
currier, a shoemaker, a worker in leather. 

CHARNI, H. ((J,-*-) A feeding trough. 


CHARSHAMBA, H. (from^U-, four and P. shambah, <!uXi, 

a day) Wednesday, the fourth day of the week. 
CHARSU, H. (P. yh*-> from char, four, and g&, a quarter) 
A square, a market-place, a place where four roads 

CHARTTA, Mai. ( ^JOr>Tn ) A writing, a document, a 
title-deed, a register, a catalogue. (Probably adopted 
from the Portuguese.) 

Chdrttumuri, Mai. (.oJOrtrJTsqtfil) A document, title- 
deeds, writings of hind, &c. 
CHARUTAR, H. (J5)j-) A life-rent grant. 
CHARW.AHA, H. (\S>)jj-) A herdsman, a grazier. 
Chartvdhi, II. (15*^3^5-) The wages of a herdsman in 


Charwdi, H. (i_J'^/*-) Price paid for grazing. 
CHAR-YAH, H. (^b,l-, from char, four, and ydr, a friend, 
P. Chahdr) A Mohammadan of the Suni sect, one who 
maintains the rightful succession of the first four Khalifs, 
Abubakr, Omar, Osman, saA.Ali. 
CnAs, or CHASA, H. and other dialects (^.U-) CHASII, 

Ben. (Fft) Cultivation, tillage. 
Chaslid, Chashdn, Ben. (CTl, FSTfa) Ploughing a field, 

causing it to be ploughed. 
Chdsd, H. (L-U-) Chdsltd, Ben. ( Ffal ) A cultivator, a 

ploughman, a husbandman. 
Chdshbdsh, Ben. (FfaTfa) Cultivation, tillage. 
Chdsh-sanad, Uriya (from A. Jouu, a grant) Grant of 

rent-free lands (Cuttack). 
Chdsi, H. ( .j*"^) Chdshi, Ben. ( FHft ) Cultivation, 

tillage, a cultivator. 
Chdshdchdslti, H. Land prepared for cultivation by repeated 

ploughings (Cuttack). 

CuAsHT, also CHASHT-GAH, H. (P. e^tU-, tl e^-iU-) 
The middle hour between sunrise and noon. Refresh- 
ments taken at that season. 
Chdsht-namdz, H. Morning prayer. 
CHASNI, H. (^Wjs-) A pan in which the sugar juice is 

CHATA, Hindi (^TS\) The vessel that receives the juice of 

the sugar-cane as it drops from the mill. 
CHATAN, H. (^fi*-) Rocky soil. 
CHATANA, H. (Ulls-, caus. of UjU-, to lick) The ceremony 

of feeding a child for the first time. 
CHATAO, or CHATAI, Thug A share of the booty. 
CuATANULU, Tel. (t^^&eo) A class of Sudras who 


worship Vishnu exclusively, and whose occupation is the 

sale of flowers. 
CHATAR, Uriya (S^OQ) The place in the salt works 

where the saline earth is collected and prepared for 

CHATARA (?) Ben. Land of an inferior quality. Indifferent 

fallow land (Jessore). 
CllATl, Uriya (S^fc) A salt manufactory. 
Chdljpdih, Uriya (S^SOIQG 1 ) A peon attached to a 

salt work. An assistant to a native collector. 
Chdtia malaitgi, Uriya (VS||S!R.?T) Head salt ma- 
nufacturer. (More correctly Ckididmalangi, q. v.) 
CHATTAMU, Tel. C^MSX)) CHATTAM, Mai. (^-lo) A 

regulation, a rule, a law. 

CHATTIGA, Karn. (arfeSX) The head man of a drove of 

cattle for exporting corn. 

(i^S^lrjLQ, vernacular representative of S. Tj4) A 
place where refreshment is given gratuitously, especially 
to Brahmans ; funds set apart for such purpose : also, 
an umbrella. 

CHATTIRIYAN, or SIIATTIRIYAN, Tam. (<^^^lcflu_iiOT, 
S. T!}f%*rO A man of the military caste. 

CIIATTU BAVALI, Tel. (^^t^a^Q) A well sunk in a rock 
(from 5j, hard, solid.) 

CHATUKULU, TeL (t^^Sjeu) A weight of four Dabs. 

CHATUR BHAGAMU, Tel. Karn. (CSSbj'XeiV, S. ^TR , 

Cp *a ' N > 

four, and >rnt, a part) The fourth part of the annual 
crop received by Government from the holders of certain 
alienated lands. According to the definitions of the term 
as applied in the Tamil provinces, it is the grant or 
alienation of the Government fourth in favour of the 
holders of the land. 

CHATURDASI', H. ( t _ s "'J/*- ) S. ^W^^ft, fourteenth) The 
fourteenth ; as the fourteenth lunar day. 

CIIATURMASYA, S. (from *nf^, four, and HTH, a month) 
Relating to four months. Applied to four kinds of sa- 
crifices, the I'aixmadeva, Vdruna praghdsa, Sdkamedha, 
Sundsiriya, to be offered in four consecutive months, or 
every four months, or, according to some, in the months 
Ashdrh, Kdrtilt, and Phaltjuna, consisting of roasted 
cakes of rice flour, offered in the first to the Vlsrvadevan, 
in the second to Varuna, with two figures of sheep 
made also of flour, in the third with vegetables to Agni 
(?), and in the fourth to Indru. 



Chaturcedi, S. (^Jt, four, and %%, the Vedas) A 
Brahman professing to have studied the four Vedas. In 
common speech, Chaubi. 

Cliatusstmd, H. (-MrfwlHl) The four boundaries of a field 
or village. 

Chatushpatha, S. (^ifnj*j) A place where four roads 
meet, an open place or square. 

Chaturupddhydya, S. (^HT, four, the four Vedas, and 
grmtquit, a teacher) The name of a family of Brahmans 
in Bengal : in common pronounced Chaturjia or Cha- 

Chaturtha, S. (^firij:) A fourth, the fourth day, &c. 

Chaturtha-kriyd, S. (from PfMI, act, rite) Offering fu- 
neral cakes on the fourth day after a person's decease ; 
also Chaturtha-pinda, (from f<KIit, the funeral cake.) 

Chaturthi, S. (-^rtvJT) The fourth day of the lunar fortnight. 
CHATWATTA, (?) Mar. A place where four roads meet. See 


CHAU, H. (^s.) A ploughshare. 

CHAU, H. (y>-, abbreviation of S. Chatur, four; used chiefly 
in composition) Four. 

Chaubdchha, II. (<ty*-'jy-) A mode of apportioning the 
assessment formerly practised in the Delhi territory or 
the levying of a revenue upon four things ; viz. 1. A fixed 
rate per plough ; 2. The same per head on each 
male above twelve years old; 3. A rate per family, 
hearth money ; 4. and one on each head of cattle. 
Instead of the plough tax, some statements separate the 
poll tax into two, one on adults and one on children. 
Thus arranged, the four heads of taxation are denomi- 
nated, Pay, from pagri, a turban ; Tag, the cloth worn 
round a child's waist ; Kudi, or Kori, a hearth ; and 
Punchh't, a tail. 

Chau-band'i, Mar. (ilNx^l) Made up of four, or contain- 
ing four, as a sheet of paper of four leaves. Any con- 
nexion of four. Fourfold state or quality. 

Chaubdr, or C/taubdrd, H. (;W*- ij/^}^) A summer-house, 
a place where villagers assemble, a shed, a police station, 
especially that of the principal officer or Kotwal. 

Chaubdri, or Ckaupdri, Ben. (iFlTftft, iwftsft) A school 
a college, especially one in which Sanskrit is taught 
by a Pandit. 

Chaubi, H. (^jJy*-, abbreviated from Chatur-bedi or 
-vcdl) A Brahman learned in the four Vedas ; now ap- 
plied to a class of Brahmans who are not always men 

of literary habits. In the upper provinces they are 
usually boxers, wrestlers, and the like. 

Chau-bisa, H. (<UJUy>-, from S. ^^f^lfrf, twenty-four) 
A tract of country containing twenty-four villages occu- 
pied by a particular tribe : they are frequent in the 
north-west provinces. 

Chaudhari, or Choudhuree, sometimes, but incorrectly, 
Chaudhri,coTTu^i[y,Chorvdrah, Chowdry, H. ((^^Oj*-, 
lit., a holder of four, perhaps shares or profits) The 
head man of a profession or trade in towns. The head 
man of a village. A holder of landed property classed with 
the Zamindar and Talukdar. In Cuttack the Chaudhari 
was the revenue officer of a district corresponding with 
the Desmukh : the Chaudhari Talukdar, or head re- 
venue officer, was there treated under the British Govern- 
ment as a proprietor or Zamindar. 

Chaudhardi, corruptly Chorvdrawy, H. (^j^liiiys-) The 
office, jurisdiction, or privileges of a Chaudhari. 

Chaudhardyet, H. (c^oly&Jys- ) The fees of a Chau- 
dhari's office. 

Chaugadda, Chouguddu, H. (xJil^-) The place where 
the boundaries of four villages meet. 

Chaughdchdr, Mar. (^Vl^lO Ownership by many, 
common property. 

Chaughald, Chauguld, or Chaughuld, corruptly, Chougulla, 
Mar. (^IM^ST, ^Hc-ST, ^fnpjn) The second officer of a 
Maratha village, an assistant of the headman or Pdtil : 
he holds his office by hereditary tenure. 

Chauhadda, or Chauhaddi, H. (|j>.^>-, ^Ajs-^*- , from 
chau, four, and A. hadd, a boundary) A place where 
the boundaries of four villages meet. 
CHAUDU, Tel. (&"&}) Salt soil. 

CHAUHAN, CHOUHAN, H. ((.j^y*-) One of the principal 
Rajput races, numerous and powerful branches of whom 
are found in every part of the north-west provinces, as 
well as in Malwa and Rajasthan. The most distin- 
guished families in Central India are the Khichi, Hdra, 
Bhadauriu, Rdjkumdr, and others : in the Company's 
territories, Bajor, Pratapnir, Chakarnagar, and Man- 
chana ; the head of which last is usually known as the 
Raja of Mainpuri : they trace their descent from the cele- 
brated Prithi Rat. 

CHAUK, CHOUK, corniptly, CHOWKE, H. (uL^ys-, '^NO A 
square, an open place in a city where the market is held, 
and the chief police office is commonly stationed. 
2 E 



Chauk-nihd?,H. (fV<*IH) A tax or duty levied on all articles 

sold in a market-place in Bengal under the Mogul Government. 
Chauh-mara, H., or Ben. mdru (from ^b, or U;U, to 

kill, to strike) Smuggling. 
CHAUKA, H. Ben. (^j-, C$W ) A cleared space in which 

a Hindu cooks and eats his food, or performs any re- 

ligious ceremony. 
CHAUKARA, H. (ly^j*-) Division of the crop, in which the 

cultivator gives up only one-fourth. 
CHAUKARA-BHUMI, (?) I^arn. Indifferent land. 
CH AUK ART, H. (ij^rfj*-) A measure of grain, a quarter 

of a Chauthia, q. v. 
CHAUKASI, corruptly, CHOKUSSEE, H. ( -*j-) Vigilance. 

An examiner, an assayer. Mar. ("Ifaneft) Careful in- 

quiry or investigation. 
Chaukasnis, Mar. ("iletifHl^l) An inspector, an overseer, 

a visitor ; a registrar or record keeper. 
CHAUKALSA, Mar. (Midi ($311) A class of Siidras, or an in- 

dividual of it, from their having four (r/iaw) ornaments 

(.hulas-is) to the bridegroom's litter in a marriage procession. 
CHAUK-BHARNA, H. Filling a square space with coloured 

meal, perfumes, sweetmeats, &c., on occasions of rejoicing, 

a Mohammadan custom. 

CHAUKHA, H. (ly>^&-) A station where four boundaries meet. 

H. &c. (.fJff-t 'ffaft) The act of watching or guarding 

property, &c. Station of police or of customs, a guard, 

a watch, or the post where they are placed. Ben. Reg. 

iv. 1795. ix. x. 1810. xvii. 1816, &c. 
Chaultiddr, corruptly, Chowheydar, Choheedar, &c., H. 

(j'jjkij*-) A watchman, a police or custom peon, a 

village watchman. Ben. Reg. xiv. 1807. xxii. 1816. 

vii. 1817, &c. 
Chaukiddri, H. (,_^)ja^j^.) The office of watchman. 

A tax levied to defray the cost of a town or village 

watch. The fees or wages paid to the town or village 

watchman. Ben. Reg. xxii. 1816. 

CHAUI., Ben. ( i>l>ci) Rice freed from the husk. See Chdurval. 
CHAULA, H. (^j*-) A kind of bean much cultivated in 

Hindustan (Dolichos sinensis). 

CHAULA, S. (^h?) The ceremony of tonsure. See Chudd. 
CHAULI, Mar. (4tc-l1) A small silver coin, equal to two anas. 
CHAUMASA, H. (<U,Uj*-) A period of four months, the rainy 


Chaumds, corruptly Chowmass, H. (jjwUj^-). Land 

tilled during the four months of the rainy season, or from 
Ashdrh to Kuiir. A rate in a Ryot's lease for those 
lands which he sows after the rains, not having had a 
crop previously raised on them in the same year. 
Chaumasid, H. (U**j-) A ploughman hired for the four 

CHAUNDHI, Thug. A turban. 

CIIAUXRA, CuouNRA, H. 0/Jj-) A subterranean apartment 
for grain. 

CHAUNRI, H. ((js^jjls-) A police-station, usually the Kotmali, 

CHAUNTALI, CHOUNTALEE, H. C^'^j*-) Cotton pods in 
which the fibre is equal to one-fourth of the whole produce. 

A shed in which the village community assemble for public- 
business (generally erected by the head man of a village, and 
used by him as an office). A raised platform near a 
house, a Chabutara, q. v. 

CnAUPAN, (?) Mar. Stiff, clayey soil. 

CHAUPANI, (?) Uriya. A tax formerly levied by petty chiefs 
in Cuttack, to cover the expense of maintaining police, com- 
muted for a money payment. Ben. Reg. xii. 1805, cl. 4. 

CHAUH, H. (jy**-) A large open space in a forest (Ro- 
hilkhand). An extensive tract of low land (East Oudh). 

CitAURAiiA, H. (t>\,f*-) The meeting of the boundaries of 
four villages, or junction of four roads. 

CHAURASI, H. (.j*"];^. lit- eighty-four) A subdivision of 
a district or Pargana comprising originally eighty-four 
villages, although now reduced to a smaller number. 
The division was very common in Hindustan, and nu- 
merous traces of Chaurdsis have been detected by the 
industry of Mr. Elliot, who has added to the fact some 
highly valuable observations on the selection of this par- 
ticular numeral. Supplement to the Glossary, p. 151. 

CHAURKANI, Mar. (^IC<*H^, used with ?^T, &c.) A line 
drawn across a sheet of country paper through the four 
columns into which it is folded, a form used in letters to 
sons, pupils, &c. 

CHAUHSI, CHOURSI, H. (^'^ A granary above ground 

CHAUS, CHOUS, H. (^~j*0 Land four times tilled (Ro- 

CHAUSINGHA, H. (t^Jou.^) A raised mound indicating 
where the boundaries of four villages meet 

CHAUTH, CHOUTH, corruptly, CHOT, and CHOUT, H. 


Mar. (^Jt for CHAUTHAI, from the S. ^TrSl. fourth) 
An assessment equal to one-fourth of the original 
standard assessment, or generally to one-fourth of the 
actual Government collections demanded by the Marathas 
from the Mohammadan and Hindu princes of Hindustan, 
as the price of forbearing to ravage their countries. The 
Cliauth was collected by the Marathas through their own 
agents, and was divided into four parts : 1. Raj bdbti, 
a fourth allotted to the head of the State ; 2. From the 
other three parts, denominated collectively Mukhasa, six 
per cent, of the whole Chauth, termed Sahotra, was set 
apart for the Pant Suchu ; 3. and Nargunda, or three 
per cent, was given away at the pleasure of the Raja or 
Peshwa ; 4. The remainder, or Ain, sixty-six 
per cent, was distributed among different Jagirddrs, to 
assist them in maintaining the troops they were bound to 
furnish for the use of the State. Even when a country 
came into the actual possession of the Marathas, the 
collections were made under the same titles as before, 
and appropriated in like manner. Under the British 
Government the Sahotra portion, or six per cent, on a 
fourth of the Government collections, is still enjoyed by 
the Pant Suchu ,- and some of the grants made from the 
Ain Muhkdsa, or nett surplus of the fourth, are still 
held by individuals. In Hindustan, under the Mogul 
Government, a Chauth was levied from the successful 
party in a law-suit or arbitration : the precise proportion 
is not stated, but it was probably a fourth of a rupee, or 
four anas per cent on the value of the litigated pro- 
perty. Also, a fourth of the pay of hired servants taken 
by the head officer who hires them. A fourth of the fee 
paid to a peon for serving a process taken by the Ndzir, 
or head native executive officer of a Court 
CJiauthdi, H. (^'y^a-) A fourth, a fine equal to a fourth 

of the revenue. 

Chauthara, Mar. (^frro) A condition of letting land, in 
which the landlord takes one-fourth of the produce. A 
fourth of the produce of a field, &c. 

CHAUTHI, H. (^faft) The fourth lunar day. The ceremony 
of untying the wedding bracelet on the fourth day after 

CHAUTHIA, CHOUTHEA, H. (U^0 A measure of grain 
in general use in the north-west provinces, about equal 
to a Si'r of wheat : five Chauthias make one Panseri. 

CHAUTKI KAIALI, Hindi (*h*ft trat^O An annual sum 


paid to the farmer or Zamindar, for the privilege of 
weighing the grain of the Ryots, either to determine the 
quantity, or for sale, for which the weighman has a fee 
of about half a ser per maund ; the deficiency, when the 
grain is sold, falls upon the purchaser (Puraniya). 

CHAUTRA, H. (I^>-) A court, corrupted perhaps from 

CHAVALAMU, Tel. (<^3e)&X3) One-eighth of a pagoda. 

CH AVAL AN, Mai. (.2_lOJ^/ir6) The name of a low caste 
of Nairs, or of a member of it, a fisherman. 

CHAVATU-BHfiMi,Tel.Karn.(^3&3V-5~~ D >J)Brackish ground. 

CHAVERRUVUTTT, Mai. (-QJOSlOJOCicmflriTjV)) Lands, &c., 
granted to the family of a person who has conquered, 
or who has fallen in battle, a military pension or reward 
for service. 

CHAVIKA, Karn. (Ot>6) A house with four pillars. A 

CHAVILE, Tel. (i2>5O) Pour dabs of twenty has each. 

CHAVU, or CHAU, corruptly, CHOW, Tel. (^<^l) The weight 
by which pearls are valued. 

CHAVUDAI, Tel. (tf^USCOD, dialectic form of H. Chau- 
thayi, or S. Chaturthi, a fourth) Land held on payment 
of one-fourth of the nett produce to the State. 

CHAVUKA, or CHAUKA, Karn. (^<^>o) A square. The 
box containing the Linga. 

CHAVUKALU, Tel. (to^j~s~ D t)j) A measure of seven cu- 
bits and a quarter. 

CHAVULU, CHAULU, or CHAUDU, Karn. (a^^, &~3>$>, 
Sfd&S) Sterile land. Saline soil, in which corn will 
not grow, unless much watered. Fullers' earth. 
Chavulu or Chaulu gadde, Karn. (S^^S^MO) Sterile 

wet cultivation. 
Chavulu or Chaulu gadde, Karn. (ar^^Ag) Barren dry 

cultivation. (It differs from the last in the dental dd.) 
Chavulunela, Karn. (8$>$$QK>O) Barren unproductive land. 

Chamduppu, Karn. (<^$S<$)) Earth-salt. Also 

Chautuppu, Chauduppu. 

CHAVUTU, or CHAUTU, Karn. (^5/>) Saline, as soil. 
CHAWAL, Mar. (^T<?) Two anas, or an eighth of a rupee. 
CHAWALI, Mar. (^cjft) A silver coin worth two anas. 
CuAwAL, (?) Guz. A small share in a co-parcenary village. 

(Perhaps the same as the preceding, implying a two-ana 

or one-eighth share). 
CHAWAH, Mar. ("*iqO A measure of land, 120 square 



CiiAWATHi, Mar. (^13T) A place where four roads meet. 
Any place where gossips meet, as a barber's shop, the 
village tree, &c. 

Mai. (.oJOOJSl) CHAWADI, Tel. (CT^O) A public 
lodging place, a shelter for travellers. 
Anchechdwadi, Kara. (e3O3?33^Sa) The post office. 
Chestarachawadi, Karn. (\#F3S&) A station for 

palunkin bearers. 
Kanddchdradachdwadi, Karn. ( crf3SaFc)S<5ara3fc) 

Station of armed peons or militia. 
Kottarvdlachdvadi, Karn.. (Asj^TBOaansSG) The 

office of the chief police magistrate, or Kotwal, &c. 
Chdmadiyava, Karn. (SF^&Q><&&) The keeper of a 

choultry or karavansarai. 

Chdrcari, Mar. (^N'il) Any place of resort, the magis- 
trates' court, a police office, a custom station, an inn. 
Chamari-hkarch, Mar. (A. *;/*-' expenses) Cost of keep- 
ing up a public lodging-place. 

CHAHWARI', Mar. (11^4.1) The drag rope of a plough, a 
well, &c., to which the bullocks are yoked. 
Chdhivarimot, Mar. (*iugO*ft6) The bucket of a draw- 
ChdJimarydbail, Mar. ('-Ml^-mV^y) One of the bullocks 

yoked to the rope of a plough or well. 
CHAWUPULA, or CHAUPULA, Mai. (^JOCL,ja_iJi) Mourning 
for a relative. Period of impurity arising from such a 

CHAYA, Tam. (<?r7LJ_l) A root from which a red dye is ex- 
tracted (Oldenlandia umbellata). 
CHEDAVU, Tel. (*3~<3~3><$) i ncre ase. 
Dhar-cheddvu, Tel. (from Qo, price) An extra assessment, 
by relinquishing the Government share of the crop to the 
Ryot at a higher than the market price. 
CHEDURU, Tel. (~t3(30QJ) An allowance of grain made to 

the Ryots in compensation of the right of gleaning. 
CHEHAR, Thug. Jungle, forest. 
CHEHHA, H. (P. iS^-j-, a countenance) Descriptive roll of 

a servant ; also, Ctiehra-bandi, 

CHEKAVAN, or CHEOAVAN, Mai. (G^JcaoJrrt) A man 
of a low caste, commonly a Tair : one whose occupation 
is drawing the Tari juice. 

CHEKU, Tel. (13&J) A separate portion of land. See Chak. 
CHEKKU, Tel. (^^p) Grain derived from extra measure, 
Kara. (^&>) Haifa bullock load. 


CHELA, H. (iU=>-, S. 3fZi) A servant, a slave, a pupil, a 
disciple, especially one brought up by a religious men- 
dicant, to become a member of his order. In Mysore, a 
Hindu boy seized m early life and forcibly made a Mo- 
hummadan, by order of Tipu : these boys, as they grew 
up, were incorporated in a military corps, retaining the 
name of Chelas. 
CIIELAVANI, or CHELAUNI, TeL ("t3er o >?3) Current, as 

CHELIKE, Tel. ("30~1) A field left fallow, a field after 

the crop has been cut and cleared. 

CIIKLLAM, Mai. (6>.2J^_jo) Royal treasure, hidden treasure. 
CIIELLU CHITI, Tel. Karn. (tJ|O"acJ) A receipt. 
CHELLUBAKILU, Tel. ("Seowieo) Collections and 


CHEMBADIVADC, Tel. ("o'ODGJ^<5o) A fisherman. 
C'IIKMMAN, Mai, (6>-2JGC>3nr6) A currier, a shoemaker, a 

worker in leather. See Chamar. 

CHENA, II. (AAJJS-) A kind of millet (Panicum miliaceum). 
CHKNCII, H. ( ,ix>-) A herb which springs up in uncul- 

tivated places in the rainy season. 

CIIENCHUVADU, Tel. (T?0&>o3-&>) A tribe of half- 
savage Hindus dwelling in the hills and forests ; also 
Karn. plur. C/tenckukuladavaru. 

CIIKXDI, Tel. (~<3oQ) The fermented juice of the date tree. 
CHENGAVARUSA, Tel. (~o'oXS&)>) A land roll, -a list 

of farmers and fields. 

CHENGOLI, Mar. (^jftfjjy) Work done for hire. 
CUENU, Tel. (U(\5o) A field of dry grain, a crop. 
CHENVUKOTTI, Mai. (Si^JorijetfeOgl, from chenva, copper) 

A brazier or coppersmith. 
CHEOTA, Thug. Rupees. 

CiiEiiA,CnEi,i, Mai. (61I2JO, 6>.U8ri) Soft or wet soil, mud, 

mire, soil in general, or such as is fit for rice cultivation. 

Cher-ldpam or -Idbham, Mai. (from c/ier, and S. <JTi, 

gain) The profit of cultivation, the cultivator's share of 

the profit. 

C/ierruvita, Mai. (6>.2_IOQ,oJ]rtn) Cultivation of wet 


Cheruman, plur. Ckerumar, whence corruptly, Chermers, 
Cliarmas, Cltm-mars, also plur. Cherumahhal, corruptly, 
ChermaMial, and Shurrumuhhul, Mai. (6l^JOQ,dnf6, 
plur. 6)JJOQ,Cioe6fofc) A slave or slaves, prsedial slaves ; 
the term designating them as " children of the soil." 
CHERAD!YA. Kara. (&r^ra'D3o&) p ro fits to Government 


from the sale of unchaste women. Assessment on cattle 
Pasturage among the hills. 


A town, a village, a 

CHERAi, Kara. 
CHERI, Tarn. (( 


Paraicheri, Tarn. (uoTOfiQ&GS'cfl) A village of Pariars. 
Pudttcheri, Tarn. (l^gd&Q&rf}') A new village or town, 

the original form of Pondicherry. 
CHEKIKKAL, Mai. (6^2J(Dl (SO <st>) Threshing-floor and farm 

attached to Government lands. Jungle or hilly tracts 

sometimes cultivated. 

CHERNADAR, Tarn. (S^crrjsrriT) Relations, dependants. 
CHERRA, Mai. (6)^JOOO) An artificial reservoir, con- 

structed for irrigating lands. 
CHERU, H. (._*-) The name of a wild tribe inhabiting 

the hills and woods in the southern parts of the province 

of Benares, in Mirzapur and Behar, sometimes called a 

branch of the Bhars, and sometimes identified with the 

Soles. Mr. Elliot considers them to be the aboriginal in- 

habitants of the provinces, on the skirts of which they are 

now found, driven from their proper seats by Rajput races. 
CHERUKCJ, Tel. (~t3eDb) Sugar cane. 
CHERTJJANMAM, Mai. (6>.au]ae3OZ)o, from cheru, little) 

The rights or perquisites of the inferior members of the 

village community. 
CHE'RUMANAM, Mai. (6^uJfK(20m ) Collection of revenue, 

the duty of an inferior collector. 
Cherumdnakdran, Mai. (6).2_l(WGiOPOd&>oronr6) An inferior 

revenue officer. 

CHERCVU, Tel. (~3&>c$) An artificial pond or tank. 
Panta-cheruvu, Tel. (from >oo, crop) A tank for the 

irrigation of various crops. 
Uru-cheriivu, (from &&) } a village) A tank for the 

common use of the inhabitants of a village. 
CHET, Thug. A traveller who has discovered the designs of 

the Thugs. A gold coin. 
CHET A, Tel. ( ~3 o) A cribble : an allowance of grain made to 

the head of the village. Maila-cheta, A similar allowance 

to the village washerman (from ^SOOJOO, H. maila, 

CHETAN, Mai. (6).oJsnr6) A man servant, a slave, a 

weaver of a particular caste. 
CHETRAM, or SHETRAM, Mai. (6)c&(TO)o) A temple of the 

first order, one dedicated to the T-rimurtti. See Kshetra. 

CHETTE, Kara. 

Half a bullock load. 


CHETTI, Mai. (6>.OJ1) A foreign or Karnata Siidra, a 
tradesman, a weaver by caste and occupation. 

CHETTCKARAN, Mai. (6).2J(zr*|)<j9>Dronr6) A Tdrl drawer : a 
grass cutter. 

CheUupdttam, Mai. (mo irtryg)Q_iO) Rent of cocoa- 
nuts or other palms for extracting Tdrl. 

CHETUKUDU, Tel. (t?kx>&>&)) A male servant or slave. 

CHEWARA, or CHEWARRA, (?) Lands situated at the ex- 
treme boundaries of a village. 

CHHADAM, corruptly, CHUDAM and CHHEDUM, H. (J t>*y^0 
A coin of very small value, one of six, or properly six 
and a quarter ddms, or two damris, a quarter of a pavsa 
valued at twenty-five ddms. The word is used to imply 
any thing of no worth or value. 

CHHAHEL, Hindi (T^F) Land. 

CiiHAHKtiR, CH'HUH-KOOR, H. (^l^., from i^-< six) 

Division of crops in which the Zamindar gets only one-sixth. 

CHHAI, H. (^y*-) A pad to prevent laden bullocks from 
being galled. 

CHHAJ, or CHHACH, H. (-Ay-, ^V?"' ^T*^) -^ winnowing 

CHHAKRA, H. (hy-, S. 5PK7) A cart. 

CHHAL, CHHUL, H. (J-y^-, S. ^Rj:) Deceit, fraud. In law, 
a misdemeanor ; also, a legal quirk or deceit. 

CHHALA,Ben. C^fal) A pair of sacks or panniers, or any other 
article, so placed on a bullock as to hang on either side. 

CHHALAVADI, Karu. (cJTOoJ c)?S) A menial under the head 
merchant of a village. 

CHHALNA, Ben. (^SRl) An awning under which a 
father or guardian presents the bride to the bridegroom 
on the day of marriage. 

CHHAMBCHiTAii, Uriya (>|9lQgG) Grant of land by the 

Raja of Khurda. 
Chhdmukdran, Uriya (g|flQ|QC1) The accountant of a Raja. 

CHHANTA, H. (li>U=-) Throwing additional seed among a 
growing crop of rice (Delhi). Land in which seed has 
been sown after a single ploughing, especially at the ex- 
tremities of a village, to secure possession. 

CHHANPAT, Uriya (Qgll|S) Grass lands. Hemp. 

CHHAONI, H. ((jj'-y*-) Cantonments, station of troops. 

CnaAp, incorrectly Chdp, corruptly Chop, H. (ujL*-) A 
stamp, a seal. The impression of a stamp or seal. The 
Government stamp on papers or on coins. A mark on 
weights and measures to shew their accuracy. The cus- 
tom-house stamp on goods having paid duty, &c. In 


Delhi the word is also applied to a small bundle of thorns 
about a foot high. 

Chhdpa, H. (<oly-) The village seal used to impress 
grain with any stamp or impression. A fee on stamps. 

In recent times the word has come to signify printing ; as 
Chhdpa kdr/haz, a printed paper, a newspaper ; Chhdpa 
hhdna, a printing-house or office ; Chhdpa karna, to 
print. Also adj. Sealed, under seal, distrained, attached. 

Chhdpa hasil, H. (Jv^'d- ^'y^) A tax on stamping cloth. 

Chhdpi, H. (.jj'-y*-) Bearing a stamp, stamped, authen- 
ticated, printed. 

Chhdpihari, H. (,/, who makes) An officer whose 
duty it is to apply a stamp or seal, a printer. 

Chhdpi rupaiya, II. (<*>Jji) Rupees which have been 
defaced by private marks punched on them, and some- 
what depreciated in value on that account. 

Chhdpti, corruptly, Shaptee, H. (,-IAya-) A coarse seal 
of cow-dung and mud affixed to the pile of grain on the 
threshing-ground, to prevent its removal until the Govern- 
ment or proprietor's dues are paid. 

CmiApA, II. (<olyj-) A heap of refuse corn formed in 
winnowing, a small heap of grain appropriated to pur- 
poses of charity. In some places, the name of the basket 
used for throwing up water out of a pond. 
CHUPPRA, CHAPROW, H. (/xy*-) CHHAPAR, Ben. (^tf?r) 
A thatch, a thatched roof. 

Chhappar-band, Chhuppur-bund, H. (P. jJu, a binding) 
A thatcher, forming in the Dakhiu a subdivision of the 
Kumbi caste. A resident cultivator, in contradistinction 
to one who takes part in the cultivation of the lands of 
a village in which he is not a permanent inhabitant. 

Chhappar-bandi, H.^jJb, binding) Thatching. Expense 
of thatching. Cultivating with permanent residence in a 
CHHA.R, H. (jl^-, "STS) The bank of a river, alluvium, 

land gained from rivers. 

CHHAR, written CaHAp, but pronounced as if withafmalr,Ben. 
Uriya(^t^) Letting go, relinquishing, allowing to pass, &c. 

Chhdrd, Ben., Uriya (^rTl) Letting go, relinquishing. 
Relinquished, deserted, as lands out of cultivation. 

Chlidru-bdJci, Ben., Uriya (A. Ji'j) Balance due for 
lands deserted. 

Chhdri, Ben., Uriya (^tf) Remission of revenue : lowering 
or letting off rent : acquittal of a prisoner, release : laches, 
notprosecutingasuit,aud other usesimplyingabandonment. 


Chhdr-chilthi, H., Ben., Uriya, &c. 
A pass, a permit, a passport on sale of salt, to the ex- 
tent of twenty mam within a given jurisdiction; also an 
order for its release. (Shakespeare derives the compound 
from Chhdr, a bank of a river, but it is probably a 
modification of Chhdr, letting go : or, as applied in the 
salt agencies, it may be referred to Chhdr, vernacular 
form of S. Kshdr, salt. As derived from the Hindustani 
Chhorna, to let go : the compound is Chhor-chitthi). 
Ben. Reg. x. 1819. 

CnuAidDAR, or BARDAR, Mar. (tjrt^r*, ^^rc) A cane- 
bearer, an usher. 

CHHAT, CHHUT, H. (o^a.) CiniAT, Ben. (^t5) The 
roof of a house. 

CHHATAK, Ben. (^Eto) CHHATANK, or CmiATANid, Mar. 
('STZTcR, ri^Hil). also Uriya, CHHATANKI, (S. nj, six, 
and ^HlT, a mark) One-sixteenth part of a Scr measure, 
either of weight or capacity. 

CHHAfAo, H. (.15^9.) Cleaning rice from the husk. 

CHHATII/, H. ( -^-=^, ^' om S. ^, six) Sixth. A cere- 
mony performed a few days, from six to nine, after the 
birth of a child, by women among the Mohammadans. 
The sixth day of the month. 

or CHHUTUR, H. &c. (JJ^-, S. ^sO) also CimArA, 11. 
('Jlys-) An umbrella. (S. ^r) A place of slielter for 
travellers, especially for Brahmans (Mysore), a serai. 
Chhutri, Chhutree, corruptly, Chitree and Chiteree, H. 
&c. (^yLj^, from S. 'Sfift, a small umbrella) A monu- 
mental structure or pavilion erected in honour of some 
person of rank. In Mai., One who carries an umbrella; 
also a barber. 

Chhatra-pati, II. S. A prince or Raja, one over whom a 
parasol is carried as a mark of dignity. 
Chhatra-dhdr,~R., lit. an umbrella-bearer A mixed caste, 
formerly known ill the Dakhin, whose function it was to 
hold the umbrella over persons of rank, and fetch water 
for the four pure castes. 

i Chhatra-varttana, Karn. (ei2,_8 ) F~rO) A tax formerly 
levied for feeding the Brahmans of the Cliaultris. 

CHHATRJ, or CHHETRI, H. (^Jj^s.-, ^.LAyB., S. TSffaTf;) 
A man of the second, or regal and military caste. 

CHHATT^R, CHHUTTOOR, H. ( tviy-, from gf=r j an um- 
brella) An article placed upon the top of a heap of 
winnowed corn ; a cake of dried cow-dung, or a shoot 


of grass, or bundle of twigs, or a spear placed by the 
side of it, or a flower near the bottom, to protect the corn 
from the effects of the evil eye. 

Chhatrapati-paisd, Mar. (mn) The copper coin of Puna, 
&c., established originally by Sivaji, stamped with the 
word Clihatrapati. 

CHHAUR, CHHOUR, H. ( .jy-) A large stack of Jawar 
collected for fodder, comprising several smaller stacks 
(Delhi). Also, walking a boundary with a raw cow-skin 
on the head, under a solemn oath to decide correctly : 
five sticks are held in the hand, to imply that the arbi- 
trator is the representative of the Panchayat (In the 

CHIIEDA, H. (Ijjuj.-, from S. "-8$, cutting) An insect in- 
jurious to corn ; the disease occasioned by it. 

CHHEDANA, S. ($<?{) lit. cutting, In criminal law, muti- 
lation, cutting off a member or limb. 

CHIIELA, Uriya (G8l"l) A weight of metal equal to 40bishas. 

CHHENKWAD, or CHHENKWAIA, H. (j \jj^*-, \j\jj^*-) 
Sequestration, distraint. 

CHHENCHAN, Ben. (Tpt>?T) Throwing up water from a 
pond or any reservoir. 

CHHETE, or CHHETRA, H. (yuys-, S. ^i) A field. A place 

of reputed sanctity, as, Kuru-c'itietra or Kum-kket, at 
Paniput. A geometrical figure : whence the Sanskrit 
translation of Euclid is known as the Cshetra- or 
Chhetra-phal, H. (J^j Ju.^.) The superficial contents of 

a field or any geometrical figure. 
CHUIDA, H. (Ij^s-) Thin, not close, as a crop of corn 

or grove of trees, &c. 

CHHIKAI, H. (^liys.) A fee on granting a release or ac- 
quittance of rent or revenue (liohilkhand). 
CHHIMI, H. (.f*^*-, S. f$W) A pod or legume. 
CHHIND, Ben. (f^^) A water-course. 
CirafNKA, H. (fou^, affaT, S. f^TW) A sort of bag of 

I rope fastened on the mouth of an ox with straw for him 
to eat while ploughing. A net or loop for hanging pots 
or boxes in. 
HHfNT, H. (eUJUy;.-, S. f^T, variegated) Chintz, spotted 
HHINTA, II. (Si-^a.) A field in which peas and linseed 
have been sown broad-cast while the rice crop is standing, 
and left to grow after the rice is reaped. 


CHHIPI, incorrectly CHIPI, corruptly CHEEPA and CHEAPARA, 

H. (,<^v*-j from the v. uLy^s-) A printer of cottons, 

a chintz-stamper. Also Clihipi-rjar. 
CHHJR, H. ( .jys. , S. T$fc, milk) The land cultivated by 

the proprietor of a village, or the lessee himself on his 

own account. See Sir. 
CHHIT, Ben. (f^T) Chintz, (also from S. %?) Balance, 


CHHITUA, H. (Lys-) Sowing broad-cast (Benares). 
CHHOLA, H. GsL^) Gram, (Cicer arietinum) The man who 

cuts the standing sugar-cane, and pares off the leaves and 

tops, which are in part payment of his labour. 
CHHOR, H. (jy^, from Uj^ys-, to let g<>) Letting go, 

dismissal, remission, acquittance. Also Chhordn and 


Chhor-chitthi, H. (.rfij- jyc^ ^ t ' eec ' ^ ve ' ease > a 

pass, a permit : a deed of divorce, or abandonment of a 

wife, a document giving up claim to a girl betrothed to 

the repudiate! 1 , but married in his absence to another man. 

CHIIOTA THIKUR, Ben. (^tl>1. H. 13'^.s-. little, ^1*fT, 

J \ V 6^ 

a lord) The youngest brother of a husband's father, to 
be used only by the wife of an elder brother's son. A wife's 
father's younger brother, to be used by an elder brother. 

Ckotd thdhurdni, Ben. ( f^llTti 'fa 5 JJ 1ft ) The wife of 


a husband's father's younger brother, or of a wife's 

father's younger brother. 
Cliotdbaii, Ben. (i^|l>k^) A younger brother's wife. 

The youngest of a man's wives, or the one last married. 
Cnn6RiKABANDHA, Mar. ('siTeirr, a knife, and ^j, binding) 

A ceremony formerly in use of formally investing a Sudra 

with a billhook, in imitation of the investiture of the 

Brihman with the cord. 
CHHftT, H. (cLv^s-, from the v. lo^a-, to let go) Ee- 

mission, acquittance, letting go or relinquishing. Re- 

mitsion of revenue either on the bighd or in rupees. 
Clihut, Cttliut-mdfi or mujrdl, are terms especially applied 

to the reductions made iu the assessment of the Faeli 

year 1197 (A. D. 1789). Some have been authorised by 

Government, but most have been granted without any 

such authority. 

Chhutauti, H. (jjj'3'^s-) Remission of rent or revenue. 
Chhutti, H. (.Jiys-) Leave, leave of absence, discharge, 

dismissal, leisure, opportunity. 

CHIBHAR, H.Ljxxs.) Land which long remains mo!st(S;igar). 
CHIGARAVANTIGE, Karn. (&rX&5oA) A tenure of 


land in Mysore by shares, in which the whole village 
was parcelled out in lots of equal value, each containing 
a due proportion of wet, dry, and garden land. 

CniHAf, CHIHANA, CHIHARA, H. Cjly- lily*-) A place 
where dead bodies are burned. 

CHIHEL, H. ((J-jy.) Wet oozy land. From CHIHLA, 

(Vr) mud - 

CniHE, H. (.ci- 1 ^-) A division of the Gujar tribe. 

CHIHNA, S. &c. (f^) A mark, a sign, a badge, any dis- 
tinguishing mark or sign. 

Chihnit, H. (c^uys., S. f*[J, a mark) Known, ascer- 
tained, measured, identified. Uriya. Identity. 
Chihnit ndma, H. (P. <CcU) A specification of land with 
its boundaries. 

CHIK, H. &c. (PN4, ,?-) A kind of screen, usually made of 
split barnbus loosely fastened together in parallel lines by 
perpendicular strings, and painted. 

CH(K, CH(KAR, CHEEK, CHEEKUH, 11. (iiU-, J^-~) 
CHIKHAL, Mar. (fow$, S. fafc^) Mud, slime. The 
bundle of rushes or turf on which the bucket rests when 
brought to the top of the well. Lund that has been 
recently irrigated. 

Chihhabvat, Mar. (fif^nrB) Miry, muddy, land rendered 
so by irrigation. 

CufK, Thug. A gold Mohur. 

CnfKA, Thug. A timid or cowardly Thug. 

CHIKAL, (?) Planting surplus parcels of rice-plants on un- 
occupied village lands, for the use of which the trans- 
planters agree to pay a portion of the produce. 

CHIKAN, H. (,.-) Working flowers on muslin, or em- 

Chihan-doz, H. (P. jj^asewer) An embroiderer, a worker 
of flowers in muslin. 

Clayey soil (Sagar). 

CHIKA.UT, H. (tJL>j=-) Clayey soil of a black colour. 

CHIKHAR, H. (js*-) The husk of Ghana. 

CHIKHARWAI, H. (^W^s-) Wages for weeding (Oudh). 

CHIKKAN, CHIKNA, corruptly, CHICKCM, H. (,.=*, li=O 
Mar. (facmr) S. (fq^:) Greasy, fat, unctuous. Thick, 
loamy, as soil. Pure clay, incapable of cultivation. 

CMkamvat, Mar. ((*< <*<i.RTT) Greasy or fat, especially as 

soil ; loamy or clayey soil. 
Chikankhadu, (?) Mar. A particular kind of rich soil 

(Western India). 



Chikndn-at or Ckiknot, H. cLjjli-, f^RTfte) A clayey 
or loamy soil, a fat soil. 

CHIKLI, corruptly, CHICKLEE, (?) A lyot cultivating in one 
village and residing in another. 

CHILIKI, Tel. (->) A field left fallow. 

CuiKsA, H. (L^l-) A flagrant powder made up of a great 
variety of ingredients ; the principal of which are sandal, 
andropagon, minnakun, benzoin, and camphor. 

CHILAM, corruptly, CHILLUM, H. &c. (Jjs-) The part of 
the hukka which contains the tobacco and charcoal balls, 
whence it is sometimes loosely used for the pipe itself, or 
the act of smoking it. 

CHILAVA, Mai. (^xJleanj) Expense, disbursement, money 
allowed for expenses, batta, or extra allowance. 

CIIII.I.A, H. (,d., from the P. J^-, forty) A forty days' 
fast, a similar period of religious seclusion, or the place 
where it is observed. The period of forty days after 
childbirth during which a woman is unclean. Ceremony 
of purification. The shrine or residence of a saint. 

CHILLAGINJE, Kara. (zS-Q^oS) The nut of the Strychnos 
potatorum, which is rubbed on the inside of water jugs 
to purify the water. 

LER or CHILTA, Tel. (tSe^Sb) Karn. (a^ig, ^ 
Mai. (liJlg^jo) Trifling, petty, sundry, an odd sum of 
money, a small grant or allowance. 
Ckillar-bub, Karn. Sundry items or cesses in revenue. 
CIMlar-kharchu, Tel. (-cS^&p&jj) vernacularly or in- 
correctly, Ckilkar khurch, Mar. (?) Sundry or petty 
expenses, deductions from the revenue allowed for village 
expenses and for the contingent expenses of the native 
revenue servants (Dakhin). 

C/iillar-Mran, Mai. (-oJn^cxftOrtJrrt)) A petty shopkeeper. 
Cliillar-vari, Mai. (oj(0l. a tax) The minor or petty pay- 
ments made to the inferior village servants. 
Cltillari-mdnyam, corruptly, Cldllary-mannium, Tel. 
(t3e^6&r-rC5go)Small grautsof land for village charges, 
the pay of revenue officers, or support of temples, &c. 

CHILT!, Karn. (a?oiTa)) Sandal chips (Mysore). 

CHILWAI, H. (^\.) The turf or rushes on which the 
bucket, when drawn up from the well, rests ; and which 
therefore becomes sloppy and muddy. 

CUIMAMA, Thug. The cry of the wolf, a bad omen. 

CHIMOTA, Thug. A boy. Chimoti, a girl. 

CHIMPIGA, Karn. (aol>X) A tailor. 


CHIN, H. (,-f**-) Akind ofsugar (Upper Doab and Rohilkhand). 
Chini, H. (^J^>-) Coarse sugar. 

CHINI)!, Guz. (*Hl $1) Allowance made by Grasias to vil- 
lage Parils for collecting their dues. 

CHING, Thug. A sword. 

CHINGANA, Thug. A boy. 

CHINOARI', Thug. A clan of Muttari Thugs of the Mo- 
hammadan religion, following ostensibly the business of 
Banjaras, or travelling grain and cattle dealers. 

CHINGORIA, Thug. One of the sects of the Thug clans. 

CHINHA, Thug. A boy. 

CHINKALU, Tel. C&oSeo) The inferior grains of millet 

separated by winnowing from the better. 
Chinkalu-rdsi, Tel. C^ 13 * , S. 'Cl^lD A heap of such grain. 

levied on large scales. 

CHINWAL, (?) Mar. Tax payable from the customs revenue. 

CHIPPALA, Kara. (^jQy) An instrument of torture 
two sticks tied together at one end, between which the 
hand is placed, and the loose ends are forcibly pressed 

CHIPPEVADU, Tel. (TSrQ*r&o) CHIPPIGA, Kara. C* 3 ^) 
A tailor, said to have sprung from a Shakili female by a 

CHIPTEN, Mar. (f'Tft) A measure of capacity, one-fourth of 
a ser. 

CHIR, Mai. (.OJlo ) A bank, a dam, an embankment, a mound 
across rivers, or dividing fields, serving as a causeway 
in the rains; the Band or Bund of Bengal. A large pond. 

CHIRA, S. (f^t) Long, in time. 

Chiranjiv, B. S. (fF^^jfa) Long-lived, said as a bene- 
Chirdyu, S. (fa 1.1 15 ) Long-lived. 

CHIRA, Thug. Call of the Rupanl, or the bird itself. 

CHI'HA, S. (Vk) Cloth, clothes, bark. An effigy placed 
upon the funeral pile when a woman burnt herself after 
her husband's decease in a distant place. 

CHIHAGHI, H. C^^, P- fy*-, a lamp) An allowance, 
either public or private, for keeping a lamp or lamps 
constantly burning at the tomb of a Mohammadan saint, 
or for illuminating a mosque. Presents of money for 
like purposes. 

CHIRA VARA-PADU, Tel. (t2&SSo3~*'<5o) La nc | recovered 

I from the waste, and prepared for the cultivation of the 
Chiravara or Chdi, a plant yielding a red dye 


CHIRCHERA, Thug. u Cry of the lizard. 

CHIRCHITTA, H. (*!-,-) A kind of grass bearing a small 
seed which may be eaten. 

CHIRETA, Thug. A Maratha, a Pandit. 

CHIREYA, Thug. Chirping of the small owl, an unlucky 

CHIRIYA-MAR, Ben. (ffef^TNt?r) A low caste, by pro- 
fession bird catchers. 

CHIRPPA, Mai. CaJloLl) A flood-gate, a piece of wood or a 
door to shut up a sluice. 

CHISA, Thug. Any good or blessing, especially a wealthy 

CHIT, abbreviation of Chitthi, q.v. Mar. (f^7 ) A note, a letter. 
Chitnavh, or Chitnls, (f^^, or rfa, from Chit, and 
P. naivis, writer) Under the Maratha Government, an 
under secretary of state, who wrote and answered des- 
patches. Any clerk or registrar. The same as the Sar- 
rishtaddr of the Company's Courts, in the Dakhin. 

CHIT, H. &c. (u>>*-, S. f^) Mind, understanding, the 
intellectual faculty, the soul. 

CHITA, H. &c. (U-, S. fam) A funeral pile, a heap of 

sticks on which a dead body is burned. 
Chitdkha, H. (,(&.) A funeral pile. 
Chitdpinda, S. (famftng) Offerings of cakes to the 
manes at the funeral pile at the time of burning the 
Chitarohana, S. (f^HT^Il) Ascending the funeral pile, 

burning with the dead body of a husband. 
Chitkd, Hindi (f^ToRl) A place where dead bodies are 

CHITA-KHANDA, Ben. (ffe^st^ ^) Spring-harvest 

CHITARI, corruptly, CHEETARO, H. (t_/&-> S. PH<*lO) 
A painter. 

CHITRA, S. &c. (fa^) Variegated, spotted : a picture, chintz. 

CHJTHABHANU, S. (f^WT-j:) The sixteenth year of the 
cycle of sixty. 

CHITHAOUPT, Mar. (fsR^H) A skilful writer, both as 
regards his style and handwriting. (From the mytho- 
logical Chitragupta, S. the registrar of the dead.) 

CHITPEKALARA, Arakan. A class of slaves, those who are 
taken in battle. u 

CHITT, H., and other dialects, (u^--, S. frw) Mind, 

heart, the intellectual faculty, or its supposed seat 
Chittpuwan, Mar. (faw<*H) A Brahman of a particular 
tribe ; also termed Konkanastha, or Konkan Brahman. 
2 a 


CHITTARI, Tarn. (<f#)ssnfl) A small tank. 
CHITTE, Tel. (^ fj) An incomplete heap of salt. 


CHITTHA, H. (l^*-) CHITA, Ben. (TFFl) CHITTHA, Tel. 
( "&"|P ) A memorandum, a rough note or account, rough 
journal or day-book. Pay of public servants. Particular 
statement of the measurement of a Zamindar's estate 
founded on actual measurement It also applies to an 
account of all the lands in a village, divided numerically 
into ddghs or shares, shewing the quantity of land in 
each, the sort of cultivation, and the name of the cultivator. 
Also a field book, rnone usually termed khasra, an ac- 
count of all the lands of a village, according to their 
allotment, in the order in which they have been 



Chitthd-Amalddri, H. (^IjJUo; l$x-) A deed conveying 

a proprietary right. 

CHITTHI, H. (^jy**-) CHITI, Ben. (fp^) CHITI, CHITTI, 
CHiTHf, or CHITHTHI, Mar. (f'TCt, f^jt, f'STt, faiil , 
CHITI, Karn. (3a-?k3) corruptly CniTEE,abbreviated CHIT. 
A note, a short letter, any letter, a note conveying an 
order or demand. 

Chitthi talab, or Talab chitthi, (from the A. C^lis , in- 
quiry) A process, a precept, a summons to a defaulter to 
appear and pay his arrears. 

Chitihundi, Karn. (S^ScOOG) A bill of exchange. 

Chittu, Karn. (^o^) A rough copy or draft. 

Ckitu, or Chite, Karn. (tf&>, S^lj) Chittu, Tarn, 

(<#lll) A bill, a bond, a deed : the Hindi Chitthi. 
CHITTI, or CHETTI, more correctly, SETHI, corruptly, CHITTY, 
Tel. C&&3, or ~t3W f rom & Sreshthi, wO All 

eo .o 

members of the trading castes in the Madras provinces, 

either shopkeepers or merchants. 
CHIVATI, Mai. (jjlfUOSl) A small vessel, a kind of 

CHIVUKA, Tel. ("^^S) A coin of the value of a quarter 


CHIWANA, H. (Wj*-) A place where dead bodies are burned. 
CHOB, H. (s->j-) CHOP or CHOB, Mar. (nta, ^ta) A 

stick, a staff, a staff of office. 
Chobddr, corruptly Chubddr, H. (yljo^s-) An attendant 

carrying a short staff or mace. 
CHOHA, H. (l&j*-) A small well. 
CHOHAK, less correctly, CHOAB, Ben. (fPt^tS) A tribe of 

mountaineers in the hills of Ramgarh, &c. 
CHOIL, Hindi (^t^5) Land lying low, and always moist. 


H. (Ijj*-) A hole dug in the dry bed of a river. 
A rivulet. 

CnoKi, H. (tfj*-) Rice (Sagar). 
CHOKABAO, H. (^teRT^TT ) Seeds sown immediately after 

a fall of rain. 
CH<JLLU, Tel. (pi. *?"*$&) A kind of grain (Cynosurus 


CnoNpA, Mar. (^tTf) A clump of rice plants. 
CHONDA, H. (l^ys-) A well not faced with masonry, where 

water is near the surface. 
CHONDHA, Mar. ('fllJiSl) A small bed or banked-up portion 

of a rice field. 
CHONTA, Ben. (iFt^5l ) A rough copy, a rough draft (of 

a writing). 

CHONTI, or CHOTI, H. (^^^i t^^i ^ Tom S. ^5T) A 
tuft of hair left at the top of the head when the rest is 
shaved off, in the case of boys at an early age. Among 
the Mohammadans it is sometimes dedicated to a par- 
ticular saint. 
CHOPDI, pronounced CHOPHI, corruptly, CHOPEDDI, Mar. 

(^IMiT) A stitched or bound book for accounts. 
CHOPPA, Tel. (^i^^) Straw. 

CHOP-SANAD, (?) Uriya. Grant of rent-free lands in perpetuity. 
CHOR, H. &c. (^ , S. ^tt) A thief. 
Chorank or dnh, Mar. (^tr^ioR -^STcR, from S. ^|J, a 
cypher) An extremely small figure on the leaves of a 
MS., or on a bale of cloth or piece of goods, to mark its 
price. A secret or furtive mark. 
Chordarn-dza, (from P. *j'_y4>> a door) A back door, a 

private way. 

Chorgali, H. (1^5^, a lane) A bye street or lane. 
Chorgast, Mar. (HtTTTCcr) Secret rounds, going privily 

round streets, &c. 

Chorsirhi, H. (^j*,) Back stairs. 
Chorv.gasti, (?) Tel. A spy, a secret watcher. 
Chormddd, Mar. (*flMIil) A haunt of thieves. 
Chorzamin, H. ((j^-*;;^-) A quagmire. 
Chora-nimak, H. (cLL<JS;j*-) but used in Cuttack, Con- 
traband salt. 
Chordnna-lutlc, (?) Karn. An item of revenue ; remission 

on account of plunder by thieves or robbers. 
Chori, H. &c. ((_>}*-, ^fW) Theft, robbery; also, doing 

any thing furtively or clandestinely. 

Chorimdrl, Mar. (*fiO^H?t) A collective term for illegal 
and violent practices, robbery, battery, murder. 


Chori-sarakula-phdramu, (?) Tel. A statement of smug- 
gled goods. 

CHOT, H. ( <>^j=-) Folding a blanket or sheet as a cover- 
ing for the head and shoulders, so as to keep out rain : 
practised by shepherds and herdsmen. 

CHOTA, H. Coy*-) Discount or premium. 

CHOTANA, Mai. (6).OJOrtnco , S. $ftvn) A liquid measure, 

varying in different places. Searching, determining. 
Chotanakdran, Mai. (6).o_10ra)rOcfi>0<onf&) A custom officer, 
a searcher, one who examines goods in transit to verify 
their having paid the proper duty. 

CHUA, H. ( \y>.) A plant used as a potherb in some places, 
but in Garwal and Kamaon the small grains of it are 
largely used as food (Amaranthus oleaceus). 

CHUDA, Ben. Mar. (S. MTl) A tuft of hair left on the top 
of a boy's head at the time of tonsure. (It is also pro- 
nounced Chura and Chuld, whence come the deriva- 
tives Chaura and Chaula, signifying the ceremony of 

Chudd-karanam, -karma, or -kriyd, (from S. TRTUrf, &c., 
act, ceremony) The ceremony of tonsure performed on 
Hindu boys, which should properly take place between 
the third and fifth year of their age, but sometimes later, 
when a single lock of hair is left on the top of the head. 
See Chaura or Chaula, Chaura-harana, Chaula-karana, 

Chaul-otsava, S. A festival held on occasion of the cere- 
mony of tonsure. 

CHUOAI, CHOOGAEE, H. (s_$l-) Pasturage. 

CHUGHAL, or CHUGHLI, H. (P. t)A>-, ,<1*-) Tale- 
telling, backbiting, informing. 

Chughalhhor, H. (jf-, who eats) A tale-bearer, an 

CntiHRA, H. (p!>j-) The lowest description of village ser- 
vants, the same as the Bhangi, Haldlkhor, Mehtar, &c. 

CHUK, Ben. (F*) CHUK, but often short in derivatives 


and compounds, Mar. (^F) A mistake, an error, espe- 
cially in figures. 

Chuhi, Mar. ('J^) A small mistake. 
Chukbhul, Mar. (-^OHH^) All kinds of errors or inad- 

CHUKADO, Guz. (^%IH1) Decision, adjustment, settle- 
ment of a dispute, &c. 
CHUK.ANI, Ben. (o^i^l) An under-tenant (Rangpur). 


CHUKARA, CHOOKARA, H. (I;IC-) Customs, duty (Sagar). 


CHUKAT, H. (UU.C*-, from UC-, to be finished or settled) 

Agreement, a contract 
CHUKAUTA, CHOOKOUTA, H. (jJ^Ls-) Fixed rates of rent, 

money rate. 

CHUKKAN, Mai. (a_^ o8Q9rr6) A helm, a rudder. 
Chukkdnkdran, Mai. (2-Je9W88jOronrf>) A steersman. See 

CHUKHI, CHOOKREE, H. ( t_^-^-) A fractional division of 

land (Kamaon and Garhwal). 
CHUKTA, Mar. (^w) Settled, cleared, as a debt. 
Ckukti, Ben. (IPFfl ) or Chukoti, (^ctlrft) Chukwati, 

r* *& 

Mar. ('Mcd^ill) Settlement of a debt or bargain. 

CHULA, or CHULAH, H. (*!y-) A tribe of Tagas in Baghpat. 

CHULAT, Mar. ('T^STl) A term expressing collateral relation- 
ship, used in composition ; as, Chulat-djd, a grandfather's 
brother ; Ckulat-bhau, son of a paternal uncle. 

CHULHA, or CHULHI, H. (Uys-, i<^y-) CHULA, Mar. (^) 
in other dialects, CHDLA, CHULLI, from the S. (^5?) A 
fire-place, a temporary and moveable receptacle for fire, 
made of dried clay. 

CHULIA, (?) A name given to the Mohammadans in Mala- 
bar. In Cuttack (OR.8||) A salt-boiler. 
Chulid-malangi, Uriya (oS.eilflCi.Sf) Tlie head salt- 
maker, the one who makes engagements with the Go- 

CHULLI, CHOOLLEE, H. (,<^-) Supports placed beneath 
stacks of straw or stores of grain. A fire-place. See Chulha. 

CHULLU, CHOOLLOO, H. (j!o-) The palm of the hand hol- 
lowed for holding liquids. A handful of any thing fluid. 

CHULTA. Mar. (^<?(TT) A paternal uncle. 

CHUMATA, Mai. (-2-iJ as) A load, a burthen. 
Chumattdl, Chumattukdran, Mal.(a-,J Qo6o,a_j Q|<ftO(Dnf6) 
A porter. 

CHUMBAK, Ben. (F^) Substance or abstract of a document. 

CHUMWA, (?) Asamese. Name of a tribe in Asam exempt 
from manual labour. 

CHUN, or CHUNI, CHOON, CHOONEE, H. (^y*-, i^f>-, S. 
^j) Pease-meal, pulse coarsely ground. 

CHUNA, H. (tJj-, S. ^) CHUNNAM, whence the current 

word CHUHAM, Tarn. (a>CCSr<5CCril>) Lime. 
Chundru, or Chundri,H. (jj\ift- , t-Sj^f?-) Lime-burners, 
or workers in lime, as plasterers. 

CHUNDIOAH, Guz. (^jl3U3.) A bracelet-maker, one 
who makes armlets of glass or ivory for married women. 

CHUNGADI, Karn. (SxOoXG) Interest of money, odds. 



CHUNGAL, CHOONGUL, H. ((JXX&-) A handful of anything 


CHUNGI'I H. (.J***-) A handful of grain levied as a tax or 
fee for weighing, or as a compensation for the use ol 
market conveniences, as bags, booths, &c. Similar con- 
tributions to religious mendicants, or allowance to Za- 
mindars for establishing a new market or permitting a 
fair to be held. This is also sometimes called CHUTKI, 
( ( _/3j*-) lit a pinch. 
Chungi-penth, H. (from Penth, AU>, a market) A market 
or fair held on the tenure of giving a small portion of 
each saleable article to the Zamindar. 
CHUNGUDU, Tel. (uooXooo) A small or trifling arrear. 
CHUNKAM, Mai. (a^8fo) Duty, customs. See Sunka. 
CHUNKIPPA, Mai. (a-jeejloj) Petty theft, pilfering, fraud. 
CHUNNI, Mai. (^fJ^TO A sum of a hundred haunris. 
CHUNTRU, CHOONTROO, H. (jy^j*-) Head man of a dis- 
trict in Dehra Dun. 

CHUR, CHURA, or CHURI, H. (jj*-, S. ^Tt) A crest, a 
topknot, a ring, an armlet, the bracelet put on a bride's 
arm at the time of marriage, and which she is entitled 
to wear only while her husband lives : hence, meta- 
phorically, the married, as opposed to the widowed state. 
See also Chudd. 

Chura bhanddra, H. An allowance or portion of land 
granted as means of maintenance to the junior members 
of a Zamindar's family. 
CHURA, Karn. (&K/9&, from the S. 1%) The smallest 

pieces of sandal assorted for sale. 

CHUTHACHUTH, Mar. (TJVH-^VJ, lit. deranging) Applied to 
writing which has been or is being spoiled by numerous 
corrections, erasures, interlineations, &c. 
CHUTI, Karn. (&rOcJ) \ ro \\ o f tobacco, a cigar. 
CHUTUL, Mai. (a-Jfi6o) A roll, a scroll, a roll of tobacco, 

a cigar. 

CHUYAR, Ben. (bj|\) The name of a tribe of mountaineers 
inhabiting the mountains bordering Bengal on the west, 
in Ramgarh and the neighbouring districts. 


DA, Ben. (Tfl ) Diu, H. (jb) A sickle, a billhook, a sort 
of hatchet with the point curved. (From the S. Da, or 
Do, to cut.) 

DAAI, H. (A. ,_jcb) A claimant, a plaintiff. 

Da&ia, H. (A. *Jxb) A plaint, a claim, a petition. See 


DAB, H. (t__ >13, Darbha, ^5) A kind of grass (Poa cy- 
nosuroides) with sharp points ; whence a sharp-witted 
man is said to be Darbfi-dgra, keen-pointed as Dab grass. 
It is not much used for ordinary purposes, but is held 
sacred by the Hindus, and is strewed upon the floor or 
on the altar at offerings with fire: it is also considered 
desirable that a dying person should expire upon a bed 
of this grass. It is also called A"wsa. 
DAEA, Ben. OFM) A large vessel to receive the juice of 

the sugar-cane from the mill. 

DABA, Uriya (5>|Q) Memorandum, inventory, list. 
DABAK, or DABKA, DABUK, DUBKA, H. ((iWj, lj<5) Fresh 

well water. 

DABALIYA, Ben. (*ll!i<ii) Low land. 
DABAR, DABUH, H. (j)\J) Low ground where water lies. 

A small tank. 

DABBI, DUBBEE, Tel. Mar. (") A small box, a cash- 
box, one kept in temples to receive contributions. The 
contributions so received. The treasury of a temple. 
DABARO, Guz. (S^KO A vessel of leather for holding oil, 

ghee, &c., commonly called a Dubber. 

DABBU, TeL &c. (&Q 1 ) A Dab or Dub, a small copper 
coin of the value of twenty has; whence it conies to 
signify money in general. 
DABEHRA, DUBEHRA, H. (j^JjJ) A large ploughshare 

(East Oudh). 
Dabeliri, Dubehrec, H. (i^r^wJ) A light kind of plough 

in the west of Oudh and Rohilkhand. 
DABI, H. ( ,j\ J ) Ten handfuls of the autumn crop. See 

the next. 

Dabid, Dubea, H. (IjUii, from UbO, to press) A measure 
of grain : when applied to the autumn crops it usually 
designates about ten handfuls ; when to the spring crops, 
sixteen ; but it varies in different places. 
DABI'R, DUBEER, H. (P.^Joi)) A writer, a secretary. 
PABHA, DUBRA, H. (]^j) A marsh, a puddle. In the 

Upper Doab, a small field. 

DABRI, DUBREE, H. ((_j^ij) Division of profit among a 
village community according to their respective shares. 

3ABULEN, Or DABOLEff, also DABULKEN, &C. Mar. 

A hidden or reserved treasure. 

DACH, DUCH, H. (J) Homestead (East Oudh). 
3iD, H. (P. lib) Justice, complaint, representation. (In 


some dialects, as in Marathi, the latter appears to be the 
more common use of the word, although the former is 
its more legitimate meaning). 
Dddi, H. (i_iili>) A plaintiff, a complainant. 
Dddi-fariddi, H. (P. ^^j un>b) Hindi, Dddu-phi- 
riddv, (<JT3fTSf03rnp A complainant, an appellant for 

Ddd-kkwdJi, H. P. (s^>-) A plaintiff, a suitor, an ap- 
pellant for justice. 

Ddd-lthrvdhi, H. P. (^Jt>\^-, desiring) Applying for jus- 
tice, instituting a suit. 

DAD, H. (P. Jb, from ^^lo, to give) A gift. Giving. 
Ddd-o sitad, H. (P. ,xLi, taking) Giving and taking, ex- 
change, barter, traffic. 
Dddai, Hindi (<fT^) A term used in leases, meaning 

that the lessor ' gives,' or ' has given.' 
Dddani, or, abbreviated, Dddni, H. &c. (^jijli), <^T^rt) 
Paying in advance, advancing pay to labourers or manu- 
facturers : any additional grant or allowance. 
Dddani malangidn, H. ( ( JliLc, salt maker) An ad- 
ditional allowance to the makers of salt, an item in the 
former revenue accounts of Bengal. 
DADA, H. &c. (b'j) Paternal grandfather, an elder brother, 

any elder or venerable person. 

Dddi, fern, (^jlj) A paternal grandmother, any vene- 
rable old woman. 

DADH, incorrectly, DAT, Mar. (<JT<?) Ground prepared by 
burning for being planted ; the weeds and grass strewed 
over it to be burned. Grain growing on ground so pre- 
pared. Ground in which rice, &c. is grown from seed for 
the purpose of transplanting. 
DADH, DUDH, Thug. A man who is not a Thug. 
DADEYA, Kara. (O&OOD) A measure of weight, the fourth 

of a man, or ten gers. 

DADRI, DITDHEE, H. (j^.tW) Unripe corn, chiefly barley, 
which is cut occasionally, and brought home to be eaten, 
without being taken to the threshing-floor. 
DADUPANTHI, H. ( ^^io j<jli>) A follower of the religious sect 
of Dadu, a cotton cleaner of Ahmedabad, in the beginning 
of the seventeenth century, who endeavoured to establish a 
sort of monotheistical worship. 

DAEN, H. (^Jii) Tying a number of bullocks abreast, that 
they may tread the corn under their feet and force out the 
ear. Also DA ON. 

DAEH, Uriya (Q|-6Q) Pending, as a suit. 


DAERD, (a probable error for DHEB, q. v.) A class of agri- 
cultural slaves, said to be numerous in Kanara. 

DAFA-D!R, corruptly DUFFADAH, H. &c. (P. Jo ,*it>) In 
the Hindu dialects which have noy, the ph is substituted ; 
(O qj O"COQO) Commandant of a body of horse, head of a 
party of police, a police officer. In Bengal, a person at the 
head of a number of persons, whether labourers or soldiers. 
DAFTAH, DUFTTJH, H. (P. Jijt)) or, ph being substituted for 
/, Ben. (iff*) DAPHTARAMU, Tel. (#$S&X>) 
DAPHTAH, Mar. (^ura^) A record, a register, an account, 
an official statement or report, especially of the public re- 
venue, roll, archives, &c. An office in which public records 
are kept ; more correctly, Daftar-khdna. 

Daftar-band, or -bund, H. (P. AJu) A record or office- 
keeper. Allowance paid to such an officer. 

Daftarddr, Daphtarddr, H., also in Mar. Daphtarnis, 
(j<C)Jii, <'i(Kfl*0 A record keeper, a registrar, an 
accountant. The head native revenue officer on the col- 
lector's and sub-collector's establishments of the Bombay 
Presidency. Under the Maratha Government, a district 
officer whose duty it was to collect and enter together in 
the ledger the accounts of the waste-book as prepared by 
the Pharnis, and to transmit monthly and yearly abstracts 
to the head of the State. Under the English admini- 
stration his duties are still more multifarious and respon- 
sible ; and he takes an active part, not only in the record, 
but in the settlement of the revenues with the Ryots. 

Daftarddri, or Daftarnisi, (^Ij/iJ) The office of the 

Daftari, Dufturee, H., M. (^y^Iiti, 4'ifiilO) A record- 
keeper, a registrar. In Hindustan it more usually de- 
notes an inferior office servant, who prepares writing- 
materials, and arranges the books of the establishment. 

Daftar-khdna, H. ( iO'U^IiO ) An office in general, a 
counting-house, an office of public records. 

Daftar-liharch, ( p^Iit) ) Office charges. 

Daftar-saranjdmi, H. ( ^eUr^i* , effects) Office charges 
an article of disbursement formerly deducted from the 
revenue payable by the Zamindar. 

DAG, Ben. Cft^t) A spot, a stain, a brand. See Ddyh. A 
lot or portion of an estate which has been measured, and 
of which the measurement is recorded in the order of 
time at which it was made. 

Dag bhdtira, Ben. (l\al, awry) A lot or parcel of land 
2 H 



out of its place, not following a preceding one in nu- 
merical succession. 

PAQAR, DAGRA, DUGUH, DUGRA, H. (.J>3 , j/J) A path. 
Mar. (?iTC, 3^rt) A steep slope, as of the bank of a 
river. A small hill. 

DAGDHA, S. (i*v;,lit., burned) Applied to a day on which 

an inauspicious aspect of the planets may occur, and on 

which, therefore, no religious ceremony should be performed. 


-*ft, -Tl'l^'l, -slnl) Repairing tanks, buildings, &c. 

DAGH, H. (P. cb) the Hindu dialects commonly drop the 

aspirate, as DAG, Ben. (Tt^l) and with the initial op- 

tionally changed, DAG or DAG, Mar. (<n*T, TT*T) A spot, 

a stain, a mark made with a hot iron, a brand, especially 

such a mark stamped on the necks of horses belonging 

to the Emperor of Hindustan, or maintained for his service. 

Ddgh-i-tashiha, H. The office where the public horses of 

the state are mustered and branded. 
Ddrogha-i-ddghi-tashiha, H., A. The officer who super- 

intended the branding of the horses for public service. 
DAGHA, DUGIIA, H. (A. LcJ) Dagd in most dialects, Ben. 

Cfti) Deceit, fraud, cheating, treachery. 
Daghdbdz, H. (jblcJ) in other dialects, Ben., Mar., &c., 

Dagdbdj, A cheat, a deceiver, a swindler, a rogue. 
Dagdbdjire-chaldibdr, Uriya. Issuing fraudulently. 
DAH, DUH, commonly written DEH, H. (si>, from the Pers. 
Sii, and S. <*^l) also with the vowels long, DAHA, or, less 
correctly, DAHA, DUHA, Mar. (fT?T, ^l) The number 
ten, forming various derivatives and compounds. 
Ddhd, H. (la'ii) The ten days of the Moharram, during 
which public mourning for Ali and his sons is observed 
by the Shidh Mohammadans. 

Dahak-palti, corruptly, Dchug-puttee, Mar. (<^<*Mjfl) 
A tax upon hereditary offices, the whole receipts of which, 
except the revenues of the rent-free lands attached to them, 
might be stopped once in ten years, and carried to public 
account, under the Maratha Government. 
Dahmardd, Duhmurdd, H. ('i^Jtii, from St>, ten, and 4}.*, 
a man) A cart of a moderate size, one capable of holding 
ten men. 
Dahnimi, Duhneemee, H. (P. ^^jJsi), from *w, a half) 

Five per cent (Delhi). 

Dahotard, Duhotura, H. (^jy&J, from xJ, and S. Uttard, 

Ljl, over) Tythes, an allowance of ten per cent DAHO- 

TARA, or DAHOTRA, Mar. (^nffflT, ^faT, from 


ten) Rate of interest at ten per cent. : allowance on 
articles sold of ten on the hundred. 

Dahsani, Duhsunee, or Dehsunnee, corruptly, Dulisemee, 
H. (^yuwXii, from &), ten, and ( .fu, a year) Relating to 
ten years. The title of a book comprising the revenue 
accounts of ten years. Such a record, called Dahsani 
kitdb was compiled for the Bareilly district in 1802, 
under the directions of the collector, showing the occu- 
pancy of the lands for the previous period of ten years, 
so as to verify the title of the holder as Malik kadim 
and Mdlik hdl, the ancient proprietor known in the 
Kanungo records, and the more recent or actual occupant. 
Dah-sdla, H. (.jibiM) Decennial, for ten years. The 
decennial, as introductory to the perpetual settlement of 
the revenues of Bengal, and therefore applied commonly 
to the latter. 

Dahyeh, DehyeJt, corruptly, Deyek, H. (CAxfcJ, from dah, 

ten, and eli, l^Ju^ , one) An allowance of ten per cent., 

which used to be assigned to the farmer or collector of 

the revenue as his profit, and for charges of management, 

and to the native collectors or Zamindars for police 

charges : abolished by Reg. xiv. 1807. 

DAH, or DAHA, H., and in most dialects, (S. ^TSt: ) Burning, 

lit, as with fever or disease : also the burning of dead 


Ddha-karma, or -karana, or -kriyd, S. (oRW}, &c., act) 

The act or ceremony of burning a dead body. 
DAHA, DUHA, Ben. ('f^O Brine obtained from saline earth. 
Dahd-buldn, Ben. (*T^l^ e li*) Placing the brine in the 


DAHAL, DUHUL, H. (JjfcJ ) A quicksand, a quagmire. 
DAHAN, DUHUN, H. (^J) A gold coin, in value six 


DAHAND, DUHUND, H. (from the P. participle Dahanda, 
BiXiaJ, giving) A good payer, one willing to pay or give. 
DAHAH, DUHUH, less correctly, DEHAR, or DEHUR, H. 
( JisJ, T^t) Low lands flooded during the rains, and 
yielding, after their drying up, good crops. A road. Ben. 
CS^W) A lane. 

DAHIA, DUHIA, H. (UJ) A field, land near a village 
(Benares, Sagar). A tribe of Jats in the Dehli district, 
more properly Dahid, (U&j). 
DAHIA, Thug. Cry of the hare, an ill omen. 
DAHLAN, DUHLAN, H. (^Saj) A tribe of Tugas, in the 
Upper Doab. 


DAHLIZ-KHANDALNA, H. (USjo^jAiaJ, lit., to tread the 
threshold) Invitation of the bridegroom to an entertain- 
ment at the house of the bride's parents, when a delay 
intervenes between the betrothment and the marriage, a 
custom of the Mohammadans. 

DAHR, DAHRI, DUHR, DUHHEE, H. (jbJ, t^JbA) Stiff 
clay soil in low grounds. A marsh or inundated land (Delhi). 

DAI, DAEE, H. (t.?b, Pers., or from S. vnft, when it is 
more correctly written DHAI) A nurse, a wet-nurse, a 
midwife, a female commissioner employed under early 
Regulations to interrogate and swear native women of 
condition, who could not appear to give evidence in Court. 

DAI, Thug. The road. 

DAIBA, Ben. (Hl$4l) Reaping corn. 

DAIJ, Mar. ( $\*f, from S. <|Nt<*:) An heir, a kinsman, 
one entitled to inherit 

DAIJA, DYJA, H. (laciJ) A dowry or portion which a wife 
brings to her husband in marriage, or presents made to 
the bridegroom by the parents of the bride, the object 
of which in the present day is usually to obtain a hus- 
band for the daughter of higher rank or tribe. 

DAI'MI, H. ( ( _ ? ob, from Jb, perpetual) Relating to what 
is perpetual ; the perpetual settlement of the revenue : 
a criminal sentenced to imprisonment for life : also 

DAIN, corruptly, Deeyne, H. (A. ^l) Debt, either one ac- 
tually incurred by borrowing, or, in matters of sale, by 
purchasing on credit 

Dain-dar, H. (P. ^b, who has) A debtor. 
Dam muAjjal, A. (Js~ ^) A debt payable on demand. 
iftn-mumajjal, A. (J*^ ^.0) A debt of which payment 

. Uix, H. (Jjb, ^}) A threshing-floor. 

DAIN, H. (jjjt'i)) A hamlet or estate, the lands of which 
are intermixed with those of another. Dehra Dhun. 

DAIN, Ben. &c. (TT^T, S. ^ifatrt) A witch, a female ma- 
lignant being. 

DAIR o SAIR, H. (A. ^jLj^b, going about) Proceeding 

Ion circuit (judges, &c.). 
Ddirali, H. (A. s^b) A circle, a circular inclosure, &c. 
A monastery. 
Ddirak-ddr, H. (P. ^b, who has) The head of an esta- 
blishment of Mohammadan ascetics. 
DAITYA, S. (tnr) A demon, a goblin, 

rAiVA, S. (|^:, from ^:, a deity) .Divine, relating to a 


divinity. A form of marriage, the gift of the maiden to 
the officiating priest Fate, destiny. 

Daivaha, orDaivajna, S. &c. (^l?,^5f) An astrologer, 
a calculator of nativities, and announcer of lucky and un- 
lucky days, an almanac maker : he is usually a Brahman ; 
but there is also a caste professing the same functions. 
DAK, corruptly, DAWK, H. &c. G^JO, TTlf) Mar., also DANK, 
( 1 ?Nf) Post, post-office, or establishment for the convey- 
ance of letters and of travellers. Relays of men or 
cattle along the road for these purposes. 

Dah-chauM, H. (\^f?) A stage or station where a 
relay is posted. 

Ddk-ghar, H. &c. (^ i^Jb) A post-office. 
DAKA, H., Ben., Mar. (b, SToHl) An attack by robbers 
especially armed and in a gang. (This and its deriva- 
tives are also written with the dental d, as ffW , &c., 
but perhaps incorrectly). 

Ddltdit, corruptly, Dakoit, Deceit, H. &c. (ci^x>'i3, 
TIM$rt) A robber, one of a gang of robbers. 

Dakditi, or J)dkdti, corruptly, Decoity, H., Ben., &c. 
(3T<*l^tft, ^TcRTirt) Gang robbery. 

Ddliu, H., Ben., &c. (^t^) A robber, a burglar, a gang- 
robber or DakaYt. 

bob, Afet& 31<3TO, 3T<*^) The best or second best 
quality of soil in the Upper Doab and Dehli. In many 
places it is considered inferior to the soil termed Mausli, 
whilst in others it is regarded as the same. 
DAKHAL, DUKHUL, H., but used, as well as its derivatives, 
in most dialects, with the meanings occasionally modified, 
although bearing a relation to the original (A. J-t>, 
entrance, as into a house) Taking possession, occupancy, 
engaging or meddling in an affair, entering in an account, 
and the like. In Mar., Known, familiar to. 

Daltlial ndma, H. (P. <uU ) A deed of possession or occu- 
pancy, a document giving right of occupancy. 

Ddkkald, incorrectly, Dakhld, H., Mar. (^rS^ST) Proof, 
evidence, a receipt, a bond, a certificate. 

Ddhhalu, Tel. Kara. (^""SpeO) Examination or com- 
parison of accounts, records, &c. Entry in a book. De- 
livery of money or other article due. 

Ddkltil, H. (A. J-i-b) Entrance, taking possession, entry 
of an item in a deed or register, a receipt for money, 
annexation of lands, inclusion of a minor in a major 
parcel of land. 


Ddkhil da/tar, H. (jtiA <Ji-b) Entered upon the record, 
which is equivalent to being laid on the table, or post- 
poned indefinitely ; struck off the judge's or magistrate's 

Ddkhil-ddr, or Ddkhil-fidr, H. &c. (j6, who makes) An oc- 
cupant, either in his own right, or as a manager or trustee. 

Dahhil-hharij, or Ddhhil-miikhdry, H. (j\-, ejecting) 
Entering and ejecting, erasure of an entry. In Bengal, 
especially, the removal of the name of one proprietor and 
insertion of that of another, on occasion of a transfer of 
the property. Receipts and disbursements, Ddkliil- 
mukhdrij is also applied to fees on the registry of 

Ddhhil-ndma, H. Warrant or deed of possession, a con- 

Dalthil, J)ukheel, H. (iJj*-^) An occupant 

Ddkhild, H. (JUJj) A receipt for money or goods, pay- 
ment of revenue, or rent. 

Ddkhildbitam, Ben. (1ftf*liif<T<4) Transfer of revenue or 
land from one Ryot to another. 

Ddhhaldpalli, Tel. (~C5 D Sper t '3 9 ) ) A small village 
within the lands of a larger. 

Ddkhili, sometimes Dalthld, corruptly, Dahhlee and 
Ddklee, incorrectly, Dukliilee, H. ( JoJj) Included, 
comprehended : applied especially to villages which have 
become included in the revenue list of villages paying 
revenue, having branched off from, and being dependent 
upon, those on which the assessment was originally 
levied ; and which are therefore termed Asali, original, 
in opposition to Ddkhili, the subordinate or included. 

Ddkhili mauzA, H. (j^) A village supplementary or 
additional. See the last. 

Ddkhhili nahld, H. (A. lli'J ) An additional or supplemen- 
tary subordinate village, or subdivision of a Mauza. 
DAKINI, H., S. (Ttfiirvrt) A female goblin, a witch, or an 

old woman so reputed. 

DAKOCHA, or DAKOTA, Mar. (^rasHr or -Hi) A man of 
mixed caste, professing to descend from a Brahman father 
by a cowherd mother : they follow the avocations of fortune- 
tellers, almanac-makers, &c. 

DAKAUT, DUKOUT, H. (ci^J, SORT*) A tribe of mendi- 
cants of Brahman descent, practising astrology, fortune- 
telling, and the like. (The word is no doubt the same 
as the preceding, vernacularly modified). 
DAKSHINA, S. vernacularly, DAKHIN, or DUKHIN, or some- 


times DAKKAN, and DACHHIN, corruptly, DECCAN, 
DECKHAN, DEKHIN, &c., H. &c. (^5, S. ^ftjTJ) The 
south, the south of India, the right-hand, opposed to 
the left, whence the vernacular terms, Ddhna, Ddhna, 
Da-en, &c. 
Dakshindchdri, S. (^ftj<lfHlO) One who follows the 

observances (acharas) of the right-hand tribe or caste, 
practicers of the purer forms of the ritual, as opposed to 
the Vdmdchari. 

Dakshindyana, S. (^fepOTUR) The sun's southern decli- 
nation, the six months of his progress from the northern 
to the southern limit of the tropics. 

DAKSHINA, also vernacularly, DAKHINA,DAXINA and DACHH- 
INA, or DACHHNA, corruptly, DUCKNEH, S. (^f^nn) 
A present, especially one made to a Brahman on the con- 
clusion of any public ceremonial. Presents to other per- 
sons are also sometimes so termed. Presents made annu- 
ally by the Peshwa to the Brahmans at Puna, and continued 
as a definite allowance applied partly to them and partly 
to the maintenance of the Puna college by the British 

DAL, H. The letter of the Persian alphabet d, ii, formerly 
affixed to Zamindari and other grants by the head native 
revenue officer under the early British administration of 

DAL, DUL, H. (J:>) Wild rice. 

DAL, DUL, H. &c. (Jti, from S. ^$, to divide) A portion, 
a part, a body of troops. In Bengal it commonly 
designates a club or association of artificers, or, among 
the higher classes, a faction, a coterie, into many of which 
native society in large towns is split 
Dalai, Dulaee, Uriya (QR.|^, from QCi., a troop) A 

subordinate officer in command of Paiks. 
Dalbeherd, Uriya (QR.GaGQ|) The chief or head of 
the Gwala and other castes. An officer in command of 
Paiks, the hereditary militia and police of Cuttack. 
Under the former system, a military or feudal chief 
holding lands, most usually in the hills, on the tenure of 
military service. 

Dalrvdri, Mar. (<Jc$=llO) The officer in command of the 
local militia, or Sersanradis. 

DAL, DUL, Thug. A weight. 

DAL, corruptly, DOL, H. &c. ( Jb, from S. %<, to divide) 
A kind of pulse (Phareolus aureus), but applied to other 
kinds, the pea of which, especially when converted into a 



sort of coarse pease soup, enters largely into the food of 

the natives. 
DAL, H. &c. ( J't), TRJ, from H. ddlnd, to throw) A 

bough: a basket used to throw up water from a pond or 

canal for irrigation. 
DALA, H. (<jlb) A particular tenure in the Doab. See 

DALAL, H. (JSj) A tribe of Jats in the Rohtak Zila, 

A broker, but in this sense more correctly Dalldl, q. v. 
DALAMBU, Tarn. (S6TTli>l_j). A flood-gate, a sluice. 
DALAR, or DALAH KHAX, Thug. A name pronounced to put 

the party on their guard, or uttered by the leader as a sig- 

nal for the stranglers to be ready. 
DALAWA, Mai. (ag_O_J3) One of the ministers of state in 

DALA WAI, Kara. (^^TSCCO, fr om 6^, an army) The 

commander-in-chief, and hence, also, the prime minister 

under the Hindu rulers of Mysore. 

quagmire, a quicksand, a sandy swamp, a marshy soil. 
DALGANJAUA, H. (U=e^) A kind of rice. 
DALHARA, II. (^lyl_0 A grain seller. 
PALI', H. &c. (^J'li, TrcTf) A tray, or a couple of trays, 

fastened by slings to each end of a pole, carried over the 

shoulders. Such an apparatus is used especially to carry 

complimentary presents of fruit, sugar, spices, fish, &c., 

on festive occasions, whence it has come to specify the 

presents so offered. Such complimentary envoys from 

natives to Europeans were formerly frequent, but those in 

the Company's service are now forbidden to accept them. 
DALIA, H. ( Wii) Any sort of split pulse ground finer than Ddl. 
PALIAJHAH, H. (^Ip-Uo) The conclusion of the sowing 

season : lit., the brushing out of the sowing basket. 
DALIL, H. (A. JjJj, plur. JjSii) Argument in pleading, 

proof, evidence. Precedent, example. A voucher. 
Daldlat, H. (A. c^J^J) Proof, evidence. Argument 
DALIMA, H. (l*Jo) A class of Tugas in Moradabad. 
DALKAH, DULKUR, Uriya (QR.QQ) Rent for pasturage. 
DALLAL, DuLLAL^sometimes with one /, DALAL, corruptly. 

DELLOL, H. ( Jl>, from the A. J^, to point out) DALAL, 

Ben. (fflili) An agent between buyer and seller, a broker, 

a salesman. 
Dalldli, or Daldli, H. (^^J) Brokerage, agency, com- 

mission. A tax upon brokers. 

Dalldli-paradesi, H. (J-MJJO^J, a stranger) Brokerage or 

agency for strangers or pilgrims (paradesis) at Benares : for 
permission to act in which capacity a fee was formerly paid 
to Government. 

DALLAH, DULLUR, Thug. The head. 

DALUA, Uriya, DALUVA, or DALWA, Tel. (~S$&;J*) Light 
crops of rice grown in the dry hot weather in moist situa- 
tions, commonly called the black crop (Northern Circars 
and Cuttack). 

DAM, corruptly DAUM, H. (Jt>) A coin, originally a copper 
coin, but adopted as money of account. In the reign of 
Akbar, 40 ddms were reckoned to a rupee ; in that of 
Alemgir, 4f>jjd ; at later periods, 80 and 90 are the pro- 
portionate rates, which appear to have been liable to great 
fluctuation. By the common people in the upper pro- 
vinces 25 ddms are calculated to a paisa. Elliot. 

DAM, H. (P. *b) Price ; Mar. (^P?) Money, cash. 

DAMAD, H. &c. (S. jUb) A daughter's husband. 

DAMAI, DUMAEE, H. ( J*>ii) Amount of assessment. (From 
dam, the money of account. 

DAMANGIR, H. (^b, lit, a skirt of a garment, and gir, 
j&, who holds) A complainant, a plaintiff, one who sues 
for justice. 

DAMAR, incorrectly, DAMMAR, H. (.-'i>) Resin, pitch, 
especially the resinous extract of the Sal tree used as pitch. 

DAMASAHI, H. Cj&L>UU) DAMASAI', Mar. (^wr^nf) DA- 
MASHAI, Tel. "(13'^XT^<jr o C03) Equitable partition of 
the effects of an insolvent amongst his creditors : hence, 
any just proportionate distribution. (The word is said 
to be derived from a proper name, one Ddmasdh, who, be- 
coming insolvent, distributed all his property in just 
proportions amongst those to whom he was indebted). 

DAMCHA, H. (&sr*M) A platform on which a person is sta- 
tioned to protect crops: a boundary mark. 

DAMDUPAT, Mar. (<*TJT<JXT7, from <^R, and dupat, doubled) 
Principal of a debt doubled by accumulated interest. 

DAMI, H. (^lii, from dam, price) An assessment. 
Ddmi bifjhd, H. (^4w) The assessment of the lands of a 

village per bigha 
Dami-rvdsildt, H. (A. ei;lLa!j) Gross assets of a village. 

DAMIAT, A. (e^*<j) A slight wound, a scratch causing blood 

to appear, but not to flow : in Mohammadan law. 
Ddmiat, A. (i^b) In Mohammadan law, A slight 
wound, a scratch, but causing blood to flow. 

DAMKA, DUMKA, H. (lJ) A hillock (East Oudh). 

DAM-MADAR, DUM-MUDAR, H. (^..J) A ceremony ob- 



served by the peasantry of Upper India in honour of 
a Mohammadan saint named Madar, who is believed to 
have lived four centuries, having the faculty of retaining 
his breath (dam or duni). The ceremony consists in 
jumping into a fire of wood and treading it out, ex- 
claiming, Dam-madar by the breath of Madar. It is 
supposed to be a preservative against the effects of snake 
or scorpion bites. 

DAMMIDHI, Tel. (&^> 0) A quarter of a dab five has. 

DAMMU, Tel. (Q&X)) Mud, miry ground, land prepared 


for receiving young rice plants. 
Dampakarrv, Tel. (^oSSeS)) The ploughshare used in 

the tillage of wet ground. 
DAMPATI, S. (<j4rt1) Husband and wife. 
Dampati tambula, Karn. Betel-leaf and areka-nut pre- 
sented at marriages by the bride and bridegroom to each 
married couple present. 

DAMRI, DUMREE, H. (, lr ^ r eJ) A nominal coin, of the value 
of 85 or 3j dams, or from 8 to 12 kaunris. Any money 
of very small value. It is also applied in the Dehli ter- 
ritory to subdivisions of land, one damn being equal to 
25 Kacha Wyli<':f. 
DAMRI, Ben. (Tfftret) In retail dealing, five gandas of 

DAMWAST, DUMWUST, H. (c^-^^c^) An inferior tribe of 

Rajputs in the Benares district. 

DANA, vernacularly, DAN, S. &c. (^J, S. ddnam, Lat. do- 

nwn, ^T^f) Gift, giving a gift, a gift by will, a bequest. 

Ddnadharma, S. (i*RV*A:) The virtue of liberality. 

Giving for pious and charitable purposes, alms-giving, 

building or endowing temples, digging tanks, &c. 

Ddnamdvasyaka, S. (from i!N$<j, certainty) An imperative 

gift, as gifts to Brahmans on certain days, as full moon, &c. 

Ddnpatr, H., or Ddnapatra, S. (^RTTf, from patra, 

T^t, a leaf) A deed of gift, a grant, an assignment of 

land, especially to Brahmans. 

Ddnapatra, S. (from XTT^, a vessel) One deserving of, or 
fit for, a gift : one to whom by law property may be 

Danpatrddr, or Ddnapatraddr, H. One who holds a 
grant, or deed of gift : a grantee of the Brahman caste 
to whom lands have been assigned for religious purposes. 
Ddn't, H. S. (^T^ft) A giver, a donor: applied also to a 
gratuity to the village accountant, at the rate of six 
paisas on each rupee of the revenue (Etawa). 

DANA, H. (<olj) Grain, corn. 

Ddnabandi, Ddnubundce, H. (t^iXoiJlj) Cursory survey 
or a partial measurement of a field, or weighment of the 
crop, to ascertain the value of the crop, and the amount 
of the assessment. 

Ddnabandi-hanhuti, H. (^jjGO Assessment of the re- 
venue without measurement, upon a partial valuation of 
the standing crops. 

Ddnaddr, H. (jtiMil*)) Apportionment of revenue, or any 
other contributions, according to the actual produce 

DANA, DUNU, Kara. (&O, S. dhana, M^, wealth) Cattle, 
domestic cattle : also wealth. A corruption of Dlian, q. v. 

Danaga, Karn. (OrOA ) A shepherd, a cowherd. 

Danagdvi, Kara. (O.-O A c>t>) A herdsman. 

Danadahatti, Karn. (&\5>Sb|3) A cattle-fold. 

Danamdr, Karn. (OrOoJ~9>) A tax on the transfer of 

cattle from one Ryot to another. 

DAND, or DANDA, DUND, DUNDA, S. (<^g:) and in most 
dialects, as Ben. (Tf8) Mar. (^T.) Tel. (&O$x>) 
&c. In Hindustani, and occasionally in other dialects also, 
the initial is written either with the dental or cerebral d, 
and the following vowel is optionally made long, DAND, 
or DA NI>, (Jolj, jJb) also Ben. OSl ^) Punishment, of 
two kinds personal, Sarira-danda; or pecuniary, Artha- 
danda: also a fine, a mulct: and, in Ajmer, a propor- 
tionate share of the revenue formerly levied on the 
wealthier cultivators to make good any deficit in that due 
from the poorer. 

Danda ddsa, S. (from fTO, a slave) A slave, one who is 
condemned to servitude as a punishment 

Danda pdlaha, S. (from Tn^Seii;, who protects) A magis 
trate, the head of the police. 

Danda pdrushya, S. (^4!ji|l4jU(, from danda, punishment, 
and pdrusliyam, violence) Assault and battery. 

Dandiga, or Danduga, Tel. (&OGX, &O&jX) A fine, an 

exorbitant assessment, any extortionate demand. 
DANDA, DAND, or DAND, S. &c. (^53) H. (jJj, or Job, the 
final sometimes pronounced like r, as DANR) A stick, a 
staff, a rod, a cane carried by certain mendicants, an oar : 
a measure of length, a rod or pole of four or six cubits : 
a measure of time twenty-four minutes. 

Danda grahana, S. &c. (^iiiJJ^JJj) Taking the staff, en- 
tering upon a religious or mendicant course of life. 

Danda-zani, H. (from P. zan, ^j , striking) A mode of tor- 



ture fastening a man's hands behind him with a cord, 
which is twisted round by means of a stick until the 
tension produces excessive pain. 

Danddwat, H. (S. C^jljJJ, (JfliNlO Prostration, lying 
flat like a stick on the ground. 

Dandi, S. &c, (^3^) Any one who bears a staff, applied 
especially to a numerous order of religious mendicants, 
founded by Sankara Acharya, many of whom have been 
eminent as writers on various subjects, especially on the 
Vedanta philosophy. They are divided into ten classes, 
each of which is distinguished by a peculiar name ; as, 
Tirtha, A*rama, Vana, Aranya, Saraswati, Pun, Bhd- 
rati, Giri or Gir, Pdrvata, and Sagara, which is added 
to the proper name of the individual, as Purushottama 
Gir, or Bodhendra Sarasmati. They are hence known 
collectively as the Das-ndmi, or ten-name Gosains. Of 
these, only the classes named Tirtha, Asrama, Saraswati, 
and part of Bltdrati, are now considered as pure Dandis : 
the others are of a more secular character, and are more 
usually termed At it.*. 

Dandi, H. &c. (,_jJolj, OT^) A boatman, a rower. 

Dandiddr, H. 

an opium agency 
Dandiya, Mar. ( 


Dandya, Tel. 
Ddndio, Guz. 

j) An inferior servant or officer in 

A petty officer in a bazar, a 

A police officer, a peon. 

A watchman who goes the 
rounds at night beating a drum. 

PAND, DAND, or PANDA, H. (Job, 3oU v , ljJ'5, 3fe, ^te, 
3TJT) High ground, opposed to DABAR, q. v. Sterile 
land, of the kind called Bhur, land in which sand pre- 
dominates. Elevated land of the sort called Dumat. 
)AND, or DANDA, H. &c. OjJj) Raised ground forming a 
ridge or causeway, a path for cattle, or a boundary be- 
tween fields, also a landmark ; from analogy, perhaps, to 
a straight line or stick. 

Dandd-mcnild, H. ('liJU-c lAjj) The boundary between 

two estates, or the lands of two villages. (Either from 

dand, a stick or pole set up as a landmark, or a boundary 

or raised bank, and mend, a limit 

Dandd-mendd takrdr, H. (//>, a quarrel) A boundary 

Danddsulu, Tel. (#O75(6Deu) Village watchers. (? from 

dandd, a boundary). 

Dandudsi, Uriya ($J2||Q) A watchman. 

H. (IjJj, i_?j, i_<5ota) DANDI, Ben. (v5l^t) The 
beam of a balance. (From S. danda, a stick). 
Dandd, or, Dandia, H. (liXJJ, yJoj) A collector of 

market dues. 

Dandi, or, Dandia, H. (<_&) A weighman. 
Dandiddr, Ben. (^1 \sliftiO A weighman. 

DANDA, DUNDA, H. &c. (S. ^Rt) A measure of time, 
equal to twenty-four minutes : a sixteenth part of the day 
and night. 

N.B. In this, and all the preceding forms of what is 
originally but one word, viz. S. Danda or Dunda, great 
confusion has been made in the vernacular languages by 
the irregular and arbitrary alteration of the first syllable ; 
in the optional substitution of the cerebral for the dental 
d, f for <^, and the elongation of the vowel : so that we 
have in some instances four different forms, or <J, da; 
<T, da ; "3, da; and '5T, da. 

DANDAKATTU, Tel. (&O&&X)) A wisp of straw bound 


round the bottom of a heap of grain. Area within which 

the corn is threshed. 
DANDI, Hindi (^JJlj, ^tet) A dry, hard soil that does not 

retain moisture, and dries quickly when irrigated : a 

gravelly soil on high ground. 
DANDU, Thug. Braying of an ass (Dakhini). 
DANDIKALA, Karn. (^ODO~3y, from &OQ, abundant) 

Harvest time. 

Dandibele, Karn. (o&>f ) A plentiful crop. 
PANDWARA, H. (x^JoJ) A south wind. 
DANQ, DUNG, Mar. ('Jn) A thicket, a place overrun with 

DANG, H. (i^jjlj) A hill, a precipice, the top of a moun- 

tain, the high bank of a river. Corrupted provincially 

into Dlidng and Dhdi/ang. 
DANG, Mar. ('Sin) An ascent, or rising part of a road. 

A name given in the Dakhin to a tract of country along, 

near to, or below, the Ghats ; and which, although not 

mountainous, is so much interspersed with hills as to 

have no extent of level ground : it is generally overrun 

with low thicket Also forest or jangal land. 
Ddngi, Mar. A forester, an inhabitant of a low, hilly, and 

jangali tract. In the Dakhin a tribe of Rajputs inhabit- 

ing the woody districts of Eastern Malwa. 
Dimiji-gaon, Mar. (Jlfa) A village in the Dang, or low 

hills at the foot of the Ghats. 



DANG, H. (P. ti/1j) A weight, the fourth part of a dram. 

DANGA, Ben. 05l*tl) Dry land, upland, ascent. 

DANGA, H. &c. (tj) DANGA, Ben. (Tff-rfl) A riot, a 

disturbance, a tumult, an affray. 
DANGA, Kara. (QO~A d ) Dunning for payment, sitting 

Dliarna, q. v. 

Tnx) Horned cattle, especially those belonging to a 

village. Sometimes applied only to such as are worn out. 
DANGAST, DUNGUST, H. (CI.M.H&J) A class of Rajputs in 


DANGI, H. (^Jolj) A name given to the Bundelas (Siigar). 
DANGI, Mar. (3*ft) A basket or baskets slung to a pole 

carried over the shoulders : the Bahanr/i, q. v. of Hin- 

DANGcmA, Mar. (sfrffo) A proclamation, notice by the 

public crier. DANGARA, Karn. (QOAo) Proclamation 

by beat of drum. 
DANGWARA, DUNCJWARA, H. (^l^XJJ) Reciprocal assistance 

in tillage (Dehli). 
DANKA, Tel. (ao) A path between two fields for 


DANT, Hindi (^fw) Hard, dry soil, not retaining moisture. 
DANT. H. &c. (oJb) S. ^5jn) A tooth. 
Ddnt-ghunghni, H. (from tivi1, a preparation of wheat 

and pulse with sugar) or, Dant-nikalna, H. (from UKi , 

to go forth, to appear) A ceremony observed by the Mo- 

hammadans on the appearance of the child's first tooth. 
DANTE, or DANT!, Tel. (&O~, &O&) A kind of rake or 

hoe. (Probably from danta, a tooth). 
DANTAN, Ben. (^t ^) Threatening a person, putting him 

in bodily fear. 
DANTAOLI, H. (^j^LJuj) A harrow or rake. (From ^nl, 

a tooth). 

DANTE, H. (J&\4) A sickle. 
DANT-TINKA, H. (I&J oJb) Taking a straw or blade of 

grass in the mouth to deprecate anger or express sub- 

DANTH, H. (^\3) Refuse of harvest-floors, especially of 

the kharif produce. 

Dantfial, Dunthul, or Danthld, Dunthla, H. (J^JUii, 
Jl^xjj) The bare stalks or stubble of bajra, jawar, and 
Indian corn : either the stems after the heads have been 

cut off, or the roots left in the ground after reaping. 
The refuse of harvest-floors, especially of the kharif crops. 

DANTHI, Thug. Noise of jackals fighting a bad omen. 
DANWAN, H. (^yb, from S. ^Pl) Burning stubble, or 

fire in a forest. 

DANWARi, H. (t^-yb) The rope by which the bullocks 
are tied together when treading out the corn. See DAURI. 
DAo, H. (jb) A hatchet or cleaver with a bent point. 
DApANf, Uriya (Oa|>) Brine. 

DAPHAET, DAFAT, Uriya (Qr|-9O, from the A. <!U> J , a 
turn or time) Pay in addition to the rent for privileges 
attaching to the land, as right of fishing, &c. 
Daphdti'-jumii, Karn. (&P r ao&3^r3, from the A. &*sA , 
and jam&, collection) Extra or miscellaneous collections 
Dapltdte kharcltu, Karn. (^^SsOS^br-, f rom the A. as 

before) Extra or sundry disbursements (Mysore). 
DAPHEDAH, Uriya (QGCTQQ) Land of second quality. 
DAPHERAPHK, Mar. (<$***, A. jJJ and jj) Clearance of 

a debt, settlement of any business. 
DAPITA, S. &c. (^Tftfit) Fined, sentenced to pay a fine or 


Ddpya, S. &c. Punishable by fine, liable to pay compensation. 
DAPNI, Dahkini Thug. A dagger. 

DAPPU, Tarn. (l_ITLJl_|) A list, a schedule, an inventory. 
DAR, Dim, H. (P.^J) In, within. 

Dar-dmad, Duramud, H. (iXo^ii) An account of fees 
paid for serving a process, the return of a process : lit., 
coming in. 
Darbandi, H. ( -AJJjA) An item in the village accounts, 

statement of proportionate rates of revenue payment. 
Dar-bast, or, Dar-o-bast, Dur-bust, Dur-o-bust, H. (P. 
i^^-^j. .v) Entire, whole. The whole of a district or 
estate, as opposed to a kismat, or portion of it 
Dar-bast-i-aima, H. Grant of the whole of the lands, con- 

stituting a rent-free estate. 

Dar- (Dur-) hawdla, H. (from ^, in or sub, and A. 
<t!|j=>-, charge) Sub-tenure, holding a farm on lease from 
a farmer or lessee. 

Dar-ijdra, H. (P. A. X/rJ jS) A sub-lease or farm. 
Dar-in-willd, H. (P. A. S.^^, lit., in this proximity) A 
phrase heading official papers in some of the Courts in 
the south of India, implying, In this case, or, At this time, 
By these presents. 

Dar-mustajar, H. (P.^s-UL^J, from mmldjar, a tenant) 
A sub-lessee, or tenant holding of a farmer, not of the 


Darobastu lekkalu, Tel. (&T S p.xin3j_O 1 p l ur .) All the 
accounts of a district, &c. 

Dar-pattani, or commonly, Durputncc, Ben. 

A subordinate or sub-leasehold tenure. 
Dar-pattani-ddr, Ben. (Wl^faMsO The holder of a 

lease from a leaseholder, a sub-lessee. 
Dar-pattani-tdluk, Ben. (Tf^l-gP^vstH^) An estate held 

under a sub-lease. See Paini or Pattani. 
DAR, DUR, H. &c. (jJ, <*^) Rate, price, a number or 

quantity fixed as a standard, an allowance. 
Darbandi, Durbundee, H. (^JoOjii) A statement of the 
different rates of a village. Assessing the price or value 
of crops or produce. Fixing the value or price of any 
thing according to a standard. 

Darjdsti, Karn. (<->O23~e)rO o ) An extra assessment, by 

making the cultivators buy the Government share of the 

.crop at a rate above the market price. 

Darterrot, (?) Mar. Fixing of rates, revision of assessment 

DAR, H. (P. j\J, from l jXib, to have or hold) One who has, 

holds, possesses, &c. : used in compounds with the object 

held or possessed, as, Ckob-ddr, a mace-bearer ; Zamin- 

ddr, a landholder; and the like. Also in Marathi, 

Solvent, having funds, as opposed to Ndddr, having 

nothing, insolvent. 

Ddri, H. (P. ,^j\ j) The act or function of a possessor or 
holder, as Zamindari, the condition of a Zamindar, an 
Ddrmaddr, H. (J!A*,|J) An agreement, a stipulation. 

Adjustment of a dispute (holding or not holding). 
DAR, DUR, H. (P. Jt >) A door. 
Barman, H. (P. ^j) Durban, Ben. (TfTITfa) A 

doorkeeper, a porter. 

DAK, H. (A. j'i)) A house, a mansion, one with various 
rooms or tenements and an open court. Used in com- 
position, it implies a place where any public work is car- 
ried on, as, Ddr-ul-zarab, the house of striking 'coin,' 
the mint ; Dar-ul-inshd, the secretary's office, or house 
of letters ; Ddr-us-shefd, the house of healing, an hospi- 
tal ; or the residence of a prince, as, Ddr-al-khildfat, the 
residence of the khalif; Ddr-us-sultanat, the dwelling of 
the Sultan titles given to any royal capital or metropolis. 
Ddr-ul-karb, A. (i^Jljb) A country under a Govern- 
ment that is not Mohammadan : lit., the seat of hostility 
or war, infidels at all times being legitimate objects of 



DARA, or, DADA, incorrectly, DURRAH, Mar. (^l) A body 

or company of Pindar is. 

DARAD, Mar. (tps) A steep slope, a high bank. 
DARAK or DARK, DURUK or DURK, Mar. (^, <*tF) A 
hereditary public office, as that of Pharnavis, Chitnis,&c. 
Darah-ddr, Mar. ( ^.w^rt) A hereditary public officer, 
or functionary. The term was applied under the Maratha 
government especially to eight offices: 1. The Kdrbdri, 
JHukhtiydr, or Dircdn, the chief financial minister. 
2. Majmuddr, auditor and accountant. 3. Pharnavis, 
his deputy. 4. Salmis or Daftarddr, clerk. 5. Ehr- 
hdnis, (?) Commissary. 6. Chitnis, secretary. 7. Ja- 
mdddr, an officer in charge of all valuables, except cash. 
8. Potnif, cashier. The term was also applied to all the 
Kdrkuns, or officers of account, who were paid by fees from 
the villagers, in addition to their salaries, but who were 
appointed and removed only by the supreme government, 
not by the district officers. 

Darak-pattj, Mar. (^C4M^) A tax upon public functio- 

naries: a fee levied from them, especially a tax of one year's 

revenue in ten on the lands of the Desmukh and Despdnde. 

DAHANAMU, or DHAHANAMU, Tel. (&&3&O, #&3&O) 

An imaginary coin, of the value of two fanams. 
DARBAH, DURBAR, H. &c. (jljjO) A court, a royal court, an 

audience or levee. 
Darbdr-cJtaraniyd, Ben. (TfTTTta FSf^TTl) A plaintiff, or 


Darbar-kharch, H. &c. ( j(>.S) Political and diplo- 
matic expenditure, court charges, charge for presents and 
gratuities made to princes and public functionaries, bribes, 
&c. In many places under the old regime, an addition 
made to the assessment by government officers or the 
Zamindars, on the plea of providing for gratuities ex- 
acted by their superiors or the State on their payment of 
the revenue. 

DARES, H. ((^Jyi>, ^TH) A road. Margin. Any line 
very straight (Supposed to have been adopted from the 
English military term " dress.") 

DARGAH, DUHGAH, H. (P. l^i>) A royal court In India 
it is more usually applied to a Mohammadan shrine, or 
the tomb of some reputed holy person, and the object of 
worship and pilgrimage. 

DARHOT, H. (ci^s-jj) Advance. 

DARI', Hindi, &c. (^ct) A cave, a cavern, a natural or 
artificial excavation, a dell, a hollow. 
2 K 


DARIA-BAR-AMAD, H. (P.^O, a river, and J^T^J, what 

comes up) Alluvial soil, land gained from a river. 
Darid-burd, or -shikast, Durya-boord, or -shikust, H. 
(from P. 0,J, and burdan, ^j>, to bear, or shikastan, 
^-,.,/f*^ to break) Lands carried away by the encroach- 
ments of a river. 

DARI'BA, Hindi ( 3t!fal ) A stall in a market where betel is 

DARIDR-KHEDNA, H. (Uj^^^JjIj, from S. ^lf<, poverty, 
and khednd, to chase, from S. ^Trete) Driving out po- 
verty : a custom observed on the morning of the Diirdli, 
when a sieve or winnowing basket is beaten in each 
corner of the house, or the dirt in each place is swept 
with a brush, and carried away in a basket, with the 
exclamation, linear paitfiau, Ddridr niklo, May God 
be present ! Poverty depart ! or some equivalent prayer. 

DARK, or, allowably, DARAK, incorrectly, DIRK, A. (tl^J, 
or cl/;($) Consequence of any act or thing. In law, 
a contingency, a possible event. 

Kafil-bil-darh, A. (C^jJj J-AiO A surety or bail against 
what may happen, liability for contingencies. 

DARKHAL, H. ( Jlj^j) A cattle enclosure (Benares). 

DARKHAST, corruptly, DHUHKAST, H. (P. ^*u,\f-j) Tel. 
and Karn. ((^ara^) DARKHAS, Guz. (SA'^U'H) 
DARAKHASA, Mai. (Q(OQ_lOOro) A contract, a tender: a 
representation, an application, a petition. In judicial 
proceedings, an application which is required to be made 
for the admission of each exhibit in a suit, and for the 
summoning of each witness. In revenue matters, the 
representation of the proprietor of an estate as to the 
amount of revenue he is able to pay ; or a proposal for 
renting or farming an estate, or any branch of the public 
revenue ; or the engagement entered into by the Lam- 
bardars to be responsible for a stipulated amount of re- 
venue payment for a given time. 

Darkhdst-i-hhdrij, H. ( .jli-, exclusion) A petition of 
exclusion. In Bengal, a petition to the collector for the 
exclusion of the name of a proprietor, whose interest has 
lapsed by death or sale, and the insertion of that of 
another in the public books. 

Darkhds-karawi, Guz. (^"^UrlftR. !;!) Making a motion 
in a court of law. 

DARMA, Ben. &c. S. (Tf3T5Tl ) A sort of long grass, much 
used for making mats (Arundo bengalensis). A mat, 


four or five feet long by three or four wide, much used 
in Bengal to make fences and walls to native huts. 
DARMAHA, DURMAHA, or -MAHI, H. &c. (IfcU, J, or ^^j J, 
from P. .J, in, and zLc, a month) Monthly pay or wages. 
DAROGHA, H. (<tc.jb) in some of the Hindu dialects it is 
written with the simple g, and with either a long or 
short vowel in the first syllable, as, DAROGA, Tel. 
~?<jfi~~) Mar. DAROGA, or DAHOGA, (STfrTT, ^KfrTT) 
The chief native officer in various departments under the 
native Government, a superintendant, a manager ; but 
in later times he is especially the head of a police, 
custom, or excise station. In the Dakhin, also, the 
officer employed to prevent the removal of the crops before 
the payment or assessment of the Government demand. 
A tax originally imposed to meet the expense of employ- 
ing a Darogha, and afterwards brought to credit as an 
item of public revenue. 

Ddrogha-i-Addlat, H. Under the native system, a judge 
or deputy presiding over a court in the absence of a 
superior of high rank; as, the Ddrogha-t-Addlat-al 
Alia, the deputy of the Nuzim in the Supreme Criminal 
Court of Bengal ; Ddi-ogha^i-Addlat-Diicdni, the de- 
puty of the Diwan in the Civil Court. 

Ddrogha-i-drz-mukarrar, H. (jj>~v (jojf-) An officer under 
the Mohammadan Government, whose office it was to draw 
up an abstract of papers which required the royal assent, and 
present them for confirmation and signature. He was espe- 
cially charged with the superintendence of the assign- 
ments to the Mansabdar.o, for the horse they maintained. 
Ddroghagi, H. (.j&jj;'^) The function, charge, or juris- 
diction of a Darogha. 

Ddroghdna, H. (<Jljj1i>) The pay or fees of a Darogha. 
Taxes levied for the payment of Daroghas under the 
Mohammadan Government. 

Darogagiri, Karn. (OOJSX7v6) Office of a Darogha, su- 
perintendence, headship. 

Darogatana, Karn. (OO-'QAOrO) Superintendence, in- 
spectorship, duty of a Darogha. 
DAROGH, or, more correctly, DARrJGH, H. (P. f}j) A lie. 

Darogh, or Daruyh-halfi, H. (,_jaL>- f)j^> from A., half 

an oath) Perjury, false swearing. 

DARA, DURA, corruptly, DURRAH, Mar. (^TT, properly DADA, 
but the cerebral d is sounded like r) A body of Pindaris. 
hollow among hills, a ravine, a defile, a pass. 


DARSA, S. (^t) Sight, seeing. The day of new moon, when 
it rises invisible. A sacrifice with fire on that day, per- 
formed by householders, who maintain a perpetual fire. 
Also Darsa-ydga, from ydga, a sacrifice. 
Darsapaurnamdsa, S. (<^NtJTni) Sacrifices or oblations 
with fire, performed at the new and full moon by house- 
holders, who maintain a perpetual fire. 
DARSANA, vernacularly, Dat-san, H. ( ( jyt), S. ?ffhi) See- 
ing : especially visiting temples, and seeing or reverencing 
idols. A school or system of speculative doctrine, of which 
six are recognised by the Hindus : 1. Purvd mimdnsd, 
treating of the purport of the ceremonies of the Vedas. 
2. Uttara mimdnsd, or Veddnta, inculcating unity of spirit 
and matter. 3. Sdnhhya, dualistic, teaching the distinctness 
of soul and matter. 4. Pdtanjala, teaching the practice 
of abstraction, or Yoga. 5. and 6. Logic or dialectics in two 
parts : the Nydya, as taught by Gotama, and Vaixeshika, 
founded by Kandda. 
Darsana-pratibhu, S. (<$TTrfin|t) Bail or security for 


DARSAR, (?) H. Distribution of the Government revenue 
amongst the several Mauzas of a Pargana (Garhwal). 
Corrupted strangely to Dirroa. 

DARU, H. &c. (gjlt)) Spirituous liquor. Gunpowder. 
Ddru-kaldli, Mar. (<^HjcR<;5Tc5^, from ftaldJ, a distiller) A 

tax or excise upon distilleries and liquor-shops. 
Ddru-sisd, H. &c. (Luwj ^b) Military stores, ammu- 
nition ; lit., powder and lead. 

DAHUVU, Tel. (OOJ<^)) An embankment for irrigation. 
A mound on the bank of a river from which to raise 
water in buckets. A well. 
DARWADA, incorrectly, DAROBA, Mar. (^t^TT) A gang of 

robbers. An attack on a village by such a gang. 
)ARWESH, or DARVESH, corruptly, DIRVESH, and DERVISE, 
H. (P. ,j ,) A Mohammadan religious mendicant ; 
in many instances a mere vagabond and stroller, occa- 
sionally leading about bears and monkeys, but in some 
cases persons leading a religious life, either independently, 
or enrolled in different orders. 
Mar. (<*f<V|ifitf, 3[ft4j|ihri1, also <^<<imn, &c.) DAHIYAPTU, 
Tel. (Q 5 Oa5~ &3 n ) Inquiry, investigation, detection. 
)ARZI, DURZEE, vernacularly, DARJI, DURJEE, H. (P. 

Jjj 1 ^) A tailor. 
)AS, Dus, H. DAS A, S. (i^ or ^1, Lat. decem) Ten. 


Dasabhandamu, Tel. (0X>) A deduction of one- 
tenth of the revenue, on account of compensation for some 
public work, as the construction of a tank, &c. 

Dasdha, Mar. &c. (S. <pjn!r) A period of ten days. The 
period of impurity from the death of a relative. 

Dasahard, or vernacularly, Dashard, written incorrectly, 
Dasard, and corruptly, Dusrah, Dasehra, Daserru, 
Dussarat, Dusserat, Dussora, &c. H. (!^*u^) Mar. 
(<^y<l) S. (<}$|^<.T, from^I, ten, i.e. sins, and 1T^, what re- 
moves or expiates) A popular festival in honour of the 
goddess Durga. In Bengal it is exclusively appropri- 
ated to her worship, and is celebrated for nine days in 
Aswin September, October. In the west and south of 
India it is a military festival held at the same season, 
which, being the close of the rains, is the commencement 
of the period for military operations. It is said to have 
originated with Rama's worship of Durgd, on his in- 
vasion of LanJid, by which he secured victory ; hence the 
tenth of Aswin is also called the Vijaya dasami, or tenth 
of victory. The original festival, however, appears to have 
had no relation whatever to Durgd, being held on the tenth 
ofjyeshtha, in honour of Gangas descent from heaven. 

Dasami, H. S. (^lft) The tenth lunar day of the fort- 

Dashard-bahra, H. (A. X/j) Goats or sheep levied from 
a village in some parts of India as an offering to Durga 
at the Dashara. 

Dashard kharch, H. (A. _p- ) Expenses of the Dashara 
festival. A cess levied on that pretext by a Zamindar. 

Dashard jhandd patti, Mar. (fe?T, a flag, and T^, a tax) 
Tax upon hoisting flags at the Dashara. 

Dashard patti, Mar. ("**$, a tax) The instalment of the 
public revenue, which is levied at the Dashara. A 
portion of the allowance granted to temples under the 
Maratha Government, set apart for the Dashara festival. 

Dasndmi, H. S. (^Tm, a name) One of the ten-named 
order of ascetics. See Dandi. 

Dasotara, Dasotra, H. (5,^1)) Ten per cent. 

Dasrdt-panchrdt,Mar. (T^il, forTrf%, night, with ^$|, ten, 
and ifa, five) An ordeal or, test of evidence: if a per- 
son's children or cattle should die within a few days after 
preferring a plaint, or giving evidence, it shewed that his 
case was bad, or testimony false. 

Das-sola, H. (<n!(J*iJ) Decennial, decennial settlement. 

Dasatrd, H. (t^Ml) Ten per cent. A tenth part. The 



tenth of the value of property litigated exacted from the 
successful parties under the Mohammadan system. 
Dasivdnd, H. (Ul^wj) A tenth. Addition of a tenth to 

the revenue, as made in Bidnur in 1723. 
DASA, vernacularly, DAS, comiptly, Doss, H. S. (<jrat, 
fern. Disi, ^TTrt) A slave. Fifteen kinds of slaves are 
recognised by Hindu law : 1. Grikajdta, one born in 
the house of the owner by a female slave. 2. Krita, 
one purchased. 3. Ldbdka, one acquired, as by gift 
4. Ddyddupdr/ata, inherited. . 5. Anakdlabhrita, taken 
as a slave in a time of famine, for support. G. A/ti/n, 
taken as a pledge. 7. Rinaddsa, one becoming a slave 
in payment of a debt. 8. Yuddhaprdpta, acquired in 
war. 9. Panejita, won in a wager. 10. Tavdham, 
one who voluntarily makes himself a slave, saying, I 
am thine.' 11. Pravrajydctmitii, an apostate one 
who, having entered a religious order, forsakes it, and 
thereby becomes a slave of the Raja. 12. Krita, made, 
one who makes himself a slave for a definite term. 

13. Dhahta ddsa, one who is a slave for his food. 

14. t Varavdhrita, one who becomes a slave by marrying 
a female slave. 15. Atmavikrayi, one who sells him- 
self. DASA also means, in some places, A fisherman. 
It is a suitable agnomen also for a man of the Sudra 
caste, as Chandra-dam ; but it is also borne with that 
of a divinity, in token of devotion by other superior 
castes, as Vishnu-dds, Siva-dds, Krishna-dds, Ndrdyan- 
dds the slave of Vishnv, Siva, Krishna, Ndrdyan, 
&c. In the days of Akbar it was borne by Rajputs, as 
Raja Dliagndn Dds, of the Kachrvdha tribe. It is 
now seldom used by them, except for illegitimate 

Ddsa, also Ddsari, and Ddsayya, Tel. Karn. (^ T>< , 
7S!6Q^ iyr6o!x)g) A mendicant of a class in the south 
of India, a worshipper of Vishnu. 
Ddsiputra, S. (^lH)n?f:) A son by a female slave. 
Ddsira, Karn. (O3&tf) Son of a female slave. 
DASA, H. (X*Jj) A reaping-hook. 
DASSA, (?) H. Stones for building, from the Chunar quarries. 

Ben. Reg. xxii. 1795, cl. 82. 

DAST, DUST, H. (P. e^*,i) lit, The hand ; also, techni- 
cally, money in hand, Tel. (&&) The portion of re- 
venue actually realised by some head-man, but not paid to 
government. Mar. (^jj) Tax or assessment of the revenue. 
Dastak, Dustuli, corruptly, Dustitck, H. (il&, J, from P. 

dast, the hand, the signature) A passport, a permit. In 
the early days of the British government, a document 
authorizing the free transit of certain goods, and their 
exemption from custom dues, in favour of English traders. 
In later times, it applies more generally to a summons, 
a writ, or warrant; especially to a process served on a 
revenue defaulter, to compel him to pay any balance that 
may be due. 
Dastalidna, H. OlxJUjj) Fee or remuneration to the 

officer who serves a writ or summons. 
Dastak-i-talb-i-zar, II. P. (jj (*_^ii LlL,j) Warrant 
issued against defaulters of revenue, demanding payment, 
and subjecting them to the expense of maintaining the 
officer who serves it until the amount is paid. 
Dastdrvez, Dustawez, vernacularly, Dastdn-ej H. (P. 
^5 ( JL,J) Dastdveju, Tel. (<3c3^13ad>) Dasta-alwaj, 
Mar. (tfSfJNsT) A voucher, a document, any legal paper, 
a note of hand, a bond, a title-deed, and the like. Any 
thing in writing producible in evidence, or by which a 
person may be bound in law. A certificate of any kind. 
Dastdirr;-i-h<bb(t, H. (from A. Ju>-, a gift) A deed of 

gift or bequest 
Dastdn-ez-i-hixsd, H. (from A. t*aa-, a share) A deed of 

Dast-ba-dast, H. (lit, hand with hand) Ready-money 


Dast-bdhi, or Dastu-bdki, H., Mar., Tel., Karn. (A. jJfyi 
remainder) Balance in hand, money collected but not 
brought to account, whether referring to balances in the 
hands of the native collectors, or to collections made and 
embezzled by them. 
Dast-barddri, H. (from P. ^J&^j), to lift up or off) 

Withdrawal of a suit from a court. 
Dast-farosh, H. (from P. (jZ }J i , who sells) A pedlar, a 

Dast-garddn, H. (from P. ^j'^/, turning) A loan without 

any voucher. 

Dasti, Mar. (from ^T, a tax) Assessable, taxable, (land, 
&c.) H. ( JL/j) A present to native officials at the 

Dastibdd, Mar. (<w1*l(<) Exempt from taxation. 
Dast-jama-hharch, H. Debit and credit account of col- 
lections. Account current. 

Dast-hardan-i-daftar, corruptly, Duskerdon-dufter, H. 
Account of money in hand. Cash account of collections. 



(From (last, as above, kardan, P., to make, and daftar, 

Dastkhat, sometimes abridged to DasJihat, H. (P. ks^"O, 
las*"-)) Handwriting, signature. 

JJant-leif, H. (from P. uj^, bousting) Handsel, first money 
received in the day. 

Dast-muzd, H. (j^Ljj) Wages, recompense. Revenue 

assessed upon the land. 

DASTAN, Mar. (<frenT) A store, a granary. 
DASTRAM, Tel. (O \^aJ<S) The public document or record 

of a district or office. (? an error for Daphtaramu.) 
DASTUB, DUSTOOR, H. &c. (P. jjUmJ, plur. ei^yLwJ, 
DASTURAT) Custom, usage, regulation. A customary 
fee or perquisite. A commission or per-centage on the 
collections, allowed by the Mohammadan government to 
the Zamindars. A subdivision of a Sirkar, or aggregate 
of several adjacent Parganas (a sense in which it is now 
rarely, if ever, used). A high priest of the Pdrsis. 

Dasturi, H. &c. (^yuO) Dasturi, Ben. (TfSWt) A fee, 
a perquisite, a commission; especially a fee claimed by 
cashiers and servants on articles purchased, or on pay- 
ments made. 

Dastur-i-li(iza, H. (f-a* IA*>J) Fees paid to a Kazi for 
putting his seal to a document. 

Dastur-al-amal, Duftoor-ool-umul, H. ( (^UjJ^y^j, from 
A. <J*t, business) Rule, regulation, rules of practice, 
prescriptive mode of carrying on public business. The 
orders and rules of government. A body of regulations 
agreed upon by any number of persons for their future 
guidance. A body of instructions and tables for the use 
of native revenue officers, under the Mohammadan Go- 
vernment (Although professing to be copied from the 
original of Altbar, no two copies of the Dastur-al-dmal 
agree ; owing in part, Mr. Elliot conjectures, to their 
having been made up, in various degrees of completeness, 
from another account left by the Kanungos, the Amal- 
dastur, in which orders superseding those of the Dastur- 
al-amal were registered). 

Dastur-paradesi, H. (from S. m.tf5fl, a foreigner) Fees 
formerly levied at Benares ^from pilgrims from countries 
beyond Hindustan. 

tASTUR, DUSTOOR, Mar. (<wO Handwriting, signature, 
the signature of a clerk or amanuensis. The form of an 
official paper ; (besides the ordinary meanings as above). 
Dastur-hhud, Mar. (from P. Jy-, self) Written with one's 

hand, in opposition to a paper written or signed by an 

DATAN, Thug. A police guard. Any person found unex- 
pectedly on a place selected for a murder. 
DATTA, DUTTA, S. (past part, of ^7, to give, datus) Given, 
(or used as a noun substantive) A son given in adoption ; 
also, Gift, donation. (It is sometimes vernacularly changed 
to Dat, Dut). 

Dattd, S. (fern, of <^l) Given (a girl) in marriage, be- 

Dattalta, or Dattrima, S. (from ^TT, given) An adopted 
son, one given by his parents to a person who legally 
adopts him. (Also with Putra, a son, as Dattaputra, 

Dattdtma, S. (from ^UrHf^, self) The son self-given, one 
who offers himself of his own accord to be adopted. 

Datfa-homam, S. (from iftH, burnt-offering) Oblations of 
clarified butter to fire, a ceremony performed at the 
adoption of a son, and by some held to be essential to the 
validity of the adoption. 

Dattola, Mai. ( S6)f!T^ri3fiJ) A deed of adoption. 

Dattdpraddnikam, S. (from WU^TftrT) not like a gift) 
Retraction or resumption of gifts, a head of Hindu law. 
(Also called Dattasya-anapaharma, The non-taking back 
of what has been given). 

Dat-patra, Uriya. A deed of gift. 

Datta, commonly Dutt, Ben. (Tfjf, from the S. 5*n) A 
subdivision of the writer caste. A name commonly borne 
by members of the caste, as, Jaykrishn-Dutt. 
DATUA, Thug. Cry of the hare : if on the right, a bad 

omen, and travellers must be spared. 

DAUL, DOUL, corruptly, DOWLE, H. (A. JjJ , state, con- 
dition) DAUL, Ben. and Mar. (OT 5 !, ^c5, the initial 
being changed to the cerebral d) also DAVULU, or 
DAULU, Karn. (O^ 6 ^) Mode, manner, shape, appear- 
ance, form, estimate, valuation, a statement of the par- 
ticulars of the gross revenue levied from an estate or 
district. An estimate of the amount of revenue which 
a district or estate may be expected to yield. In the 
west of India it is also used to signify a blank form ready 
to be filled up, and sometimes signed and sealed ; or a 
blank return, of crimes when none have been committed, 
or of revenue when no collections have been made. 

Daul-band-o-bast, H. (P. C^OMJ ^ iXw, agreement) Statement 
or particulars of the arrangement made for the amount of 
2 L 


revenue realizable from a district. Although applicable to 
the settlement between the revenue payers and the Govern- 
ment, it was formerly used in Bengal and the northern 
Sirkars to signify especially the rent-roll of estates, the 
gross receipts demanded by the Zamindars from their te- 
nants or farmers, or the agreement made with them with 
reference to the amount payable to the government after 
making certain authorized allowances and deductions. 

Daul-izdfat, H. (A. tj^sil-o! ) Statement or estimate of ad- 
ditional sources of revenue. 

Daul-jamA, H. (*- Jj^) Particulars of the total re- 
venue assessed upon a district or a village. 

Daul-khazdna, H. (<XJjji-, a treasury) A memorandum 
given to the Ryot by the native revenue-officer, specify- 
ing the sum due by him for the current instalments. 

Daul-kistbandi, H. ({^s^ d-^*>*^) Engagement to hold 
land upon payment of the revenue by fixed instalments. 

Daul-ndma, H. (P. <t<U, a document) Extract from the ge- 
neral particulars of an estimated assessment, for the infor- 
mation of the person paying, supplied to him as a Patta, 
or lease : also termed Daul-patta. 

Daul-patra, Mar. (S. iTTf, a leaf) A blank form, a blank 

Daul-tashkhis-i-band-o-bast, H. (from A. ( j^^ J , assess- 
ment) Particulars of the assessment of a village : one of 
the accounts formerly kept by the Kanungo. 

Daul-rvcMl-b&ki, H. (,j'j (J*\)) Statement of collections 
and balances. 

Davuluddr,OT Davulddr, Karn. (d^eoOBtf, &<$<g-d8) 
An appraiser, one who estimates the amount and value 
of the crop. 

Davulu-huttuvali, Karn. (^^jewSbj^^V) Estimate of 
the probable produce. 

DavulujamA-bandi, Earn. (^euaJSfxTa&Doa) Esti- 
mated assessment of the revenue of a village. 

Davulupatti, Karn. (Qc^tUoOp) An account of the esti- 

mate of each farmer's produce. 

PAUL, or DAULA, H. ( Jj J , Sji>, ^S) The boundary of a 
field, a boundary mark, or mound of earth for that pur- 
DAUNDI, (?) Mar. A small drum beat by a public crier. 

A proclamation. 
DAUB, H. (yi) The strings attached to a basket to throw 

up water for irrigation. 
Dauri, H. (u^y-) The basket so xised. 


DAUR, Mar. (ftO A small drum, shaped like an hour-glass. 
Dauri, Mar. (TTTt) A player on the Daur. 
Dauri-gosavi, Mar. (HO'tlVNl) The Gosain who beats 

the Daw. he is one of the inferior village officers, orAlute. 
DATIRA, Uriya (Qg^Qj, probably from H. Daur-nd, to go 

about) Sessions, circuit. 
DAURAPA, H. (from ^jO, to run) A village runner or 

DAunf, or DAURI, H. (t_?/jJ, ^y^ The rope that ties 

the bullocks together when treading out corn. 
DAVASA, Karn. (O<OrO) Produce of the fields. Grain in 


Davasadavanu, Karn. (OSiOOS.-OD) A corn factor. 
DAWA, or DAWI', H. (A. Jjjc^) as there is no equivalent 

for the A. c in the Hindu dialects, this word and its 

derivatives are written with the simple long vowel, fol- 

lowed by u or v, ^, pronounced as n\ Ben. (TftQTl) Mar. 

Grnn) Tel. CCVn 1 ) Karn. ( OcCT^, Scd) A claim, 

a demand, a complaint, a suit, a prosecution. In the west 

of India it has come to signify a right, a just claim. 
Darea, or Daivi-ddr, H. &c. (jta^jCj) A complainant, 

a plaintiff, one who has a just claim or right. 
Duivi-yhalat, A. (laic .^y^) Plea of error ; in Moham- 

madan law. 
Ddwi-hins, A. ( i^-JL^ ^j-^ci}) Claim of penalty ; in 

Mohammadan law. 
DAWAT, H. (A. cu^cj) Invitation, benediction, a feast, a 

DAWAM-BAND-O-BAST, H. (o,..t j jJu Aj, from J.J, 

perpetuity) Perpetual settlement. 
DA WAN, DAWUN, H. (^ylj) Threshing the corn by bullocks, 

attaching some six or eight in a row, and driving them 

round a central pivot over the com strewed upon the 

DAWAN, or DAWEX, Mar. (^T^Tff, ^f^) A rope fastened at 

both ends to which cattle are tied. 
DAWARA, DAURA, or DAHWARA, corruptly, DOWRA, Mar. 

(T^TT or '33TO) A hole dug for water (in the dry bed 

of a river, or the like). 
DAYA, S., but adopted in mqst dialects, at least in its legal 

sense, (<^pD Gift, donation. In Hindu law, Portion, in- 

heritance, which may be of two kinds ; without hindrance 

or impediment, absolute, direct, Apratibandha ; and $- 

pralibandha, with obstruction, indirect, contingent, or 



Dayabhdf/a, or Dayavibhdga, S. (from TPT, a share, or 
ftmT, partition) Partition of inheritance. Title of law- 
books relating to the apportionment of heritable property 
amongst heirs. 

Ddydda, S. (from ^TT^T, to take) An heir, whether direct, 
collateral, or contingent. A claimant. 

Dayddopdgata, S. (from dm'IH, come or descended to) A 
slave received as inheritance. 

Ddyaji, Mar. (<JUH"I) An heir, a kinsman. 
DAYA, Ben. (S. Tffa) Charge, plaint, law-suit (besides the 
preceding senses). 

Ddyak, Ben. (IT! *W) An accuser. Also, a donor, &c. 
DEB, Ben., Uriya, &c. (&?%, the vernacular pronunciation of 
Dev, q. v.) A divinity, a deity, an idol, a king, a title 
of respect in addressing a person of rank, a cognomen 
appropriate to Brahmans, as Chandradeb. (There being 
no v in Bengali, the b is substituted for it in this and 
all similar words). 

Deb-dihi, Uriya. Enumeration of estates and villages. 

Debhi-a-sdmi, or Debhi-raiyat, (?) In Behar and western 
Bengal said to mean, a resident cultivator, one having a 
right of property in the ground he cultivates. 
PEHRI', H. ((_y/*o) A marshy soil. See Dahr. 
DEJA, H. (IssiJ, from S. 5fT, to be given) A portion, a 
dowry. DEJA, or DEJ, Mar. (<JT) Money given at 
Siidra marriages: given by the bridegroom to the father 
of the bride. 

Deju, H. (^=^0) Part of a dowry. 

DEL, H. (<Jo^) Land ploughed and ready for the Rdbi 
crop (Bundelkhand). Land prepared for cotton after 
being cropped for gram (Sagar). 

DENA, H. &c. (from the v. Uu J, to give, that which should 
be given, ^ft) DENE, Mar. (^) Money due, a debt. 

Dend, or Dene-ddr, or Denddr, H. &c. (jbUoJ, ^^TC, 

ORTftsO A debtor. 

Dend-pdnd, H. (from LuJ, and ULj , to obtain) Profit and 
loss, settlement of affairs. 

Deneyhene, Mar. (^T!nro) Money transactions, paying and 
receiving, lending and borrowing. 

Den-hakimi, H. (j-^U-) The share of the government 
or Zamindar of the produce. 

Denehari, Mar. (^lfl<*0) A debtor. 

Den-len, H. (abbreviated from LoJ and U-J , to take) Money 
dealings, paying and receiving, borrowing and lending, 
buying and selling, &c. 


Den-mahr, H. &c. (from A.^-, a portion) A dowry, a 

wife's portion. 
Detdglietd, Mar. (J^rUMcd) A regular dealer, one who is 

punctual in money transactions. 
DENDA pronounced DENDO, DENDT, also DENPA pronounced 

DENPO, DENPU, Ben. (<TS T?, CS"fj , CS"H , 5^) Tech- 

^ "T" 

nical terms used in the measurement of land, implying 

relative position or bearing thus, Denda imports that 
there is a parcel of land between the lots last named and 
the next lot, lying a little to the south of the land which 
is immediately to the south. Dendu imports that which 
is a little to the north of the land immediately north. 
J}enpa is that which is a little to the west of the land 
immediately west. Z)enpu is that which is a little to the 
west of that lying west. (The o of JDendo and Denpo 
is only the common Bengali articulation of the short a). 

DEO, H. &c. (^i>, for S. ^, Deva) A god, a divinity. 
See <T^ and its compounds. 

DEO, or DEO LINK, Thug. An exclamation from the look- 
out confederates, to signify that all is safe and the murder 
may be committed. 

DEOLA, H. (^.3) Mounds, high ground (East Otidh). 

DEORHA, H. (la^i) One-and-a-half: used to express in- 
terest in kind on grain at the rate of fifty per cent. 

DEORHI, H. ( ( _ s fc^3) A threshold, a porch. 
Deorhi-ddr, H. A porter. 

DERA, H. (|^JJ, sTl) A tent, any temporary dwelling, a 
Ryot's hut 

DERH, (Jj>.3) One-and-a-half. 
I)erh-pdo, H. A quarter-and-a-half, three-eighths. 
Derhpawd, A weight equal to three-eighths of a ser. 
Deri, Ben. (if^t) Ill-prepared; applied to rice when only 
half cleaned, or husked once and-a-half, it being usual to 
make the most ordinary kinds pass through the mortar 
three times. 

DESA, S. (^l) vernacularly, DBS, H. ( ( j~J l j) H. Mar. (^j) 
Ben. ((^T) Tel. (~3i&X>) Kara. (&) Tarn. (<Ss<g>Ln) 
Mai. (6>ac/3) as the palatal s, which is used by all, ex- 
cept the Hindustani, is slightly aspirated in Sanskrit, the 
aspiration is exaggerated in some of the dialects, and the 
word and its compounds are prononuced, as in Marathi, 
Desk : in that language, however, it also occurs, less cor- 
rectly, but optionally, Des, with the dental sibilant (?*) 
Country, district, place, region. In different parts of 
India it is emphatically applied to particular districts, as 


constituting ''the' county. In Rohilkhand it denotes the 
cleared villages on the borders of the Tardi. In the 
Himalayan regions it signifies the plains of Hindustan. 
With the Marathas it especially designates the country 
between the Sahyiidri and Balaghat hills, the Karnatik 
and the Godaveri river. It also applies to any plain, 
open, or champaign country. In Malabar it likewise 
signifies, the proprietary possession of a village, and the 
rank derived from it. 

Detdchdr, H. S. (i^ITOTC) Local observance, custom of the 

Dexddhikdri, incorrectly, Dexadikdr,S. (<^hf*i<*it.1) Chief, 

or governor, or superintendent of a given tract of country. 
Desddhipati, S. (^nfatrfk) Chief or head ruler of a 

district or country. The representative of the Raja. 
Dex&dhipatyam, S. &c. Office of governor, government of 

a district. 
Detahdsilu, or Des-hdsil, Tel. (~3#-3ew) I n l an d or 

transit duties. 
Desdi, corruptly, Desae, and Desnyc, Mar. (^Tt^, from S. 

i^rrfV'lf'it ) The superintendant or ruler of a Pargana or 

province, the principal revenue officer of a district, under 

the native government : the office was hereditary, and 

frequently recompensed by grants of land, so that the 
Desdi often became akind of petty chief in the south of India. 
Desdi, Karn. (Q^ScOD) A chief man among the mer- 

chants of the Lingam sect. 
Desdi-giri, Mar. (^Il^fnft) Office of Desdi, emoluments 

or fees attached to it 
Desa-lekhaka, S. (cnsTSF, a writer) The accountant of a 

Desant, H. (from S. Wit, end) The boundaries of a country 

or district 
Desdntar, H. (from S. 41 iK, different) A foreign country, 

belonging to a different country, a foreigner. 
Desastha, or Desasth, less correctly, Deshajtth, Mar. 

(^TW, from S. W, who is, or belongs to) One of a 

tribe of Maratha Brahmans, who consider themselves su- 

perior to the rest. In other parts of the South, a Ma- 

ratha Brahman in general. 

Desdniar, H. (^jU-jJ) A foreign or different country. 
Desaroari, H. ( ^jLoJ) Goods, the manufacture of another 

Des-chaughald, Mar. ( ^^HlNrcjn) The assistant to the chief 

native revenue officer of a district 


J)es-/ie*<i,Uriya(GQ1Ge>|) Service lands of a village officer. 
Desi, H. &c. (S. i^ft) Belonging to, born or produced 

in a country, a native of a country. 
Dexiya, H. &c. (S. ^fiflfl) Belonging to a country, native, 

Des-kdvali, Tel. (~33nrtS>) Black mail, tees paid to 

prevent a village from being pillaged, expenses of guard- 

ing a district. 
Des-kulkarant, Mar. (^rwcb"**.^) The district accountant, 

one who prepares a general account from the several 
statements of the village accountants. 

Des-kulliarani-varttana, Karn. (S. ?^T, subsistence) A 
per-centage formerly allowed to the district accountants on 
the collections of the revenue. 

Definukli, Desmoolth, or Deshmoohh, corruptly, De.smooh, 
Mar. (if3I, and S. TO, chief) A hereditary native officer 
under the former governments, exercising chief police and 
revenue authority over a district, containing a certain 
number of villages, and responsible for the revenue : 
holding for compensation lands rent-free, and being en- 
titled to the various fees and allowances, corresponding 
generally to the Zamindars of Bengal. Under the present 
administration the Desmukh is a district revenue officer 
who is expected to superintend the cultivation, and report on 
the state of the crops, to assist in the settlement of the 
annual revenue, and to give general aid to the collector and 
his establishment in the discharge of revenue duties. 

Desmukhi, Mar. ( *^$IVSft) The office or duty of Desmukh. 
The fees or perquisites levied by him, or on his account. 

Des-nikdld, H. (5llj ^~o<i, from Ullj, to send out) Exile, 

Despdnde, orDespdndyd, corruptly, Despandeah, Dexpon- 
deah, Despondee, Daispaundee, Tel. ("S^QTPg) 
Mar. (^nrn3, <|3IMi&|T) The hereditary revenue ac- 
countant of a district or certain number of villages, 
holding office by hereditary tenure, and paid by lands. 
Under the British administration this officer is expected 
to keep a duplicate set of the public accounts, to super- 
intend and cheek those of the village accountants, keep 
note of the collections, and see that they are regularly 
paid, to assist in the annual settlements, and give general 
information and aid to the collector and his subordinates. 
In some parts of Telingana the Despandya acts indepen- 
dently of the Desmukh, discharges the same duties, and 
enjoys the same privileges and emoluments. 


Desapramdni, Mai. (fDSO3(o_)l2Di?rnl) Head of a village: 

also, Desamukhyasthan. 

Des-tydff, H. (from the S. WFT, abandoning) Emigration. 
Destvdl, H. ( JljuiJ t>) A tribe of Tagas, holding a few 

villages in Bhagpur. 

Demala, or Deswdli, Mar., H. (^$HI<bl) A native of 
any country. In Bengal it is applied to a native of 
the north-west provinces. 
Desarvdli, Mai. (6iac/9o_i0^3) The head or ruler of a 

district. The same as Desai, q. v. 
Desmdr, H. (j^wjJ) Relating to a district or districts, 

a statement, assessment, &c. 
DEULA, Ben Uriya (tfvit, from the S. Decala) A temple. 

Deula-karan, Uriya. Accountant of a temple. 
DEVA, S., vernacularly pronounced whether singly or in 
many of its compounds, DEWA, DEV, DEB, or DEO, 
(<^, Deus) A god, a divinity, an idol. A man of high 
rank, a sovereign. A Brahman. A cognomen suited 
to Brahmans. 

Devaddna, S. (^^TJJ) A gift or offering to a divinity. 
Devadarsana, S. (^^T, seeing) Visiting or paying re- 
verence to an idol : particularly, in the south of India, 
such a visit paid by the bride and bridegroom, with their 
friends, at a particular period after their marriage. 
Devaddsi, H. &c. (from S. ^Rft, a female slave) A dancing 

girl attached to a temple. 

Devaddya, Devaddyamu, corruptly, Devadorv, Devadyen, 

anADevadoyam, Kara. (&3Z330&) Tel. ("S^'O'oSb^X), 

from S. (frf, a donation) Lands or allowances for the 

support of a temple, an endowment 

Devadevhdrd, Mar. (t^^Kl) Running about from idol 

to idol, importunate in prayers and supplications. 
Devadharma, S. Religious offices, acts of supererogation 

in honour of a divinity. 

Devadigdr, Kara. (OSQ A <3O) A man of a low caste, who 

performs menial offices in temples in the south of India. 

Devaka, Mar. (from S. <^!f, a deity, or a minor deity) 

The deities worshipped at marriages, and other essential 


Devaka-gondala, Karn. &c. Decorating the household or 
other deities who are worshipped at the Sanskaras or 
essential ceremonies. 

-Derate, (from S. Devaldya) vernacularly in Ben., &c. 
Deval or Derval, Deul, &c. (i^j) A temple. 
Decala, S. and Mar. (^5) Devalan, Karn. (^$>G>) A 


Brahman of an inferior order, who attends upon idols, 
and lives upon the offerings made to them. 

Devdlaya, S. (from 4ll<$<f, an asylum) A temple, a shrine. 

Devala-prajd, corruptly, Dewul;purchd, Ben. (sir<ii2f5f1) 
One of three officers, so named, managing the temple of 
Jagannath, under the Raja of Khurda, but appointed for- 
merly by the collector. v 

Devala, or Devdlaya-divyaj (from S. Divya. f^"aj, an 
oath) Making an oath in a temple, or before an idol. 

Devali, Mar. (5*^35^) A small building made for an idol 
only, not admitting worshippers. A frame or shrine 
within a temple. 

Devamdtrika, Mar. Devamdtruka, Tel. (S. cHHIrt4) 
Watered by rain ; fields, lands, &c., as opposed to those 
dependent upon artificial irrigation. 

Devdng, Karn. (from S. ^f , the body) A Lingayat, one 
who carries the emblem of Siva on his person. 

Devdnffa,1e\. (~3<3~oX)Devdngada, Kara. 
The title assumed by the caste of weavers in the Karnatic. 

Devdrdya-vatta, Kara. (Q^y"3"eT3c&>3J) A tax for- 


merly levied in Mysore on the lands of rebellious subjects, 
rated at so much for each temple on them. 

Devaski, Mar. (?^?gft) Annual ceremonies in honour of 
village divinities. 

Devasthala S. Q<Jtsy<) Any sacred place oj- temple. In 
Malabar, a temple of the first order, dedicated to Siva, 
as Trimurtti. 

Devasthdna, corruptly, Deostan, S. &c. (from S. WR, a 
place) A temple. Revenue applied to the support of a 

Devasthdpana, S. (^^STPTH) Setting up an idol in a 
temple, or in a room in a dwelling. 

Devasthdna-pudi-vatta, Karn. (O^cg^r^S^O^U) A 
tax of two-and-a-half fanams per kdndi of land, levied upon 
the Ryots, on behalf of the temple or temples of a dis- 
trict (Mysore). 

Devaswa, Mar. (^f) Karn. (*&#.$, from the S. ^f, 
own) Property belonging to a temple. An endowment. 

Devathi/ce, Mar. ( ^fTifr) A spot of land held rent-free in 
some villages by the Mukaddam or Mhar, in reward of 
his having established by ordeal the disputed boundaries 
of the village. 

Devotthdna, S., vernacularly, Deotlhdn, (from 37*nT, 
rising) The eleventh day of the light half of Kartik, when 
Vishnu is supposed to rise up from his four months' sleep. 
2 M 


The end of the rainy season. It is also the period at which 
the sugar-cane is first cut See Ditkruan. 
Devhdrd, Mar. (<^Kl) The niche or shrine in which an 

idol is placed. 

Devi, S., adopted in all the dialects, (i^t) Any goddess, 
but especially a name of Durga, the wife of Siva, the 

Devotthdpana, or Deotthdpan, (from S. TrVTTVfl, raising 
up) The ceremony of removing or dismissing deities at 
the end of the rite at which they were supposed to be 

DEVATA, S. (^^!Tt) A divinity, a deity, an idol. 
Devdtara, Mai. (6l3OJOrtn(D) A temple dedicated to an 

inferior divinity. 
Devatdvuttdra, Kara. (^SS^^^S) Lands allotted 

rent-free for the support of a temple. 
Dcvatrd, or Devottara, S., vernacularly, Deotar, Deotara, 
Ben. and Uriya, Debottar, Karn. Devatdvuttdra, corruptly, 
Deomuttur and Demitter, (S. ^, and *, what pre- 
serves, or T^TC, what belongs to) Land rent-free, granted 
for the support of a temple or an idol. 
Devatotthdpana, Mar. (from S. ac<niMi , raising up) Dis- 
missing the deities who have been invited to a ceremony, 
upon its termination. 

DHABBU, DHUBBOO, Mar. (ifg) A double pice. 
DHABDHABI, Mar. (vanit) A waterfall, the noise of falling 


DHAD, Mar. (VTS, pronounced DHAR) An onset, an over- 
whelming multitude or crowd, whether of robbers and the 
like, or of locusts or other destructive creatures. 
DHADA, pronounced DHAKA, Hindi (VTTT) A robbery. 
DHADA, H. ('5lfcJ, S. >ITCT, a stream) Water falling from 

above, a waterfall (Rohilkhand). 
DHADA, Mar. (VTl) A weight often set:*, an accumulation 

of weight in a balance. 

i- - " - 

A term applied to low ground (Rohilkhand). 
DHAGA, Thug. Eliciting the intentions of travellers. Ne- 

gociation with persons in authority for protection or release 

from arrest 

DHAGAL, Thug. Papers. 
DHAGSA, Thug. Hilly or woody country. 
DHAHIMA, H. (<UJtla>J, VlfigHT) A tribe of Rajputs, formerly 

lords of Biana, one of the thirty-six royal races. There 

are also Dhahima Jats and Ahirs 


DHAI-GIYA, Hindi (tifmn, from frnjT, gone) Washed away 

by inundation (Puraniya). 

DHAJA, DHUJA, H. (l=Ai, S. VT.) A flag. A pole with 
a strip of cloth tied to the end of it, and erected some- 
times near a place of worship, in satisfaction of a vow. 
Also, a flag hoisted on some lofty situation on the last 
day of Ashdrh, called the Paivan-parikshd, trial of the 
wind ; as, from the direction of the wind on the sunset 
of that day, as shewn by the flag, the people draw their 
auguries of the quantity of rain likely to fall in the en- 
suing rainy season. If the wind blows from the west, 
it is said that there will be Banya ltd pdni, grain-dealers' 
water the season will be dry : if a little more round, it 
is Kuinhdr kd pdni, potter's water, as they do not like 
much wet : if from the north, moderate weather may be 
expected, and it is called Mdli kd pdni, gardener's water: 
and if from the east, copious rains are expected, called 
Dliobi ltd pdni, washerman's water, i. e. abundant rain. 

DHAK, DHUK, Ben. (IT?) A weight 

DIIAK, DHAKA, or DiiAKHA, corruptly, DAWK, H. (tl/laJ, 
&la>5, l^lftij) A tree common in India (Butea frondosa), 
also called Palasa, the products of which are very useful. 
The bark yields an astringent exudation, called Palds- 
gond, or Bengal kino ; a strong rope, called Bukel, is 
made from the root ; the wood is used for coating wells, 
and is valued as fuel for sacrificial fire; the flowers are 
of a bright red colour, and yield a yellow or orange dye. 
In Bengal, and in and along the hills, it is a good-sized 
tree ; but in the plains of the north-west it is of stunted 
growth,and comes to signify any dwarf shrubs or brushwood. 
DItdk-jangal, is any wilderness of bushes. 

DHAK, Hindi (VTcR) Arable land in a ravine (Puraniya). 

DniKAllA, H. (x^laj) A tribe of Rajputs, scattered over 
the country, from the south bank of the Jumna about 
Agra and Mathura, across the Doab to Rohilkhand. 

Mar. (VfoliZT'TO, VI*Kim!l) Inferiority in stature, age, 
&c., lesserness. Claim to inheritance, or other rights of 
the junior branches of a family. 

Dhahata, or Dhdhati, incorrectly, Dhahtl, -khds, Mar. 
The third or inferior class of village officers. See Bcduta. 

DuAKf, Ben. (T$t) A deduction of rent allowed to tenants 
by the Zamindar. 

DUAL, Hindi (<n?) An influx of water coming down a 
river from the hills (Puraniya). 


DHALA, H. (ijl'jfci) Collections from the individual villagers, 
to cover village expenses in Rohilkhand, usually at the 
rate of one ana in a rupee, or one ser of grain per maund. 
In the Central and Lower Doab it is generally used with 
Jama, as Jamd-dhdla, and signifies a particular tenure. 
See Dhar-bdchh. In this sense it occurs also Ddla, with 
the initial unaspirated. 

DHALAIT, H. &c. (ei-J.Jl*^, probably from I)hdl, a shield) 
An armed attendant or peon. 

DHALAL, Thug. Spirit vender. 

DHALBHOL, H. ( J^jJla-0 Complete transfer by sale 

DHALPHOR, (?) H. A class of the K&rmi, or great agricul- 
tural tribe in Hindustan (clod piercers). 

DHALWAN, Hindi (275RT) The slope of the inclined plane 
down which the oxen descend from a well. 

DHA MAN, H. (?) Payment of rent in kind : applied also to 
lands or a village when the revenue is so paid. 

DnAMi, H. (^laj, plur. Dhdmidn) A follower of Pran- 
nath, a Hindu reformer, who flourished in the seventeenth 
century in Bundelkhand. 

DHAMKAI, H. &c. (from H. \Jli-*J6i>, or Ben. 5f^1, to 

threaten) Reprimand, reproof, threatening. 
Dhamkdibd, Ben. Uriya (UflG>|QQ|) Intimidation. 

DHAMONI-KI-MANJ, Thug. Fighting of cats, a bad omen. 

DHAMRI, Thug. Metal utensils. 

DHAMUKA, Tel. (QcAJO'S" ) A roa d made with gravel. A 
ridge or bank passing across water. 

DHAN, corruptly, DAUX, H. &c. (^IftJ, from the S. VTO) 
Grain in general, but especially applied to the rice plant, 
or to rice in the husk, of which there are a great number 
of varieties, bearing different names. Sixty-six different 
appellations are enumerated by Mr. Elliot as known in 
the western provinces ; and he states that the variety is 
still greater in Bengal and Bahar. In what respects they 
differ, except in name, does not appear. 
Dhdn, or Dhdna-band'i, corruptly, Danabundy, H. 
(^jjJu liibtJ) Estimate of the extent of the crops of rice 
or other grain. 
Dfianhd, Dhunha, H. (l^AftJ, from VHl) A rice cultivator ; 

rice-bearing, as a field, &c. 
Dhdni, H. (jjtaj) A good soil, fit for grain. 
Dhanftar, Dhunkur, H. C^aJlO, abridged from ^laJ, 
Mcfcg) A stiff soil, bearing rice if rain has fallen plen- 
tifully. A field cropped with rice in the previous season. 


Dhdn-kdti, H. The season for cutting rice. 

Dhdn-madi, Tel. (T?<vftSDfc) A rice field. 

Dhant'hid, Dhunted, (L^JUaj) A field which has been 

reaped for rice (Rohilkhand). 

Dhdnrvdiyd, H. (bjylftj) A thresher or a seller of rice. 
DHAN, DHUN, H. &c. (^J, S. >nt) Wealth, property. 

A loan. The cattle of a village. 

Dhani, and Dfianik, H. &c. (S. ysft, vftflf) One having 
property, a master, an owner: also, a lender, a creditor. 
Dhani-jog, Mar. (vffaftn, from S. Yogya, iftni, fit, 
proper) Payable to the purchaser, a bill, &c., as distin- 
guishable from that which is payable to some other, 
Sahdjog (ty^lafln). 
Dhanteras, Mar. (v?Tfft*t) The thirteenth of the dark half 

of Aswin, when the bankers worship money. 
DHANA, Mai. (COOOO) Fried barley or rice. 
DHANA, H. ( <XJli>) The Gond portion of a village, which 

is always separate from the rest (Sagar). 
DHANA, Uriya (il|ff , probably vernacular corruption of DiNA, 
a grain, a seed) A measure of weight for the precious 
metals, four dhdnas (grains) equal to one ratti. 
DHANAK, Ben. (TlR) A copper coin, about the value of 

DHANDHOI, Thug. Any man employed in the pursuit of 


DHANDHOI, DHUNDHOEE, H. (^y&JO&i) The scum of the 
sugar-cane juice when boiling (Dehli). 

A, PHUNDHOKA, corruptly, DHANDERO, H. 
jbii, from S. 2T!3, to search) Proclamation by 
beat of drum. 
Dhandjioria, H. A crier. 

DHANQA, (?) Any hiding-place of robbers and marauders ; 
three such were especially notorious in Katiwar one 
in the neighbourhood of Chutila, one about twenty 
has to the southward, and the third in the forest of 

DHANGAR or DHANGAH, DHUNGUH, H. &c. (^Clftii, ^&AJ) 
A tribe of people inhabiting the hill country in Ramgarh 
and Chota-nagpur : some of them come periodically into 
the plains for employment, and are engaged as labourers 
and scavengers. In the south of India, DHANGAR is 
generally applied to the caste of shepherds and weavers of 
wool. In Telingana, they are also cultivators, and are 
divided into twelve tribes, who do not eat together, nor 


Dhangar-mdg, Mar. (from JflT, a loom) The loom of a 

woollen weaver. 

Dhangar-mdniyam, Kara. (#oX&6T3&O&O) Taxes on 
shepherds. Charge for pasturage. 

DHANGI, Thug. A brass pot. 

DHANTEHA, Thug. An ass, whose braying is an omen highly 
esteemed, whether for good or evil. 

DHANYA, H., but in all the dialects also: (S. vraj) Grain 
in general, especially rice, but nine principal kinds are 
enumerated under this title ; small quantities of each of 
which are sometimes given to Brahmans at festivals : the 
donation is called the Nava-dhdnya-ddnam. 
DItdnydddyam, Tarn. (S. srTCnflLLJrTSrTLLJlL) Receipt 

of revenue, &c., in grain. 

Dhdnyadulu, Tel. (plur. of ~$<$ &>) All sorts of grain. 
Dhdnya-sdramu, Tel. &c. (l?V5c3-#&O) Grain after 

threshing (from S. ^TTT;, substance). 

Dhdnyavarddhanam,M&\. (UJOPOJcuflJJPOo, from S. vra, 

and isi, increasing) Lending grain at interest, receiving 

a usurious return for seed corn supplied to the cultivators. 

Dhdnya-vruddhi, Mai. ((jUOO^cyftjU) , from S. ^ffr, 

increase) First-fruits, or the first sheaf reaped. 

DHANUK, H. (C^ylftJ, from S. Dhanusli, a bow) The 
name of a low tribe in the upper provinces, but most 
numerous in Bahar : they follow the practice of fowlers 
and archers, and feed upon their booty : they are 
also employed as house guards, and in various menial 
offices, and sometimes become slaves. The females are 
in request as midwives. They are said to be divided into 
seven branches, between whom there is no social inter- 
course. Elliot. According to Buchanan, however, the 
Dhanuks of Bahar, Bhagalpur, and Puraniya are a pure 
agricultural tribe, perhaps not essentially different from 
Kurmis : many of them, however, are agricultural slaves. 
Western India, i. 167. 

DHANUS, or DHANUSH, vernacularly, DHANU and DHANUK, 
S. (v^^t, Vro) A bow, a bow used for cleaning cotton. 
A land measure of four cubits. 

Dhanur-vidyd, S. (Vp, the final being changed to r 
before certain consonants, and f*UI I , knowledge) The 
science of archery, literally, but comprehending the whole 
of military science, the art of war : also Dhanu-veda and 

DHAP, H. ( u. >la J) One-fourth of a kos : a pass, a ghat : an 
expanse of low ground. 


Dhapia, Dhupea, H. (Lua>i>, from S. Dhdva, running) A 
short kos, a distance which a man may run without stop- 
ping to take breath. 

DnAn, H. (jl3) A heap of corn (Benares). 

DHAR, H. (jlftJ) A hollow tree inserted in the mouth of 
wells in the Tarai, to prevent their falling in. 

DuAfl, or DHARA, H. &c. (jliO, Ijtaj) A stream, a chan- 
nel, a flow of water. 

DHAH, Hindi (VTO A ravine with or without water. 

DnAR, or DHARA, H. &c. (jlfcJ, \jddS) Settled assessment, 
fixed or customary rate, a proportionate share or charge. 
The same tenure as Dhdrldcltli, q. v. Also, Mar. 

DuAR, Ben. (Tt?T) A loan, a debt: an edge, a limit, a boundary. 
Dhardt, or Dhartta, (?) Ben. (Tsri) A loan, a sum de- 
ducted from the amount lent, by the lender, as a bonus. 
Dhartta, Ben. (*f|ft) A debtor. 

DHAnA, Thug. Vessels of metal. 

DHARA, DHUHA, Ben. tJriya (T?T|, from S. ^, having, 
holding) Personal restraint, arrest, apprehension of a 

DnAHA, incorrectly, DHUR, Ben. Mar. (*Tt?Tt, VTO) Usage, 
practice, custom, customary or current price, rate, or as- 
sessment, tax on gardens and plantations. 
Dhdrd-chaddo, Tel. (?) The former custom of making the 
cultivators pay a premium on the market price for the 
share of the crop relinquished by the government 
Dhdrd-kari, or D/tdre-hari, Mar. (from S. cRX, who 
makes) A tenant, one who pays the government assess- 
ment, one who is possessed of fixed rates or fees. The 
permanent occupant of a farm, one who cannot be dis- 
possessed as long as he pays his revenue, and who may 
abandon his farm for a time without losing the right of 
resumption on paying a compensation to the temporary 
Dhdrd-pramdn, Uriya. According to custom. 

DHARAUKI,DHUROUKEE,H. (^i^ao) Ascertaining by guess, 

DHARAUNA, H. (U^ftj) A woman married a second time. 
In case of a dispute, the quantity of land in cultivation 
(East Oudh). 

DHAflAwAT, H. ( (JLjjIf&J) Land ascertained and apportioned 
by estimate, not measured (Benares). 

DHARA WATU, Tel. (Q^ ^"^) A deposit, an instalment 
of revenue in advance ; also read Dhardrvati, and, incor- 
rectly, Dharoti. 



DHARA, Mar. (V?l) A weight of ten sers, the quantity 
weighed by it, a peculiar mode of multiplying weights. 

DHARAI, Thug. Share assigned to the leaders of an expe- 
dition, usually one article in ten, or one ana in the rupee 
on the value. 

DHARAKHA, or DHARALA, H. (Ijfj&J, 3ybj) A scarecrow. 

DHAHAN, Mar. (VTOff) Rate, current or market price. 

DHARAN, Mar. (v^I, from the S. VJ3J, holding, con- 
fining) A dam, a bank across a river : a weight of 
twenty-four gunja seeds : a sum of nine anas. 

DHARBAND, Mar. (KI(;) A law, a rule, a regulation. 

DHABBACHH, H. (^-'j;lttj) Any even or general dis- 
tribution of charge or rate, &c., especially that which is 
levied from the individual holders of a coparcenary estate, 
to make good any deficiency in the produce of land held in 
common, or let to cultivators. In the central part of the 
north-west provinces the term denotes an imperfect Pattidari 
tenure, in which part of the village land is held in common 
and part in severally. The profits of the former are first ap- 
plied to the payment of the government assessment and 
the village charges ; and any deficit is made good by the 
proprietors of the latter, in proportion to their holdings. 

DHARBIGAR, Mar. (from S. V^, seizing, and biydr, forced 
labourer) Pressing people for carrying burthens. 

DHARDHO, Thug. A river. 

DHAR-DHURA, H. (s^bJ^lAJ) The boundary formed by a 
stream. (From dliar or dhdrd, a stream, and dhura, a 

DHARE-BANDI, Mar. (VTX^f^) (Land) held on condition 
of paying a part of the produce : settling the portion to 
be given. 

DHARE-EHSAN, Mar. (VRU^TR, from P. ^U**.!, easy, 
light) A mitigated assessment, a stipulation favourable 
to the cultivators. 

Dhdre-ehsdni, Mar. (VH^UM*!) Land lightly assessed. 
Dhdre-mdp, Mar. (from JTPT, measure) The measure by 
which the government share is received in kind. 

DHARI, DHUREE, H. ((C^O) A measure of five sers. 

DHAHICHA, H. (IsiJ&j) The second husband of a widow, 
among the lower classes of the Hindus. 

DHARIKGA, H. (Uoy&5) A kind of rice (Rohilkhand). 

DHAHMA, more correctly, DHAKMMA, but in practice com- 
monly dropping the second m, S., used in all dialects, 
but commonly corrupted to DHARM or DHARAM, DHURM, 
DHURUM, incorrectly, DURUM, (S. vwl, from >j, to hold, 

that which keeps man in the right path) Law, virtue, 
legal or moral duty. 

Dharmddhikdr, or kdri, S. &c. (from SSlfvicliK, who 
presides over) A judge, a magistrate : a superior over 
Brahmans invested with power to investigate and chastise 
breaches of custom, violations of caste, and the like. 

Dharmddhikarana, S. (from TyfMohUU, superintendence) 
A court of justice. The duty of a magistrate or judge. 

Dharma-ddna, or Dkarmaddyam, S. &c., vernacularly, 
Dharmaddo, corruptly, Dhurmadom, (from <frT or <^fl, 
donation) An endowment, grant of food, or lands, or 
funds, for religious or charitable purposes. 

Dharma, or Dharm-dds, S. &c. (from <fTCt, a slave) An 
attendant upon a temple. 

Dharma-karttd, S. &c. (from cHH, who makes) A judge, 
a magistrate. In the south of India, the manager of a 
temple, and appropriator of the benefits derived from it. 

D/tarma-kdrya, S. &c. (from cfil'u), an act) Any good or 
pious work, building a temple, digging a tank, &c. 

Dharma-khdte'n,MaT. (vwj^ltf, from P. Li-, a writing) 
The head of accounts under which pious or charitable 
gifts are entered. 

Dharmma-kilam, Mai. (OJQC)<fl>lJlo) A jurisdiction, a 
district under the same legal administration. 

Dharma-patni, S. &c. (from ifsft, a wife) A wife who 
has been married according to the legal forms, and is of 
the same caste as her husband. 

Dharma-patra, or Dharm-patra, S. (from TT^ ; a leaf) A 
deed of gift or endowment for religious or pious purposes. 

Dharma-pm, or -powal, Mar. (v*Syl^, -ilta^) Giving water 
and food to wayfarers or paupers. A booth or shed where 
they are given. 

Dharma-putra, S. &c. (from J^, a son) A legitimate or 
adopted son, a person appointed by a widow or by the 
caste of one deceased to act as a son in performing the 
obsequial ceremonies: as applied to Europeans, it sig- 
nifies god-son; as D harm-pita, or Dharm-bdp, or Dharm- 
md, signify godfather or godmother. 

Dharmdrth, S. &c. (from "W%, object) Any thing given 
for charitable or pious purposes. 

Dharma, or Dkarm-sdld, S. &c. (from 31131, a hall) A 
building for any legal or pious purpose, as a court of 
justice, a place where religious persons assemble, a place 
of accommodation for travellers and pilgrims, or for the 
poor and sick, a Serai, an hospital, a monastery, a temple. 
2 N 


Dharma-sabha, S. &c. (from *W1, an assembly) The 
word has much the same meanings as the preceding; but 
in Bengal it applies to an association of influential 
Hindus, to uphold their religion. 

Dharma-sdstra, S. (from $||fef, a scripture) A work on 
the whole body, or on particular subjects of Hindu law. 
The collective writings of the Hindus on their laws and 
institutions. The Hindu code. 

Dharmdtar, more properly, perhaps, Dharmottar, H. 
(yteJbj) A charitable grant, an endowment 

Dharmdvatar, S. &c. (from SSHrtH, descent from heaven, 
incarnation) A term addressed by Hindus to a respectable 
person, sometimes in the way of flattery to Europeans. 

Dharmopddhydya, or Dharmopddhydyiha, S. (from 
3Ml4m:, a teacher) A Brahman supposed to be ac- 
quainted with the law, and exercising in some places in 
the Maratha country the functions of censor and judge of 
offences against the laws, especially of caste, and receiving 
perquisites and fees in that capacity. 

DHARNA, or DHARNE, H., Ben., Mar., &c. (U^bt>, TsRl, 
Vnj, from the S. V*3ff) Sitting at the door of a 
house or tent, to compel payment of a debt due by a 
debtor, or of arrears owing by a public officer or prince. 
The person so sitting observes a strict fast, and as long 
as he so sits the person from whom he demands payment 
is obliged to fast also, and abstain from his usual occu- 
pations and amusements; as, if the suitor were to perish, 
the consequences of the sin would fall upon him. Originally 
the person sitting in Dharna was necessarily a Brahman, 
either on his own behalf or that of another, and the sin 
of Brahmanicide would be incurred by his death. The 
practice is not restricted to Brahmans ; but is altogether 
obsolete in the Company's provinces, having been made a 
punishable offence by Ben. Reg. vii. 1820. In some parts 
of the south of India a similar practice is observed, to 
extort a boon, or the promise of one, from an idol, by 
sitting permanently at the door of a temple until the 
attendant priests assure the person his desire will be 
granted. Dharne, in Mar., also means an armed party 
sent to seize an offender. 
DHAROHAH, H. (j&^&J, from Dharna, to place) A deposit, 

an instalment. 

DHAROHAR, Thug. Strangling. 

DHARTA, H. (<bytii) Discount and commission. Increase 
of demand upon land : also, an item of account usual 


with bankers, in addition to a sum actually lent, gene- 
rally about three per cent. (Sagar). 

DHARTI, H. ((Jy&i>, from S. irftrO The earth, land, soil. 

DHARWAI, H. ((_y!.^aO) The village officer or accountant 
who weighs grain. (From Dhari, a weight of five sers, 
which is considered his perquisite at the harvest). 

DHASANI, Ben. (fcJflfr) Falling in of the banks of a pond 
or river. 

swamp, a quagmire. (From Dhasna, li**Jbi>, to sink). 

DHATURA, H. &c. O^Iaj, S. V5Tt) A plant (Datura 
fastuosa), the seeds of which have strong narcotic pro- 
perties, and are often given with sweetmeats, to stupify 
previous to robbery. 

DHATA, S. &c. (VTifT) The tenth year of the cycle. 

DnATKAR, Hindi (VTTTSFt) A pound or pen for cattle, or 
the rails of it (Puraniya). 

DHAUL, or DHAUH, H. ((Jya>, jjbS) A kind of sugar-cane 

DUAULANI, Thug. One of the sects of the Thugs. 

DHAUL, Mar. (<fr3E) An official paper, sealed and signed 
ready to have the blanks in it filled up when required. 

DHAURI', H. (u^y&J, for Adhauri, a half) A bull's hide 
cut in two pieces (Dehli). 

DHAVA, Hindi (v^l) The best kind of grass for thatching. 

DuAwAR, Mar. (VR?) Name of a tribe, smelters of iron. 

DHE, H. (^j*^, ^) A chief but recent subdivision of the 
Jat tribe in the north-west provinces. 

DHELA, or DEJ.A, H. (1U&J, ij^T, i^l) A clod of earth: 
also a small piece of clay made into a pellet, and cast at 
birds from a sling, by a person stationed to protect the crop. 

DHEN, H. &c. (,jJ, S. V-T.) A milch cow. 

DHENKA, or DHENKI, H., Ben. (*CuJ, .^JuAJ, CffD 
A kind of pestle or pedal projecting from the end of a 
lever, one end of which being pressed down by a weight, 
or by the foot, the other falls of its own weight when 
the pressure is withdrawn. It is used to clean rice or 
tobacco, to pound brick-dust, &c. 

DHENKA YA, Ben. (iSPWl) A debtor, a creditor. 

DHENKLI, H. (^^kCwao, I?4c4'l) A machine for raising 
water, a horizontal lever resting on an upright, having a 
weight at one end and a string pulled by a man with a 
bucket or water-jar attached to it. at the other. The word 
is provincially corrupted into DHEKLI, DHUKLI, DHIKLI, 


DHELI, Mar. (^) Having the impression worn ; a coin. 

PHENRI, H. (^jJJ&A) A seed vessel, a capsule. 

DHEPA, Hindi (^n) DHEP, or DHENP, Mar. (ijil,"Thl) A 
clod of earth, any large lump. Arable land. A piece of 
ground assessed in the lump, or according to the quantity of 
grain it is estimated to yield, without reference to its area. 
Dhenppdhani, Mar. (iHMI^ul) Inspection or survey of 
arable land. 

DHEPALI, Mar. (gm^s")) A hole in the ground into which 
the boiled juice of the sugar-cane is poured to harden and 
form into lumps. 

DHER, or DHED, corruptly, DHAIH, DHEYR, Mar. (v?) 
PHERH, H. (&s) DHEDA, DHED, or DHEH, Guz. 

* ( 6$, 43.) A man of a low caste, employed as a watch- 
man and messenger in the village establishments. In the 
Dahkin especially, commonly but incorrectly identified 
with the Mahar, and properly a worker in leather and 
hides. In some places he performs the duty of scaven- 
ger. In the Sagar territory the Dhers eat dead animals, 
clean the skins, and sell them to the Chamdrs. In Ka- 
nara, they are labourers on the soil, and in a very large 
proportion are slaves, the property of individuals, saleable 
with or without the land on which they work: they are 
very numerous, and are distinguished into twelve sub- 
divisions, who do not intermarry. They are rare in the 
north-west provinces. 

Dhermdro, Guz. ( 6$Hl$l) A place set apart for the 
huts of the Dhers. 

DHEH, or DHERI, H. ( .JJ&i), ^jOtiS) A heap, a parcel. In 
. the upper provinces, a piece or share of landed property 
in a joint-tenancy village, a subdivision of a Patti, or a. 
Taraf. In the Upper Doab, jjheri is applied to a sharer, 
especially in landed property, one who has a lot or heap. 
Dheriddr, H. The holder of aDheri, or subdivision of 
joint-tenancy lands. 

DHERA, Ben. (ciai) A mark made by a person who can- 
not write. 

DHERI, Thug. A sarai, a village. 

DHI, or DHIH, Hindi (vt, Vh?) The site of a village, 

whether occupied or deserted (Puraniya). 
Dh'iauri, Hindi (v)W) Ground-rent for the land on 
which the houses stand of those who do not cultivate 
village lands. 

Dkisda, Hindi (vft^rra) Lands on the site of a deserted 
village ; much valued. 


DHI, DHEE, H. (,<>i>) The high bank of a river (Sagar). 
Dhihd, Dheehd, H. (l^JA3) Rising ground, mounds. Also 

DHIKADI, Guz. (ilftsl) A contrivance for drawing water 
from the bed of a river. 

DHILKA, Thug. A paisa. 

DHIMA, Thug. The belly. Dahkini Thug. Goats or 

DHIMAR, H. (.AJ&&, S. Dhivara, vfa^t) A fisherman by 
caste and occupation. They are, properly speaking, a 
branch of the Kahar or Bearer caste, but are sometimes 
considered offshoots of the Mallas or Boatmen. 

DHIMATU, Tel. (O*^ 5 ^) A notice, a memorandum, a 
document given before a lease is finally granted, a private 
agreement (Probably a vernacular form and local use of 
Dimmat, q. v.) 

Dnixai, or DHINKA, H. (l&W, IGJ) A small kind of 
rake or pitchfork with curved prongs. 

DHINOAR, (?) Ben. An agricultural slave (Puraniya). 

DHI'NKHAH, H. (^LJufii}) A bundle of thorns tied together 
and drawn by bullocks, either as a harrow, or to beat 
out ears of corn. 

PHIRHOR, H. (jjZjSiS) A tribe of inferior Ahirs in Benares 
and Gorakhpur. 

DHI'RNA, Thug. The belly. 

DHO!T, Ben. dC*rNli) Alluvial soil : what has been washed 
down by the rains. 

DHOBI, H. (^jjAii) A washerman in general. The washer- 
man of a village. As forming a caste, various sub- 
divisions are recognised, which do not eat, drink, or marry 
together. There are seven such in the north-west pro- 
vinces, but they differ, or are at least differently named 
in different provinces. 

Dhobi-hardi, (perhaps for liar, every, din, a day) Mar. (?) 
A right of having a garment washed daily by the village 
washerman claimed by thePdtil. 

DHOI, H. (t^ybii, from UytO, to wash) lit. Washings, ap- 
plied in the opium department to refuse opium. Soaked 
pulse, a mash. In Cuttack, (GU|^) Inundation. 

DHOKA, H. (<tybj) A grain measure, equal to five dabidx 
of the kharif crop. Ten dhokas make a bojh, or load. 

DHOKA, or DH(JKA, DHOOKA, H. (^jftj) Small stones, of 
irregular shape and inferior quality, allowed to be ex- 
tracted from the Chunar quarries by poor people for sale 
Ben. Reg. xxii. 1795, cl. 82. 



DHOKAR, Thug. A dog. A man who seizes Thugs. 

DHOKHA, H. (l^aJ) A scarecrow. 

DHOLAI, or DHOLAN, Ben. Uriya (flfW^, fl1Tfa, but 
vernacular corruption of H. USjJ, S. ^tt&f , swinging) 
Transport of goods, transit ; or the charge for conveyance 
from one place to another. 

DHOLIA, Thug. An old woman. 

DHONCHA, H. (Wy&j) Four-and-a-half: a term used in 
tables of the multiplication of fractions used by the native 
surveyors in reducing their linear measurements to bighas. 
The several terms are thus specified by Mr. Elliot: 
Deorhd, <^y\)=-l^;Dhama, (VHT)=2|; Honta, ($z\) 
=3^; Dhonchd,=4% ; Poncltd, (xffar)=5^; Khonchd, 
(*ft*n)=6^; Satonchu, (*nft*n)=7. The size of the 
fields seldom requires the specification to proceed further. 

DHONJJAL, Mar. (vTildb, from vfrr, a stone) Stony, abound- 
ing with stones : applied to one kind of black soil, that 
which has stones in it, and which is therefore more re- 
tentive of water, and is the most esteemed for crops de- 
pending on the rains for irrigation. 

DHONDA, DHONDI, H. (IjJy&J, ^jjytj) A grass that 
grows in rice fields, and sometimes chokes the crop. 

DHONDH, H. (ajjy&J) A capsule, a seed vessel, especially 
of the poppy, cotton, or gram. 

DHONKI, Thug. A policeman or guard. 

DHOPA, Ben. (Wt*f1 ) A washerman. 

DHOR, Mar. Guz. (TfC) The general name of horned cattle, 
or bulls, cows, and buffaloes. A man of a low caste, a 
worker in leather. (Another form, perhaps, of Dher). 
Dhorrvero, Guz. (il3.H3.l) A tax on cattle. 

DHORA, H. (*,y&j) An insect very destructive to the Cicer 
arietinum. A mound of earth raised by the side of a 

DHOTAH, Hindi (vteO Cultivation carried on by plough- 
men from a distant village, finding their own ploughs and 
bullocks, and erecting a temporary residence (Puraniya). 

DHRUVA, S. (ip:) The north pole : thence, fixed, stationary, 

(in general). 

Dhruva-kavulu, Tel. (^&^<Sst^)&O) A permanent lease. 
Dhruva-pairu, Tel. (lfflj;5~S-)8j) Garden produce, per- 
manent crop. A tax levied on garden trees after a due 
period of their plantation. 

DHUANSA, Thug. Dry tobacco. 

DHUA, or DHUHA, DHOOA, DHOOHA, H. Oyj>t>, laytJ) A 
mound of earth raised as a boundary, most usually about 

four feet high, and placed round the limits of each town- 

ship at the distance of about 200 yards from each other. 
DHUH, DHOOH, H. ( !!jJ) Elevated ground in the midst of 

ravines (Central Doab). 

DHUHA, DHOOHA, H. (Ifcjfcj) A scarecrow. See also Dhua. 
DHUKLI, DHOOKLEE, H. (jjiao) A machine for raising 

water. See Dhenkli. 
DHUL, Ben. (*H) A measure of land, a hdtd, or the 20th 

of a bighd. 
DH^LIDHOYA, H. ( ljys> ^.J)* j) A washer of refuse or dust. 

(From the S. V&\, dust). 
Dkuligutta, Tel. ($30&,) A rent levied on a field 

before any seed is sown, a dust rent 
Dhulbdph, Mar. (vdb^lti) Sowing grain in the dust, i. e^ 

before the rains have begun, or immediately afterwards, 

before the ground is moist. 
DHONDI, DHOONDEE, H. (^^xiytj) The pod of gram, 

Cicer arietinum (Benares). 

DHUNIA, H. (Uiftii) A cotton comber or carder. 
DIIUNKA, or DHUNRA, H. (&ytJ, J^y&-\ from ^ytJ, smoke) 

The chimney of a sugar-cane mill. 
DHPA, S. &c. (^n) Incense, the vapours of any fragrant 

gum or resin burnt slowly. 
DHtJR, DHOOR, H. (^y&j) A measure of land, the twentieth 

of a I'ifiri'i. 

Dhurki, ( t^jp'S) The twentieth part of a dhur. 
DHURA, DHOORA, H. (xybj) or DHURA, Mar. (?) A 

boundary, the border or limits of a village. 
Dhuriyd, (?) H. A ploughman who works two days on 

the field of one who hires him, and one on his own 

DHtJRKAT, H. (C^ji}kj) An advance of rent paid by the 

cultivators to the Zamindars in the months of Jyeshth 

and Asharh (Benares). 
DHURPHOHYA, Mar. (tRMilMl) A quarryman, a stone- 

breaker by caste and occupation. 
DHUS, DHOOS, H. ( ( _ r 3>^) A kind of soil of mixed quality. 

Sloping ground. Sterile sandy eminences. 
DHWAHI, Mar. (anrfr) The brother's daughter of a man, 

the husband's brother's daughter of a woman. 
DHYAN, H. (S. Wr) Religious meditation ; meditating on 

a divinity so as to perceive him with his attributes 

Di, or Dmi, Ben. (f^5, f*<H) A district composed of a few 




Dibandi, or Dihibandi, Ben. (fv53r^i, T\S^I<1 ^T) Settle- 
ment of the revenue of a small district. 

DIARA, or DIWARA, corruptly, DIR!, and DEWHY, H. 
(\) " ' L>|ji*^) Alluvium, an island formed in the bed of 
a river, land gained by recession of a river. 

DIBBA, or DIBBA-BHUMI, Tel. (&j, aa&r ^ from 

eo cj 

S. fT, land) High land, a height. 

DIBBI, Ben. (fffflf, from S. ftfaf) An oath, an ordeal. 

DIBI, Hindi (fir^) The germ in seeds. 

PIBIYA, Hindi (ffftfJM ) A small portion of grain given 
at harvest to some of the inferior village servants. 

DICHHIT, DEECHHIT, a vernacular corruption for DIKSHITA, 
H. (c^v*=5?A S. ^Ifafir, initiated) A name most appro- 
priately given to Brahmans, and the title of one of the 
sixteen branches of the Kanojia Brahmans : it is also 
borne by some families of Maratha Brahmans ; and in 
Ghazipur and adjacent provinces by a tribe of Rajputs. 
See also Dik/iit. 

DIDAH WA DANISTAH, H. (P. the past part. SJjJ, having 
seen, and <UMOI.>, having known) Wilfully, purposely : ap- 
plied to committing any offence deliberately and intentionally. 

DIDAR, H. (P.j'jaJ, l^tO An overseer, an inspector, 
an officer formerly employed in that capacity in the Com- 
pany's factories. An overseer, a person stationed by the 
owner of a village over the ripe crops, to see that the 
whole is brought to the threshing-floor: he remains in 
charge till the Ryots have paid their rents, or the owner 
is satisfied by the sale of the grain. In this latter sense 
it is more correctly, perhaps, Dihddr, q. v. 
Diddr-kharc/t, H. (A. -^f-, expense) The charge of 
maintaining an overseer. 

DlDHISHU, DlDHISHU, or DlDHISHU, S. &C. (f^ftTO, -V., 

or VriViMt) (when a masc. noun) The husband of a woman 


married a second time ; (when fern.) A virgin widow re- 
married : an elder sister unmarried, whose junior is a 
bride : the childless widow of a brother whom, under 
the old law, a surviving brother was required to marry. 
Dip, or DIDH, Mar. (<^f, 3ffcf, also, with the vowel short, 
f^T, &c., vernacular forms of H. Derh, %%, JS^i) One- 

Didhihutlhi, Mar. (f^lcfcldl) Advance of grain by the 
grain-dealers to the cultivators, on condition of receiving 
back half as much more at the harvest. 

Didhotard, incorrectly, Deedotrd, Mar. (fi^Vro) Interest 
at one-and-a-half per cent, per mensem. 

Dirki, Mar. ( f^3<*TO A piece of money, a dugani and a 

DIG, or DIK, also Dis, or DISA, incorrectly, DEESHA, H. 

&c. (tL/i3, S. fi^J, nom. fij^i, or f^) A quarter or 

division of the horizon, of which ten are enumerated ; 

the cardinal and intermediate points, the zenith and 

DlGAMBARA, S. (f<^iyt.M lit. sky-clad) A mendicant going 

about naked. A division of the Jains, the members of 

which either go naked or wear coloured clothes, in op- 

position to the Swetambaras, or those who wear white. 
DIGAH-HAKM, Hindi (P. j>3, another, A >i,, sort) Any 

kind of crop: a term used in leases (Puraniya). 
DIGH, Hidi (^hl, S. ^ff, long) A pace, two cubits 

DIGHI, corruptly, DIGGY, H. &c. ( .*&-, from the S. dirgha, 

<fKf, long) DIGHI, Dioi, Ben. (WW, IfHft) A long or 

large tank or pond. 
DlGRI, or DIKRI, Ben. Uriya (a corruption of the English 

word decree) Decision, judgment, sentence, especially 

that in favour of one of the parties. 
DIGUMATI, Tel. (QXb^oS) Importation, landing goods 

from on board ship. 
DIGWAR, corruptly, DEGWAR, and DEEGWAR, H. &c. 

(jijSJ, from tL/J, a quarter) A watchman, a guard, espe- 

cially one employed by the Zamindars in the Jangal 

Mahals: lit. a protector of the regions. 
DIH, DEH, not unfrequently pronounced, and sometimes written 

with the hard d, DIH, P. (Si>, Xj) A village, com- 

prehending not only the actual village, but the lands be- 

longing to it. Mr. Elliot observes, that, in the Lower 

Doab and Benares, Dih or JDeeh is applied to a deserted 

village, and the Persian Deh is used for an inhabited 

one ; but Richardson and Shakespear both write the word 

Dih for a village in general. 
Dih, DeeJi, H. Land of the best quality (Bahar). 
Dihdt, Dehdt, corruptly, Deyhat, H. (ciAfct), being an 

Arabic plural to a Persian noun) Villages collectively, 

as opposed to towns: any cluster of villages, especially 

when belonging to the same proprietors. 
Dihdti, Dehdti, H. (^yl^iJ) Belonging or relating to 

villages or a village. 
Dihdti-jamd, H. (A. *>>?-) Village assessment, revenue 

assessed upon any number of villages forming a local 


2 o 



Dihdti-utarnrdr, H. (from A. jjjxtJLJ, continuance, per- 
petuity) Villages held at a fixed or permanent rent. 

Dih-bandi, or Deh-landi, H. (i_JJj X j) A detailed state- 
ment of the villages in any particular district or estate, 
and of the revenue assessed on each ; such statements 
were to have been prepared by the Kanungos at the time 
of the decennial settlement, and deposited in the collectors' 
offices: also, the rate at which a Ryot holds his lands. 

Dih-da, H. &c. (Dili, a village, and ^, the letter d) An 
abbreviation used by native surveyors, implying that cer- 
tain lands, passed over for the time when taking 1 note of 
the measurement, lie to the south, or dakshina, of lands 
actually measured. Similar abbreviations are used for 
the other cardinal bearings ; as, Dih-u, for uttara, north ; 
Dih-pa, for paschima, west ; and Dih-pu,for piirva, east ; 
the first syllable of each being substituted for the whole 
word. In Bengal the terms are Denda, Denpa, &c., q. v. 

Dih-ddr, H. (Dili, a village, and j'i), who has, or the 
word is written Diddr, from P. yj<XO, to see, q. v.) A 
revenue officer, the village overseer or superintendant on 
the part of the landholder or the state, whose duty it is 
to exercise a superintendence over the village cultivation, 
so that the Zamindar or government may not suffer de- 
triment by negligence or fraud ; he is also to see that the 
lands are properly distributed, the village boundaries pre- 
served, and to assist in effecting the collections. It is 
said to mean, also, a person having a prescriptive right 
of occupancy, who cultivates at a fixed rate (?) (Bahar). 

Dih-ddri, H. The office of the village keeper or super- 
intendant. The pay or fees of the Dih-ddr. A special 
assessment (in Bhagalpur) formerly, to provide for the 
pay of this officer, who was more usually paid by fees 
from the Ryots. 

Dihddr-kharch, H. Expense of the employment of a village 

Dihi, H. (^bt>) Village, belonging or relating to a village, 
a villager, village cultivator, &c. 

Dihi, Ben. (fvffft) A district containing a few villages, 
subdivision or minor portion of an estate. (Dr. Carey 
derives this from Dis or D ik, a quarter ; but (?) if Dih, 
a village, is not allowable in Bengali, although not in his 
Dictionary, nor in that of Ram-kamal Sen, under the 
word village). 

Dihi-bandi, Ben. (fvS^^a^t) Regulation or assessment 
of the revenue of a small district. See Dih-bandi. 

Dih-jamfi, H. The revenue assessment of a village. 
Dih-jkdda, Mar. (?) A general list of villages. 
Dih-hdsht, H. A resident villager. Dih-hdsht-zamin, 

H. Land cultivated by a resident. 

Dih-hharch, corruptly, Deli Curch, H. Village expenses. 
An assessment on a village for its quota of the charges 
of settlement and collection. 

Dih-wdl, less correctly, Deehrval and Dehroal, H. A pro- 

prietary cultivator, whether paying his revenue direct to the 

government, or through a landholder of greater consequence. 

DiiiA, DEEHA, II. (^J) A small mound. 

Diha, or Dihi, Uriya ( GJJ^l ) Land raised for the site of 

a dwelling, ground on which a house is situated. 
DIHULA, H. (<xly&i}) A kind of rice grown in the Benares 


DIKIIIT, or DIKHIT, H. (c^^J, e^JiJ) A tribe of 

Rajputs settled in some numbers from Oudh to Bun- 

delkhand. The name is probably the same with Dichhit 

and Dikshit. See the former. 

DiKiii.or Diani, H. B. (i_j/^, fetSt, Eng., Decree) Award 

of a judge in favour of one of the litigants. 
Dikriddr, H. (P. ,li>, who has) The person in whose 

favour sentence has been given. 

DIKSHA, S., and in most dialects, (?ftajT) Religious in- 

struction, the performance of certain ceremonies before 

receiving the mantra, or secret prayer, from a spiritual 

preceptor: sacrificial worship in general. 

DIL, H. ( Jj) A small eminence, the site of an old village. 

DIMMAT, Mar. (f<*MH, from the A. i<i>) Trust, charge, 

management, custody. Temporary order or agreement 

for a person's taking possession of property transferred 

before the official documents are finally granted. See 


Dimmat-ddr, Mar. (from P. j't>, who has) One who has 

charge or keeping of any thing or person. 
DIMHAUT, H. (cbj^Ajj) One of the twelve tribes of the 

DINA, S., and in most dialects, sometimes vernacularly 

shortened to DIN, (fijsfO A day. 
Dina-kuli, Karn. (S.-^DJ^Q) Daily wages or hire. 
Dina-thik, Uriya (S>O9) Total of daily measurement 

of land, or collection of revenue. 

Dindti, Hindi (f^Tfift) Time of a plough's working, 
usually from 10 A.M. to an hour before sunset : also, daily 
work of labourers (Puraniya). 



DIN, H. (A. j.y.ti) Religion, faith, especially the Moham- 

madan religion. 

DIN, H. (jjJJ, S. ^nfbr, a dependant) Poor, dependent. 
Din-dayd], H. (from S. <J<4I<4, compassionate) Benefactor 
of the poor, a term of respectful address from an inferior 
to a superior. 

DINAR, A. (^IJu J) A coin, a silver coin weighing seven, or, 

according to some, ten drachms : also, a gold coin, espe- 

cially in the compound Dindr-i-surkh, or red dinar. In 

the south of India (&?oJc)O) Any current gold coin. 

DIXDAR, Hindi ( iTiO An earthen vessel for drawing water 

from a well. 
PINGA, Ben. (f3''t1) A ship, a sloop, a vessel employed in 

the coasting trade. 

Diny't, Ben. (f^'ift) A boat, a wherry, a passage boat. 
Df PA, S. and in all the dialects, also sometimes modified, as 
H. DIA, Mar. DI'WA, Karn. DIVIGE, but the M. has also 
Dipa and in Tarn, and Tel. the word is pure S., or 
Dipam, (<^i) A lamp, a lamp burning before an idol. 
Dipdli, or Dipdvali, S. (<^J, a lamp, and ^if^S, or 
^TT^cS^, a row or line) A festival observed by the Hin- 
dus in honour of Kartikeya, on the new moon of the 
month Kartik, Sept Oct, when lamps are lighted in 
honour of him. It is popularly known by the name 
Dirvdli, but under that appellation is addressed to a dif- 
ferent object, and has undergone popular modifications. 
See Dirvdli. 

Dipamdld, S. (from H\$\, a garland) A row of lights. 
A festival of the Sikhs, observed on the 14th of the 
dark half of Kartik. Also vernacularly, Dipmdl, Mar., 
(<1VHIdb) A pillar in front of a temple on which lamps are 

Dipdrddkana, Tel. (Po^TF^r^, from S. ^TO>nT, wor- 
shipping) Offering a lamp to an idol, worshipping an 
idol by waving a lighted lamp before it : also, in Mysore, 
setting fire to a cloth steeped in butter or oil, and sus- 
pended to the gate of a temple on the 15th night of the 
month Kartik. 
Dipavdrane, Mar. (from <4K4J) , to revolve) Waving a 

lamp before an idol, an act of worship. 
Dipddn, H. (jjljjoj, from S. ^fa, a lamp, and ^R, giving) 
Offering of a lamp to an idol. A particular popular cere- 
mony, suspending a lamp to a tree for ten days after the 
death of a relation, in order to light the spirit on its 
way to Yamapuri, the city of Yama, the judge of the 

dead. Presenting a lamp to the Ganges, setting it afloat 
on the river lighted, and watching for its extinction, as 
ominous of good or ill luck. Also (derived from Dip, 
abbreviation of Dwip, S. ?ffa, an island,) Land assigned 
to Brahmans on the bank of a river, to deprecate its 
DIRA, Hindi (<^l,i) Fresh lands thrown up by the shifting 

of the courses of rivers. 

DIHM, or DIRHAM, H. (A. j J, *ay J) A silver coin, usually 
weighing from 45 to 50 grains, rather heavier than an 
English sixpence. As a weight, a dirham is considered 
to be equal to 3^ mas/tax, or 463" grains. The dirm is 
also sometimes distinguished from the dirham, the latter 
being equal to ten of the former. 

DITTHWAN, H. ( jj^Ji), a vernacular corruption of S. De- 
votthdna, q. v.) A Hindu festival on the eleventh lunation 
of the light half of Kartik, on which Vishnu is awakened 
with music and singing from his four months' slumber, 
constituting the rainy season : marriages and festive re- 
joicings, which have been but few during the interval, 
are now resumed : and on this occasion the cutting of the 
sugar-cane is commenced by the cultivators bringing home 
a small quantity from a corner of the field, and spread- 
ing it out for the reception of the Salagram-stone, or 
Ammonite type of Vishnu : after this only, when the for- 
tunate houris announced, the sugar-cane harvest commences. 
DITTAMU, Tel. (>k)oXX>) Arrangement, settlement, esti- 
mated aggregate of the revenue of a village from inves- 
tigation of each several holding. 

DIVAKIRTTI, Mar. (ftf^T, by day, and ^slfS, repute) A 
barber, any one of a low caste. (A barber is not to be 
employed nor spoken of at night). 

DIVAS! DAHWAHi, Mar. ( r<ql, S., by day, and 4 4.441, at- 
tack by robbers) Bare-faced extortion by the government, 
or officers in authority. 
DIVITI-INAM, Tel. (>^k3a<^5~ T> x>) Land granted as the 

portion of the village torch-bearer. 

DIVYA, S. and in most dialects ; vernacularly changed in 
some to Dibya, (f^'aj, divine) An oath, or, more cor- 
rectly, an ordeal, various kinds of which were admitted 
by the Hindu law. 1. The Tula, or balance, in which 
the accused is first weighed against a weight properly 
adjusted, and then, after certain ceremonies, is again 
weighed : if he be lighter .than before, he is innocent ; if 
the same, or heavier, guiky. 2. Agni, or fire, in which the 



accused touches fire or heated metal : if his hands are burnt 
he is guilty. 3. Jala, water: the accused is to be entirely 
immersed while a person runs to a place to which an arrow 
has been shot and returns with it: if he then lives he is 
pronounced innocent. 4. Visha : the accused is acquitted 
on his swallowing poison with impunity. 5. Kosha: 
drinking holywater, that in which images have been bathed, 
and meeting with no misfortune for fourteen days after- 
wards. 6. Tandula: chewinggrains of rice and ejecting them : 
if they are dry, or tinged with blood, the suspected person 
is pronounced guilty. 7. Tapta-mdsha: taking a mdsha 
weight of gold out of a vessel filled with hot butter or oil, 
without burning the fingers, is proof of innocence. 
8. Plidla, the ploughshare: holding with impunity a heated 
ploughshare, or similar blade of steel. 9. Dharmddharma: I 
images or drawings of Dharma and Adharma, virtue 
and vice, are covered carefully with cow-dung or earth, 
and placed privately in a vessel : the accused draws one 
of them, and is declared innocent or guilty accordingly : 
this is also termed Dharmurchd, worship of Dharma. 
10. Tulasi, holding the leaves of the Tulasi plant, which 
is sacred to Vishnu, and some water, and, after repeating 
the form of the oath, swallowing them. Some of these 
forms of ordeal are still in use among native states, and 
that of chewing rice is occasionally employed for the de- 
tection of petty thefts by the police-officers of the British 
government. There are other forms also in popular 
use, some of which are rather modes of adjuration than or- 
deals, although the notions are blended ; as, 1. Kuchcha 
ghata or ghard, H. Mar. (from kachcha, raw, unbaked, and 
ghat.a, or gliarA, a water vessel) filling an unbaked 
earthen vessel with water, and carrying it on the head for 
a certain distance without breaking it. Bel-bhanddra, 
(q. v.) Swearing by the leaves of the Bel. Gangdjala, 
(S. Jala, water) Swearing while holding a cup with the 
water of the Ganges, or some sacred stream. Devoid, 
or Devdlaya, swearing in a temple before an image. 
Gait, holding the tail of a cow ; or Brdhmani, touch- 
ing the feet of a Brahman, while pronouncing an oath. 
Simd, or Simbd, a boundary : in a case of contested 
boundaries, a person is selected by both parties, who, 
after performing religious ceremonies, walks over and 
points out the proper boundary : if no misfortune befal 
him or his family within a given term, his decision is con- 
sidered final : or sometimes he walks the boundary with an 

oil-cake on his head, the falling or breaking of which vitiates 
his demarcation. These different modes of determining 
innocence or guilt, or of giving evidence, are accompanied 
with various forms and observances, according to the 
supposed sanctity, and the importance of the judgment. 

DIWALA, H. (Sly.O) DIWALEN, or DfwALtiN, Mar. (f^j, 
f^Tc|) DlwALi ,Karn. (Q<O o>^O Bankruptcy, insolvency. 
Dirvaliya, very corruptly, Devaleeo, H. (Ull^jj) A bank- 
rupt (This and the preceding are variously derived from 
dipa or dirvd, a lamp, because, it is said, it was formerly 
the practice to announce the event by placing a piece of 
burning cow-dung at the bankrupt's door, or because it 
was customary to announce insolvency at the Dirvdli 

DiwALi, corruptly, DEEPOULEE, H. &c. (^Jlyj) DEULI, 
Ben. (ZTf&ft) Karn. DIWALIGEICHHA, (6$5''7?<XOa?' 


from the S. Dipdli, or Dipdvali, q. v.) A popular fes- 
tival of the Hindus, the feast of lights, held on the two last 
days of the dark half of Aswm and the new moon and four 
following days of Kfirtik (Sept. Oct.). Appropriate cere- 
monies are allotted to each day, but on the last the night 
is to be spent in merry-making and festivity, and illumina- 
tions are to be made in honour of deceased ancestors. The 
goddess Lakshmi, or fortune, is also to be worshipped, 
and in her honour games of chance are to be played 
during the last night of the festival. Amongst the Ma- 
rajhas it is the commencement of the commercial year, 
over which Lakshmi especially presides, and accounts are 
opened by merchants and bankers with individuals for 
the smallest sums a few rupees as ominous of success. 
Bankruptcies are also declared at this season. In Bengal 
the lower orders of the Mohammadans, in imitation of the 
Hindus, also offer lamps at this time to the spirits of 
the dead. 

DIWAN, incorrectly, DEWAN, DEEWAN, DIVAN, H. &c. (P. 
^l^kl): in the dialects the i is short, as DIBAN, Ben. (fFfTfa) 
DIWAN, Mar (f^Ttr) A royal court, a council of state, a tri- 
bunal of re venue or justice. A minister.a chief officer of state. 
Under the Mohammadan government it was especially ap- 
plied to the head financial minister, whether of the state 
or of a province, being charged, in the latter, with the 
collection of the revenue, the remittance of it to the 
imperial treasury, and invested with extensive judicial 
powers in all civil and financial causes. Under the 
Maratha government the Dirvdn was the chief minister 


after the Pradhdn. The title also denoted the head officer 
of any revenue or financial department, as the Diwdn of 
the mint, of the jewel office, and the like ; in which sense 
it is retained under the British goverment, as the Dirvdn 
of the mint, of the bank, of the salt-agency, and, formerly, 
of a collectorate, and is even applied to the managers of 
Zamindans for native proprietors, and to native servants 
intrusted with the management of the financial interests of 
a house of business, or of any responsible individual. The 
title of Din-art, or office of Dirvdni, equivalent to the 
right of collecting the whole revenues of Bengal, Bahar, 
and Orissa, was conferred upon the East-India Company 
by the nominal emperor of Hindustan, Shah Aalam, in 
1765. The word also signifies a record or account book ; 
and, in Mohammadan law, the bags in which the Kazi's 
records are kept. 

Dirvdni, incorrectly, Dervani, and, corruptly, Dervanny, H. 
(A. jj^j) adj., Of or relating to a Diwan, civil, as 
opposed to criminal. subst., The office, jurisdiction, 
emoluments, &c., of a Diwan. The right to receive the 
collections of Bengal, Bahar, and Orissa, conferred on the 
East-India Company by the titular Moghul. It is used 
also in the early reports for the territory of which the 
revenue was receivable under the grant in Bengal. 

Dirvdn-dene or dhdrd, Mar. (from ^ifr, to give, or VTTT, 
fixed rate) Any tax or assessment. 

Dirvdn-juz, H. (j>-, a little) A sub- or deputy-steward, or 
finance officer. 

Dirodn-khdna, H. (from H. iils-, a house) The court or 
office of the Diredn : a court of civil or revenue juris- 
diction : a hall of audience. 

Din-dn-lthdyl, Mar. ( 4X141 0) The chief finance minister 
of the Peshwa. 

Dirvdn-kul, H. (A. J^, all) The head steward or finance 

Dirvdn-patti, Mar. (from V%\, a pecuniary collection) 
Government assessment. 

Diroani-Addlat, corruptly, Dervanny Adarvlut, H. (from 
C^iXc, a tribunal) The court of civil and revenue ju- 
risdiction. See Addlat. 

Dircdn-i-Adld, (from A. J^Lel, most eminent) Prime minister. 

Dirvdn-i-Adm, H. (from A. jvc, all or common persons) 
A public court, or general audience chamber. 

Ditvdn-i-khdx, H. (from A. ^^-, select) Private audience 
chamber. A cabinet council. 


Dindn-i-khdha, H. (A. from <Calli-, pure, most eminent) 

The accountant-general of the royal revenue. 
Diwdn-i-daftar, H. (j^sd, an office) The account or record 

office of the Diwan. 

Dimdni-sanad, H. (from A. JJL*>, a grant) A patent or 
grant under the authority of the Diwan. A grant of the 
office of Diwan. The deed of grant by which the Diwam 
was conferred upon the East-India Company. 
Dircdn-i-tan, H. (from P. ^, the body) The chief financial 
minister in attendance on the emperor. The officer charged 
with the provision of the emperor's personal expenses. 
(He is called, in some of the early reports, Dirvdn Beutal, 
which is clearly erroneous, although it may have some 
relation to Byay or Vyay expenditure). 
Dirvdnu, Karn. (Q<O c).-\-O) The head native officer of a 


DIWAR, DEEWAR, H. (j'^.t>) The tutelary divinity of a 
village for whom a portion of grain is set apart at each 
harvest ; commonly represented by a shapeless stone, 
although bearing various personal appellations, as, Ka- 
teswari, Hanreat, Bhum-sen, Hari-Rdm, &c. 
DIVELAVAXI, Mar. (f<*<j($N<!)1) Peopling a deserted place: 

(lit., causing lamps to be brought). 

Diveldvani chd kaul, Mar. (A. Jyi) A paper granted to set- 
tlers in deserted places, exempting them from taxes for a 

DIYAT, incorrectly, DEYIT, or DEYUT, H. (A. &O) The 
price of blood, a tax imposed for any act of offence against 
the person : in cases of homicide, payable to the relatives 
of the deceased. 

Diyat-mughalaza, H. (from A. (Itiilc-o, severe) The heaviest 
fine or penalty for manslaughter that can be imposed 
(Mohammadan law). 

Do, or, as sometimes modified vernacularly, especially in com- 
position, Du, Doo, H. (jii, from the S. ftf, or nom. 
Dual, ift, or from the Per. ji>, Du) Two. 
Do-db, or Du-ab, H. >- r >|'} , from y$, two, and db, water, 
by metonymy, a river) A tract of land lying between two 
rivers, which, after running for some distance, unite ; as 
the country between the Ganges and Jamuna, known 
especially as the Doab : also the districts between the 
rivers of the Panjab, as the Jalandhara-Doab, between 
the Satlaj and the Beah, &c. 

Do-ansa, Hindi (^t^t) A sort of soil, a light clay 
mixed with sand. 


Dobdra, orDubdrd, H. (ji>, and ^b or \j\>, a time) Twice, 
two times ; also, twice as much, double. 

Do-ltul, or Du-kul, Ben. (&$**, from S. ^F, a baiik, 
or a family) Both banks of a river. Belonging 1 to both 
families of father and mother, or wife and husband. 

Do-farafa, H. (from < . tja, a side) Applied to a suit in 

which both parties have been heard. 
DOBA, Hindi (^W) A pond (Puraniya). 
DOBA, Ben. (tfSlTl, from ^7, to sink, properly, immersed) 
Low and swampy or inundated land. 

Dobd-jami, or -jamin, Ben. (from P. ( .^j, land) Swampy 
or marshy ground. 

Dobd-mar, Hindi ('SfaTHTC) Low lands which lose their 
moisture from sand being too near the surface. 

Dobdn, Hindi ('Sfa'R) Land situated around and in the 

beds of dry ponds (Puraniya). 

DOBE, DtiBE, H. (.*>)<}, from do, two, and be, corruption 
of Veda) A Brahman who has studied or who teaches 
two of the four Vedas. A caste of Brahmans so termed, 
generally ignorant and low persons, and by profession 
boxers and wrestlers. 

Dobisrvi, sometimes abridged vernacularly to Dubsi, or 
Doobscc, H. ( ,_f jj^i3) An allowance or deduction of 
two bisicas out of a lit/lid, or one-tenth. The right of 
the Zamindar in land, as the Malikana is in money. A 
concession sometimes made by holders of rent-free lands 
to the Zamindar, in acknowledgment of his superior or 
proprietary right ; especially, according to Mr. Elliot, 
when they are not confident of the validity of their te- 
nure. A per-centage, 10 per cent., allowed to farmers of 
the government revenue. 

Docha, H. (<te-j->) The second reservoir to which water 
is thrown up from a pond or river for irrigation. 

DofaM, H. (iLas.O, ^rHW<j5T) Two crops raised on the 
same land in one year : the land so cultivated. 

Dofadi, H. (j^jLci).), from ^i), two, and (J-ai, harvest) 

Yielding two crops in a year (land). 

DODDADORE, Karn. (&5>g&5>6, from &S&, g rea t, old, 
and CV3O, a master) A head-man, the chief authority in 
any place, the head of a mercantile firm or bank, &c. 

Doddappa, Doddatande, Karn. (&E>g d/S&6o^, 

' 'a Q ' OcO' Q 

from C^g , great, old) A father's elder brother, the hus- 
band of a mother's elder sister. 

DODDI, Karn. (Q^>&) A pound for confining cattle. 

DOQAR, H. (^SjJJ The name of a predatory and pastoral 


tribe in the north-west of Hindustan. During the last 
century they occupied a considerable tract on the banks of 
the Satlaj, and made themselves formidable to the Mo- 
hammadan government of Dehli. They are Mohammadans 
by religion, but claim to be descended from the Chauhan 
Rajputs, a claim not admitted by the other converted 
Chauhans, who consider, apparently with reason, the Do- 
gars to have been originally Jats and Gujars. Members 
of the race have latterly risen into consideration as former 
feudatories of Ranjit Sinh, now acknowledged by the 
British as Rajas of Jamu and Kashmir. 

DoGGA, Thug. A pipe for smoking. An old man. 

DOH, Mar. (<Tt?) A deep part in a river or tank. 

DOHAI, or DUHAI, II. (^IftjJ, from } 5, two, or repeatedly, 
and ^U&, alas) DAWAIII, Guz. (^Hlcfl) A word used 
as an exclamation in calling out for mercy or redress. 
Dolidt-tiltdi-Jtarna, To make exclamation twice and thrice, 
t. e. importunately. 

Don A Li, Don LI, or DOHRI, H. (^Ifcj-V <_f/ a j-> ^?^) 
Service land, or lands granted rent-free by Zamindars to 
village servants, to poor relatives, or religious mendicants. 
In some places it is confined to land given to Brail- 
mans. The terms are also applied to the perquisite of 
Fakirs at harvest time (Dehli). 

DOHAO, H. (jtajj, perhaps from dull, for, milk, and, 
more correctly, Dufido) The Zamindar" s perquisite of a 
certain quantity of milk from the Ryot's cows (North-west 

DOHAR, H. (fy^i fr m )^i two > andyti, what takes) The old 
bed of a river (East Oudh). Land that bears two crops 
in a year (Central Doab). 

DOHAR, Mar. (Tt^U) A caste, or individual of it; a tanner, 
or worker in leather 

POHODIU, Guz. (Slt^iSl^) A copper pice, a quarter 

DOHRA, H. (lyfcjJ) A sort of ladle for taking the juice of 
the sugar-cane out of the boiler. 

DOHUR, DOHOOR, H. (^0) A loose sandy sub-soil, which 
is apt to give way in sinking a well without masonry 
while the water from it is oily and brackish. 

DofpHORYA, Mar. (Tt^, the head, and TKtesn, who breaks) 
The name of a class of Hindu mendicants, who knock 
their heads against stones to enforce compliance with their 
demands ; hence, any importunate petitioner. 

DOJIRA, H. (l^As-jj) A kind of rice. 



DoKHi, H. (^a^j) A raised mound, indicating the junction 

of two boundaries. 
DOL, H. (J^) Applied locally to signify the richest black 

soil. (Baitul). 

DOL, Hindi &c. (^tcS, A. Jjj) A bucket, a leathern bucket 
used for drawing 1 up water from a well, or for throwing 
up water for irrigation. 

DOKARA, Mar. (<ftoKTT) A small copper coin, a half pice. 
Doharo, Guz (^.l%$l) A nominal coin, one hundred of 
which are equal to one rupee : the decimal fraction of a 

DOLA, or DOLI, H. &c. 0!_jJ, ^^, S. <ft<5T, the initial being 
vernacularly changed) A swing, a sort of sedan in which 
women are carried. A woman of inferior rank married 
to a man of superior rank : she takes a lower place than 
a wife of equal station, and is carried home privately, 
without any ceremonial or procession, 
Doldma, H. (Sj^jJ ) A well having two Laos, or well buckets 

and ropes. 

Dolcha, H. (<*J.->) A small bucket 

Dol-jdtrd, Ben. (ctrll-stl^i, from S. *rr=n,a festival) The 
swing festival, held on the full moon of Phalyun (March 
April), in honour of Krishna, when figures of him and 
Radha are swung in an ornamented swing. 
DOM, or DOMRA, fern. DOMNI, corruptly, DHOME, H.CyJ,]^^, 
fern, J-A-O.J) The name of a low caste, apparently one of 
the aboriginal races. In Hindustan they are usually by avo- 
cation makers of ropes, mats, fans, and baskets. In Oudh 
the Dom is a sweeper ; and in some places they perform 
the lowest offices, as carrying dead bodies and skeletons. 
The Dom is often a musician, and the female Domni is 
an actress and singer, who performs in the inner apart- 
ments before the women of the family. There is also 
a tribe of Mohammedans termed Dom, better known by 
the designation of Mir, or Mirasi. 

DOMAT, or DUMAT, DoMUT, DooMUT, H. (c^-->, fronijJ, 
two and ,<-^, earth, from S. *nf, <fta^, 3*17) A kind 
of soil chieHy composed of clay andsand, severally Matidrand 
lihur. In some places it appears to contain a proportion 
of about j-th of lime. In some districts, as Farakhabad 
and Bareli, it is considered the first quality of soil: in 
others, as in Badaon, the second. 

Tel. (&soeo > cU>oeo8 5 d/Qosrstf, 

DOMBARI, Mar. (^fetcl) A tumbler, a rope- 

dancer, a juggler. (Probably vernacular modifications of 

Dombar-lingada-vira kdniki, Kara. A tax levied on the 

cultivators in Mysore in lieu of smaller sums formerly 

distributed as presents to tumblers and mendicants. 
DOMTIKAR, H. (^lLcjj) A division of Sarwaria Brahmans. 
DON, H. ((jjj) A fractional division of an estate. 
D6NE, corruptly DONY, Tel. (O "3 ) A coasting vessel, 

a sloop, usually with one mast. 
DONGA, Tel. (SToX) A thief, a robber. 
DONGA, DONGI, Ben &c. (^1*tt, i^t'Ttt) A canoe, one 

made of two or three sheaths of the plaintain leaves 

fastened together. 

DONGAR, Mar. (fthr) A hill, high ground. 
Dongaren, Mar. ('sWf ) A sort of coarse rice grown on 

the hills. 
Donr/arhol'i, Mar. ( Tth^'lftSEft ) A lawless tribe inhabiting 

the hilly country. 

Donf/arrvat, Mar. (Tt'n.ei) Undulating, hilly. 
DONI, Hindi (<^ft) Treading out the grain from the straw 

by bullocks (Puraniya). 
DONKA, Tel. (Q O ST ) A path between two fields, a pas- 

sage for cattle. 
DONWAR, or DUNWAR, H. (J\^S) A tribe of Zamindars 

of mixed origin, partly Brahmans, partly Rajputs. They 

call themselves Thakurs, but are generally considered 

Bhuinhars, Brahman cultivators. They are numerous in 

the districts of Gorakhpur, Ghazipur, and Azimgarh, and 

were once sufficiently powerful to establish a Rajship on 
the Kosi, in Western Tirhut under Karnadeva. 
DOPATTAH, H. (^;J) DOPATA, Ben. (ffft'ftiJ'i, from S. 

TK, cloth) DUPATA, DUPATTA, or DuPATEN, Mar. 

(<rerjT, &c.) DUPATI, Tel. (&>>-3) A piece of cloth of 


two breadths, forming the principal or only garment of 
women of the lower orders. 

DOPHALI, Uriya (S. T/Sc$, fruit, produce) Land bearing two 

DOR, Hindi (jj-\ Tts) A tribe of Rajputs, some of whom, 
mostly converted to Mohammadanism, are settled in the 
district of Aligarh, also about Banda and Sagar. 

DOR, H. (yJ) Land twice ploughed. 

DOR, also DORA and DORI, H. &c. (jyb, j;jJ, i_?yi>) A 
string, a rope ; also thread. Dori is also applied to the 
chain or line used in land measurement ; and, among the 
Marathas, to a land measure : a Dori is equal to 80, or 


sometimes 120, bighd?. (In Maratha the initial is the 
dental d, as ^Wt. In Bengali, as in Hindi, the cerebral 

DORA, Tel. (O O) A master, a ruler, a prince, with the 

honorific affix guru, Doragdru. 
Dora-gam, Tel. (S'tf'Tr'fo) The equivalent of Mr. or 

Sir, applied to Europeans especially. A gentleman. 
DO-HAS, DO-RUS, H. ((jy^) A kind of mixed soil, con- 
sisting of the soils known as Matiar and Balua, clay 
and sand, variously estimated as of first or second quality. 
Land yielding two crops in a year. 

DO-RASTU, Tel. (^#&2, from the P. <tLy, grown) 
Land yielding a double crop. The double apportionment 
of the harvest The shares of the cultivator and of the 

DORAVU, Tel. (STS^) A large well. 
DORWA, (?) Tel. The native head revenue officer of a dis- 
trict, the Mukaddam. (The word is probably a modifi- 
cation of Dora (Warangal). 

PORIA, H. (&jjt>) Lace. (From ^j^, thread). 
Dorid, H. (Ifi^) Striped muslin. (From the same). 
Dorihdr, H. (^l^O) A pedlar selling laces and thread. 

A Saiva mendicant living partly by the sale of thread. 
Dor'avdld, H. (ill^jt)) A ropemaker. 
DORIDENI, Hindi (^tft^Bft) Measurement of a field after 

the crop has grown to estimate the probable produce. 

DOSAD, or DusiD, H. (jL^J) A low caste, employed as 

executioners, to remove dead bodies, and the like : em- 

ployed also in Bengal as village watchmen and messengers. 

DOSAI, or DOSAHI, H. (i^L^J, J&Uujj) Land yielding 

two crops a-year. 

Dosari, Dosuree, H. (,_fj*ujJ, it were more correctly Do- 
sir i, from Tffc, S. a plough) Ploughing land twice : 
the land so ploughed. 
Dosdl, H. (P. from ji>, two, and JL, a year) Applied to 

lands that have been two years under cultivation. 
DOSHA, vernacularly, DOSH, Ben., Uriya, Mar. &c. (S. ^fa) 

Dos, H. (|^jj) Fault, offence, crime. 
Doshi, Ben. &c (S. ^ftft) Dosi, H. (^jJ) An offender, 

a culprit, a criminal. 
DOSHAMBA, H. (P. < U*j.>) Monday. 
DOSILI, Tel. (O &>)) The hands joined together, so as to 
hold any thing : what may be so held, a handful. A 
small quantity of grain granted as a fee or perquisite to 
the village servants at the time of harvest. 


DoshVANIo, Guz. (Sl<Sr(l<=U l 3ll v ti) A dealer in cloth, a 
pedlar of the Banya tribe. 

DRAGOMAN, (corruption of Tarjamdn, from A. Tarjama, 
&*>yji, translation) An interpreter. 

DRAVIDA, S. ('ijlfas) or, the ^ being pronounced r, DR!- 
VI RA. The country in which the Tamil language is 
spoken : the Coromandel coast from Madras southward : 
the country below the Eastern Ghats, to Cape Komorin. 
An inhabitant of the country. A class of Brahmanical 
tribes, called the five Dravira Brahmans, comprehending 
all those of the Peninsula, or Drdvira, Karndta, Te- 
linga, Gitjerata, and Maratha. 

DRAMMA, Mar. (S. "JwO A piece of money equal to 16 
panas of kaunris, or 1280. 

DRAVYA, S., adopted in most dialects, slightly modified, and 
met with sometimes barbarously corrupted, as in the 
Summary of Hindu Law and Customs, published by order 
of the government of Bombay, in which it is always 
printed DREWY, ("JT^l) Thing, substance, wealth, pro- 
perty. It is distinguished as 

Sthdvara, or Sthira dravya, Fixed or immoveable pro- 
perty, property in land, trees, &c. 

Asthdvara, Jangama, or Char a dravya, Moveable pro- 
perty, cattle, money, &c. It is also distinguished as 
Kramdyata, descended or ancestral ; Sn-ayamarjita, or 
Krita, self-acquired or made ; and Agantuka, accidental ; 
and again as Sddhdrana, common, held in common ; 
Asddhdrana, that which is not common, but belongs to 
the holder exclusively ; and Vibhakta, divided, partitioned 
among separated heirs. 

DRIDHA-BODHA, Ben. (from the S. dridlta, ~^S, firm, and 
bodha, ^tV, understanding) Conviction, judgment. (Uriya) 
Presumptive evidence. 

DRISHTA, vernacularly, DRISHT, sometimes corrupted to 

DISHT, (S. Tge) Seen, present, visible. 
Drishtddhi, or DrishlabandhaJi, H. &c. (S. T?, with 
wftl, or ^HIcR, a pledge) Mortgage or pledge of real 
substantial property, that which may be kept in view ; 
or, also, that from which, although possession be had, no 
profit or benefit is derived. In the west and south of India 
it means mortgage or pledge, without giving up possession, 
except on failure of payment of the debt for which the 
property is pledged. 

Drishti dosha, S. ("^fif, the sight, and ?jfaj, fault) The 
influence, or blight of an evil eye. 



Drklitanta, S., but used in some dialects, (^givrf) Ex 

ample, proof, precedent. 

DRONA, Ben. (S. JfM) A measure of capacity, equal to 

j- 6 th of a hhdri. (In Chittagong and Sylhet) a land 

measure equal to 1G hunts. 

DRONI, S. &c. ( l*u"l) An oval vessel of wood or stone ; 

a trough for watering cattle ; a canoe. 
DUB, DOOB, DURVA, H. (i_>.} J > s - sfr) A kin d of grass 
highly esteemed for fodder (Cynodon dactylon). Three 
sorts are described : the best, called Paunda, is essen- 
tially the same as Florin ; the second, called Khutia, is 
smaller, and grows on hard ground ; the third is called 
White Dub : or it is distinguished as of two sorts, Ghor- 
dub, horse grass, being the best fodder ; and Ban-dub, 
forest grass, of a coarser quality. 
Dub-mahal, H. (A. J'JT*) A tax formerly levied on pro- 

viders of fodder or grass cutters (Dacca). 
DUBACHAR, H. (from bji>, immersed, and^-, an alluvial 
island) A bank or island in a river, or low alluvial 
lands liable to be flooded. 

DUBAI, H. i_flj>J, from UujJ, to drown) lit, Drowning; 
but applied to a bribe which is given absolutely, whether 
the briber gain or lose his suit, in distinction to Tarana, 
a crossing over, f. e. a bribe which is to be returned if 
the suit is lost. 

PUBARA, H. (\j\iyS, from Iwjt), to be immersed) An island, 
or land left in the channel of a river, liable to be flooded 
when the water rises, but cultivable in the cold weather 
for spring crops. 

DUBAHO, Guz. (i3.l) A man of the BMl or Kuli tribe. 
DUBARU, Ben. (^5<jlS) A caste, whose occupation is that 

** d*. 

of fishermen and divers, (from ^Tt, to plunge). 

DUBASI, commonly, DuBAsni, Tel. (&3'25~ t> <O ) vernacular 
corruption of DOBH^SHI, one who speaks two languages, 
from S. fg, two, and HT3T, a language) An interpreter, 
a native man of business in the service of a European 
(Madras), but the office and the name are almost obsolete. 

DuBERji, Mar. (5*K0) Twice brought to account, twice 
entered, payment, expenses, and the like ; as, Duberji- 
jamd, Duberji-kharch, &c. 

DUBHALIS, H. ( iiJl^jjL>) Land seated in the neighbourhood 
of population, the soil of which is intermixed with gravel : 
vegetables, jarvdr, and poppy are grown in it (Behar). 

DUBRAJ, (corruption of Yuvardjd, young prince) H. The 
heir of a Raja. 


DUBSI, H. (jj^ujJ, from LujJ, to be immersed) Land 

liable to be flooded. See also Dobismi. 
DUDDU, Kara. (&>&J) DUDU, Mar. (??) A copper coin, 

C6 vCs 

worth twenty has. Mar., A fourth of a paisa. 
DUD& (?) A weight equal to the fourth part of a maund 


DUDEKULAVADU, Tel. (&r" OJOoJ~ c '&)) A cotton cleaner. 
DUDHA, H. (la>-Jjj) A sort of rice. 
DUDHWATJ, Hindi (jV^nft, lit., full of milk) Full of 

farinaceous matter, ears of corn becoming ripe. 
DUDI, Tel. (&>>) Cotton after it is cleared from the seed. 
DUGAR, H. (/J) A path, a way. 

DUGARA, Tel. ( &rX& ) The dust of rice in the husk, bran. 
DUGDHA, H. (laj^J) A tribe of inferior Brahmans on the 

borders of Fatihpur and Allahabad. 
DUGGANI, Tel., Kara. (&>-S>) DUGANI, Mar. (jFTTOft) 

A copper coin, worth about ten has, or a half pice. 
DtJGLA, H. (<ldjJ) A sling basket of large size used for 

DUHI', H. (jcfcjii) Alluvial formations. A mark of village 

boundaries. t 

DUHITRI, S. (|f?iT) A daughter. 
Dauhitra, S. (fff^T.) A daughter's son. Dauhitri, 

(^Jf^Vl) A daughter's daughter. 
DUHOTTAHA, or -TRA, Mar. (jffat-TT) Interest at two 

per cent per mensem. 
DUKAL, Mar. (<J which in Mar. compounds is used either 
for ^t, two, or for the S. ^ , dur, bad, and 3TTc5, time) 
A dearth or famine. 
DCKAN-PATTI, Mar. (from P. Dukdn, a shop, which oc- 
curs in most dialects, and patti, a cess) A tax on shops 
or trades. 
DUKKI, Tel. (Q^l^) Ploughing, ploughed ground, a ploughed 

field. Also Duklti-polamu. 
OUKRA, H. &c. OpRTT) One-fourth of a paisa. 
DULANDI, DOOLUNDY, (?) A Ryot cultivating land in a 
different village from that in which he resides. 

, H. ( jjj J) DOLI, Mar. (Ttcft) A litter, a swing cot. 
Dtiliyd, Ben. (wfi<ii) The name of a caste, or individual 
of it, whose business is carrying palanquins, or other 

DULLAKOTTUTA, Tel. ( <& S^^X)^ ) Threshing corn. 
DUMA, (?) A leather case, holding about three sers, in which 
tea was imported into Kamaon from Tibet. The tea of 
Kamaon itself is now exported to Tibet. 


DUMALA, or DUMALI-GAON, incorrectly, DOOMALLA, Mar. 
(eHT<5T, the back or tail part, from P. SUJJ, fig., re- 
verting or turning back, and 'II^Y, a village) A re- 
versionary village, or lands the revenues of which are 
granted for life or a term of years, after which they re- 
vert to the state ; or lands granted for service, or through 
favour, subject to resumption at pleasure. Also, lands 
of which the revenues are not wholly alienated, but which 
are subject to a quit-rent In common use it is also 
loosely applied to all alienated villages. (The word, in 
the usual sense, is more probably derived from du, two, 
and m&l, property ; the holder and the state having both 
an interest in it). 

DUMBALA, Tel. (&>OET ) er) An order for giving up the 

government share of the produce to the cultivators. 
Dumbala-deron, (?) The issue of an order to the cul- 
tivators to reap the crops without waiting for the final 
adjustment of the assessment with the Zamindars. Fifth 
Rep., p. 644. (The second term is obviously erroneous, 
and the sense of the first has been, perhaps, mistaken. 
An absurd etymology is given in the Glossary to explain 
the term : as, Dumbdleli, P., tail of a cow, and Dharan, 
H., seizing, taking hold of the tail of a cow, to urge her 

Dumbdla-mdnyam, Tel. (&>OCT D er c &rv5O) Lands 
held free of assessment, or at a low quit-rent ; under 
special grant, not forming part of the original assign- 

DtJN, BOON, H. (^yJ) A valley. 

DUNA, Thug. Stocks for culprits. 

DUNBT, also written DOENBEE, (neither, perhaps, is quite 
correct) Mar. Split, cracked : applied to the first kind 
of black soil, which, although very rich, requires a copious 
supply of water. 

PUNDA, H. 0^ji>) A bullock with one horn. 

DUNDI, or DONDI, Hindi (T?t) Proclamation by beat of 

DUNDUBHI, H. &c. (jn^fa:) The fifty-sixth year of the 

cycle, the next recurrence of which will be A. D. 1862. 
Dundubhi-hechchige. Karn. (&>O&>S-&|'A') Increase 
in the Mysore assessment made in a former Dundubhi 
year, 1784-85. 

DUNGA, H. (l&jj) Deep; a trough, a canoe. 

DUNGALI, Karn. (&>oXy) A measure of two and-a-half 
sers (South Kanara). 


DuNGANf, H. ( jjUo J) A small fractional division of an 
estate (Kamaon). 

PL-NOAH, or DONGAR, H. (^&ji>) A hill, a hilly country. 

DUNR, or DUNRI, Thug. Cry of the victim for help. 

DUPIKI, Mar. (eftTeRt, from 5, two, and flcjriU, to ripen) 
Bearing two crops in a year (land &c.). 

DunAiii, Mar. ( ?Cli?l, from S. <IT, bad, and W?, saying, 
also Divdhi, rfl^l) An expression used in prohibiting 
any thing on the part of the authorities or the Raja, im- 
plying his vengeance in case of disobedience. 

DuHAi, Tel., Karn. (fo^aM, f rom the S. particle ^, 
implying deprecation or prohibition) Protest, prohi- 
bition. Citation, summons, an order of the state to 
bring a person to trial. (Probably a modification of the 

DURAKANI', Mar. (<i<<*Ml) Drawn (as a line) through the 
two central columns of a sheet of country paper, leaving 
the first and last as margins ; the form used in letters to 
superiors or equals. 

DURBHIKSIIA, S. &c, vernacularly, DURBHIKKA, (^fS^n) 
A famine, a dearth. 

DURGA, S., vernacularly, DuRG, DOORG, whence, erroneously, 
DROOG, H. &c. (cL//i, <J*t) A fort, a hill fort. 

DURGA, S. &c. (<I*tO A goddess highly popular in many 
parts of India, especially in Bengal; the wife of Siva, 
and, in an especial manner, the destroyer of evil beings 
and oppressors : her worship is permitted to the lowest 

Durfjd-navami, S. &c, (^TflVHl) A Hindu festival, the 
worship of Durga, on the ninth lunation of the light half 
of Kartik. 

Durgd-pujd, S. (</i|i4il) The worship of Durga, celebrated 
for ten days in the month of Aswin (October), with par- 
ticular pomp, in Bengal. 

Durgotsava, S. (from <Jr4H:, a festival) The festival of 
Durga, the Durga-puja. 

DURG-BANSI, H. (^jMiJu^j) A tribe of Rajputs in Jonpur, 
and Azimgarh. 

PURIA, or PORIA, II. (Ujjj) A dog-keeper. (From Dor'i, 
or Duri, a string, with which he leads the dogs. 

DURMATI, S. &c. (gJifTH, from <?T, bad, jrfir, mind) The 
fifty-fifth year of the cycle. 

DDRMUKHA, S. &c. (55^', from S. <JT, bad, and ij^, aspect) 
The thirtieth year of the cycle. 

DURVA, or DURBA, S. (siJT) Bent grass : see DUB. 



Durvdshtami, S. (from ^T?ft, the eighth) The eighth 

lunation of the month Bhadra, on which day DUTV& 

grass is used in the ceremonies observed. 

DTTSOTA, Mar. (ft^TlZl) Pulse, &c, sown in a field from 

which the regular crop has been gathered. 
DusiGA, Kara. (&5~~&X) A cloth merchant, a tailor, 
DUPAI, Hindi ( (_jl~ji>, *fr^) The second sort of sugar-cane, 

which is sown after the autumn crop is reaped. 
DUTA, S. (5TT:) A messenger, an envoy, an ambassador. 
DWADASA, S. ( 31331) Twelve, twelfth. 
Drvddai!ddh;ka,Karn.('5d < $&% ) Q8, S. STT^SfT, and 
more) Twelve fold, a rate of increase to be calculated on 
the produce of land. 

Dteddaxdhiha, S. (from SHI ff! off, relating to a day, ^TITT ) 
A Brahman householder, who keeps a store of food for 
twelve days' consumption. 

Dnddasi, S. (si^fl) The twelfth day of a lunar fortnight 
DWAITA, S. (^7T, from fg, two) Duad. The doctrine of 
duality, distinguishing two principles in creation, spirit 
and matter, as opposed to the Adreaita, or monad doc- 
trine, which acknowledges the reality of spiritual ex- 
istence only. 

DWAPARA-YUGA, S. (jfWJir) The third age of the world. 
DWAR-DEVATA, Mar. (glt^tfril, S. 3TT, a door, and ^ril, 
divinity) The attendants of a great m*ra, who must be 
worshipped in order to get access to him. 
DWIJA, or DWIJATI, S. (fV'Tt, fSnfff:, from fg, two, and 
IT, or Wrfif , who is born) A twice-born man, first by his 
natural birth, and secondly by his spiritual birth, or in- 
vestiture with the sacrificial cord. The term properly 
designates a man of either of the three first castes, the 
Brahman, Kshatriya, and Vaisya, but is now generally 
understood of the former. 

DWIPA, S. (ifo) An island; also a continent surrounded 

by an ocean. Jambu-dwipa is that division of the world 

in which India lies, so named, because it is the climate 

of the Jambu tree : it is encircled by the sea of salt water. 

DWIPADI-VYAVAHARA, S. ( fgM<)HtlO A law-suit which 

consists of only two of four padas, or steps, of a regular 

process. One in which the defendant admits the truth 

of the charge, thus limiting proceedings to the plaint and 


DWIPADYAM, MaL (aJ1n-10S)o) A double fine or penalty. 

s. (grnronrar:, from fir, two, and 


an individual person) An adopted son, who retains his right 

to inherit also from his natural father. The adopted son, 
the Dattaka-putra, properly renounces all claim to direct 
inheritance from his natural father and paternal relations, 
except through any affinity which he may derive from 
his adoptive father ; but a continuance of a double re- 
lationship may depend upon express stipulation, or where 
the natural father has no other son, or where certain 
ceremonies, as that of tonsure, have been performed prior 
to the adoption in his natural father's house. This sort 
of adoption is also sometimes distinguished as Nitya or 
Anitya, perpetual or temporary: the latter is the case 
when the tonsure has preceded adoption, and then the 
children of the adopted son return to the family of the 
natural grandfather. The term is sometimes considered 
applicable to the son begotten by a brother on his 
brother's widow ; but this union is no longer regarded 
as legal. Among the Marathas it is applied to a boy 
born in adultery. 

DYOKARAN, Mai. (SgJOd&orDn*) A blacksmith. 
DVUTA, S. &c. (^Tf) Gambling, playing either with animate 
or inanimate materials, as dice, chess, &c., or cocks, rams, 
and the like. 

Dyuta-pratipad, or -purnimd, S. (from nfifT? , the first 
day of a lunar fortnight, and ''TPSlT, full moon) The 
night of the last day of the light half and eve of the 
first day of the dark half of Kartik, which is to be spent 
in gambling in honour of Lalishmi, the goddess of 


EDAOAI, or EDAGAI-KULA, less correctly, EDDAGAI, Karn. 
(>&~^gOJ>0, from ^&, left) IDANGAI, Tarn. q.v. A 
left-hand caste. According to the Karnatic enumeration 
of the castes included under this head, they are nine in 
number: 1. Panchdla, comprising five subdivisions; as, 
Kammdranu, blacksmith ; Bddige, carpenter ; Kdnsagdr, 
brazier; Kallurutiya, mason; Akasdle, goldsmith. 
2. Berisethi, a class of traders. 3. Devdngada, a class 
of weavers. 4. Gdnigdr, an oil maker. 5. Gollur, (?), 
people said to be employed to carry money; (perhaps a 
mistake for Crolla, a shepherd, plur Gollar). 6, 7. Pu- 
lirvdn and Palawan, (?), two tribes of cultivators, (per- 
haps for Palligavanu, a villager, a peasant). 8. Beda, 
a low caste of Hindus, living by hunting and catching 
birds. 9. Mddiga, a worker in leather, a shoemaker : 

. EDA 

the latter is generally most active in contests with the 
right-hand castes (Buchanan's Mysore, i. 78). 
Edagai hisdb-varu, Kara. A tax levied on workers in 
leather and skins. 

EDARU-CHI'TU, Kara. (cjQoo&j-^Lx/) A document given by 
the purchaser of land engaging to give it back to the seller 
on repayment of the purchase-money within a definite term. 

EDDANGALU, or YEDDANGALI, (for, in the languages of 
the South, and in Malayalim and Tamil especially, an 
initial c is very commonly pronounced as if preceded by 
an initial /) (?) Mai. A dry or grain measure, the 
measure most in use in Malabar : a cylindrical measure, 
2fin. high, 6^in. diameter, or 85 cubic inches : it 
ought to contain 57,600 grains of kalama-nella, a kind 
of rice. 

EDDU, Tel. ( o>>) An ox, a bullock. 

Edduvddu, Tel. ( 

A bullock-driver. 
The shaft of a plough. 

A note of hand given 

for another that is lost. 
EGANI, Tel. (w"3f*w) A copper coin, equal to ten has. 


EGUMATI, Tel., Kara. ( 'j) Exportation. 
Egumati-digumati, Tel., Kara. (i)X3^)SQXb^ 
port and import 


6T<EEGLJrT(5LQ, from Elta, one, and Bhor/am, fruition) 
The possession or tenure of village land by one person 
or family without any co-sharer. The appellation is con- 
tinued in some instances where other parties have been 
admitted to hold portions under the original tenure as 
long as that remains unaltered. 

EKACHHAYA, Tel. ( cJSt?~ D o!x>) A bond signed by ten persons. 

EKADASI, S. (^cRT^ft, from JJeR'fl^I, eleven) The eleventh 

day of a lunar fortnight. 

Ekddasi-vrata, S. (from 'arf , a religious obligation) Fast- 
ing on the eleventh lunation. 

EK^HA, S., Ben., &c. (JToRT^) A single day. Fasting for a day. 

EKA-JATA, S. (from STTfT, born) Of one parentage, born of 
the same parents on both sides. 

EKA-JATI, S. (from 'arjlfd, caste) Of the same caste. 

EKAMATI-EKAJATJ, Guz. (=H%L > l'^l=H96ls/<nL\, from S. 
^?, one, and Jlfff, mind, with a rhyming repetition) A 
term used in agreements, contracts, and the like, by which 
the subscribers bind themselves jointly and severally to 
fulfil the terms specified. 


EKANHATH, (?) Mar. The total sum of an account that is 
closed. The name of a particular mark which is drawn 
over the signature affixed to the account. 

EKAPIKI, Mar. (gcKflolft) Yielding one crop a-year land, 
a field, &c. 

EKAPUTRA, S. (from TO, a son) Having one son only. 

EKARIBA, Thug. A single or short cry of a jackal suddenly 
checked a bad omen. 

EKARNAB, Ben. (fl^t*fa, from S. ^Tiur, the ocean) An 
undistinguished multitude, a crowd of persons eating or 
acting together without distinction of caste. 

EKATRA, or EKOTTARA, H., Mar., Ben., &c. (x/&, *^i, 
S. *nra) Together, jointly, acting together as one. (In 
Bundelkhand) A sum total; also applied generally to 
signify interest at one per cent, per mensem. 

EKBACHHI, (^js-ln^j) Distribution of any sum or cess 
levied upon land at an equal rate. 

EK-BA-DfGAHI, H. (^^UjoG) One against another (as 
opposite parties in a suit). 

EKBAL, or EKWAL, Ben. ('fl'Wft, flf'Sto) A total sum : a 
bringing together of details under one head : one of the 
Zamindar's accounts in which is stated the gross amount 
of the land in each Ryot's possession in each Mahal, 
with the deduction for waste, &c., and the disposition of 
the productive land remaining. 

EKBARDA, Thug. An oil maker and vendor ; a man of 
which employment it is considered unlucky to kill. 

EKBEHJI, Mar. (?T!f^t3ft, from S. ^S, one, and P. gj>) 
The first entry in the books of sums disbursed or re- 
ceived. A sum total. 

Eklerji-daphtar, Mar. (TTli^<.*l1^MirH.) An office at the 
seat of government, under the Peshwa, to which accounts 
from all departments were transmitted, and in which they 
were recorded, after abstracts were made of the receipts 
and disbursements of the year. Also, the abstracts. 

EKCHETIYA, Ben. (()<*[> HlTl) Monopolized. 
Ekchetit/d-byabasay, Ben. A monopoly. 

EKCHHAYASRITA, Ben. (<T^f*rtfte, from S. ^t-'Sfnn, shade, 
^nf^m, taking refuge) Held under one obligation (joint 
bondsmen or sureties). 

EKDHAN, Ben. (if^STfr) (Land) producing one crop of rice 
in the year. 

EKDABRA, Hindi (<J4<<:u) A common rate per lighd. See 

Ekdarrd kd pattd, Hindi ({<*<! BT ^jJT) A lease, in 


which the Ryot is to pay the same rate per biffhd, what- 
ever crop he may sow. 
EKE-ANA-PATTA, Hindi (iJcirwrniJT) Lease of a definite 

quantity of land, at an average rate per bighd ; a tenure 

by which Ryots hold in Puraniya. 
EKERI-KARKUN, Mar. (JJ^'CI, single, and <*K=*H , a clerk) 

An inferior scribe or clerk, one to whom no equipage is 

EKFAHDI, and EKFASLT, H. (<J<3j&t, from J^s, a kind, 

^jLaflij, from J.^w, a crop) Land producing only one 

crop a-year. 
EKHALA, Hindi (<i*l<55T) Moisture extending through the 

whole depth of the soil ; lit, that which is in one uniform 

condition (Puraniya). 
EKJAI-JARIB, Ben. (^^i^stata) Measurement of the whole 

of the lands of a village or district, with a specification 

of the individual holdings. 
EKKAN, MaT. (f^dSSKcfc) Soil cast on shore by the current 

of a river. 
EKKARU, Mai. (o91(K) Agricultural implements, ap- 

paratus for ploughing. 
EKODDISHTA, S. (ijcirrf^) The Sraddha, or obsequial ce- 

remony performed for one definite individual deceased, 

not including other ancestors. 
EKPACHHA, H. (^sf^.., from S. ^ir, and xr$f, a side) Ex- 

parte (as evidence). 
EKPAUIA, Uriya (^QQQqi) The total rent of a village, 

with the proportionate charge to each Ryot. 
EKPHASL!, Hindi Gic*H$l,j!|) A single crop. Land yield- 

ing one crop a-year. Rate charged in the Ryot's lease, 

calculated on his rearing only one crop a-year on his land. 
SKRA, Tel. (^$TT) The English word Acre. 
SKRAKM, Mar. (from vJ>, sort) In a lump, at once, the 

sum of different items. 
KROJO, Hindi (<*0ft, from P-Jjj, a day) Authorised 

daily expenditure of public officers (Jodhpur). 
SKSALA, H. (<rfLM$J, from P. JL,, a year) Annual, for one year, 

lasting one year, a cess levied originally for but one year. 
EKTARFA, H. (from P. (_J^, a side) Ex-parte, on one side. 

Ehtarfa-mukaddama, H. An ex-parte proceeding or suit. 
EKU, Tel. (^0) A roll of cleaned cotton. 

EKUN, Hindi (iT^T) Ben. (<9|*0 Sum total. 
Ehun-beshi, Ben. (from P. (ji.JJ, more, excess* Total increase. 
Ekun-jamd, Hindi (^^prspn) Statement of the total rent 
of each piece of land in the village accounts. 


Etmn-jamin, Hindi (?<*Hl*i1T) A statement of the total 

land measured to each Ryot for the current year. 
Eknn-kami, Ben. (from P. *f, deficient) Total remission 

or deficiency. 

EK.WAL, Ben., Uriya(-9 < *<dl, -SQ2JIR., possible corruption of A. 
Jlyil, plur. of Jy, agreements) A general account of a 
village or estate, shewing, under the name of each cultivator, 
the quantity and description of the land held by him. 
ELAKOLA, or YELAKOLA, Mai. (ae_l6)cft08>_) The use of 
words in place of figures, in which each syllable has a nu- 
merical value, and the whole are read backwards (Malabar). 
ELAM, Mai. (^SiEio) Auction, outcry, public sale ; see Nildm. 
ELE, Karn. (if) Thread. 
ELE, Karn. ( $& ) A leaf in general, betel leaf. 

Elegdr, Karn. ( cjO A <3O) A betel seller. 
ELLA, Tel. (^^,) ELLAI, Tarn. (CT60830) ELLE, Karn. 

ELLA, M .1. A boundary. 
Ellaikal, Tarn. &c. (6T603s0.5c36b) Ellekallu, Karn. 

(cjejoexp) A boundary-stone, 
oo v* 

Ellai-takrdr, Tarn, (from A-^l^ji) Boundary dispute. 
Ellai-vyaj yam, Tarn. (S.'arnr) A boundary quarrel or dispute. 
Ellardi, Tel. (o^^^^ ^) A boundary-stone. 
Ellekaftu, Karn. (^^ ) ?4- > ) A limit, a boundary. 

ELU, Thug. Any single person not a Thug. 

ENDH, Thug. A woman. 

ENDIRAM, Tarn. (ejn^CTLQ)' A sugar-cane press, a mill, 
a hand-mill. 

ENQiLi,Tel. (oio^Q) ENJULU, Karn. ( oioa^ew) ECHCHIL, 
Tarn. Mai. (ST <&<?)&)) Any thing that has become im- 
pure by having been in the mouth : orts, leavings, frag- 
ments, crumbs, and the like, considered as impure. 

ENNAM, Mai. (^jJjp^o) Counting, an account. Charge for 
reaping, usually ten per cent ; or if paid in kind, one 
sheaf out of ten. 

ENNARI. Mai. ( a |mD#l, from enta, or, in composition, 
en, eight) Eight ndri*, or two measures. 

ENATI MAM^TL, Mar. (JT?TnrfarR<jy, from A. Indyat mamul, 
jJA*<i coolie) Customary presents, an additional charge 
on the district at the time of assessment on this account. 

ENTHA, Thug. Rupees, or money of any kind. 

ENUKA, or YENUKA, (?) Mai. A certificate given by a he- 
reditary proprietor to the person to whom he has mort- 
gaged or made over occupation of his lands ; or a document 
given to the proprietor by the mortgagee, if he transfer 
possession (Malabar). 

2 R 



EnuJia, or Yemihd muri, (?) Mai. A similar certificate to 
the last, given to the person to whom the mortgage is trans- 
ferred: also, a notice from the proprietor to the mort- 
gagee that he has transferred his proprietary right and 
accompanying liabilities to a third party (Malabar). 
En, or YER, Tarn, (ejlj) A plough. 
Erdnmai, Tam. (6TrTrT<5cbr<TOLa) Tillage. 
Erdnar, Tam. (6TCn"TGTrrj) Husbandmen. 
ErJidl, Tam. (6TO"<5rr&) A yoke, a plough-beam. 
Ersdrndn^am. (6J US- rTLOrT<50T) The apparatus of a plough. 
KRAI, pron. IRAI, Tam. (6TC5DJT)) Tax, tribute. 
Erai-vari, or Irai-vari, Tam. All dues demandable by 

landholders from their tenants. 

ERAMATI, Asamese (tf)?Tt*l1fi>) Land that has been aban- 
doned after cultivation. 

ERAPHER, or PHEHI, H. (^M^J^ , from IJ^, to turn round : 

the syllable without the initial repeated) Exchange, barter. 

ERAVU, or ERVU, Kara. ( ^&<4$, ^<^f~) A thing lent or 

borrowed for temporary use. 
Eflf, Tam. (ejcfl) A large reservoir or piece of water, 

partly artificial, constructed for purposes of irrigation. 
EriJiarai, Tam. (6jrf)St5&<5B3r7) Bank of a reservoir. 
Erihudai, Tam. (eTnfJlsSri-flJDL.) A basket used for 

throwing up water. (From 6T njl , throwing). 
Erimerai, Tam. (eTrflSLQStnCT) A portion of the crop set 
apart to meet the expense of keeping the reservoir and 
watercourses in repair. 
Eri-pdckaJ, Tam. (6jrfluurT<?&) Watered by channels 

conducted from a reservoir or tank (land). 
ERI, Mai. ( oflXDl ) A row of stakes to support an embank- 

ERPADU, Tam. (67ff)UrT) A decision, a settlement. 
ERU, Tam. (6T(TTp Manure. 

ERU, Tel. Karn. (<u&J) A plough with its apparatus, bul- 
locks, &c., complete. 
ERUGERU, (?) Tel. Gross produce. 

ERUKU, or ERUKALA-VADU, Karn. (^)2o> 7 ^36o><^_ 

3~3<30) A man of a tribe living in forests and mountains, 

resembling gipsies in their habits: the women are famous 

as fortune-tellers. 

ERUPALU, Karn. (^&>T9ew) The farmer's portion of the 


ERUVAKA, Tel. ( StblFtif) The commencement of cultivation. 
ESHAMAN, or YEJAMAN, Tam. (er^LDnOTr) A person em- 
ploying priests : vernacular form of S. Yajamdna. 

ESKAR, Mar. 

A man of a low caste, a Mahdr, 

one of the village servants ; more usually Yeskar. 
ETAMU, or E'TAMU, Tel. (o)3x>, ^F&O) ERRAM, 
pronounced YETTAM, Tam. ( ejjTj^rrjLQ ) A machine on 
the principle of a lever, for raising water from wells, 
commonly termed at Madras a Pikota. 

Etdmu-bokkena, Tel (JOe"?) The bucket 

by which the water is drawn. 
Yettachchdl, Tam. (ej tr)rr > &&rTGb) The bucket of the 

Yettaltol, Tam. (eTj^^a&GsrTQ)) The bambu by which 

the bucket is suspended. 


Errappuvdram, pron. Yettappuvdram, Tam. (ermnQU-. 

l_|6LJrTIJLQ) Share of the charge or tax for watering 

the lands. 
ETU-KONAMUPARRA, (?) Mai. The rate of tax levied in Tra- 

vancore ; or one in eight upon the produce of garden 

land, and three in ten out of rice land. 
ETTU, Tel. (&i*J) Weight, a burden; a weight of two 

vis, or G;j; pounds. 

ETTUVALI, Karn. (>Sj3v) Collecting money. 
ETWAH, H. (;|ykj) Sunday, abbreviation of S. Aditya- 

vdra, through, A'itrvdr. 

A. ((J^sU, from (J*i, to do) An agent, one who 
does any thing. 

FAIDA, H. (A. *4Jols) PHAYI'DA, Tel. (<P^O3OCT) p ro fi t , 
gain, interest. (In this and other Arabic words beginning 
with/, adopted into the Hindu dialects which have not 
the letter, ph is substituted for it). 

FAISAL, or, more correctly, FAISALA, FVSUL, FYSULA, 
((J-ajj, (jJuyj) adopted in most dialects with slight 
modifications, as, Ben. PHAisAi-A, (d^FTfal) Mar. 
PHAISAL and PHAISALLA, (^c5, ^ren^r) Tel. PHAISALA, 
(^JCXOtxjCT ) A decree, a judgment, a decision, ad- 
justment of a quarrel, settlement of a debt. 
Faisal-tlrwai, H. (from the Tam. (^CTcTOQ-l) The rates 
settled on each field at the time of the original survey 
assessment (Madras). 

Faisaldti, Tel. Karn. (^qX^er*) Settled, as an ac- 
count especially, according to a decree or award. 
Faisalndma, H. &c. (<)ulALiw) A written sentence or award. 

FAK-AR-RAHN, H. (A. ^j j\ tLxs) Expiration or fore- 
closure of a mortgage, redemption of a pledge. 


FAKHR UL-TTJJAR, H. (A. ^W^^^) The provost of the 
merchants : an honorific title granted by the Moghul 
government to any eminent banker or merchant. 

FAKIR, FUQEER, H. (A. j***, plur. FUKRA, !y, or FA- 
KfRAN, ^l/Jw) PHAKIR, or PHUKEER, Mar. (tRolftO 
Any poor or indigent person. In law, one who possesses 
only a little property. The most general application is, 
a Mohammadan religious mendicant, who wanders about 
the country, and subsists upon alms. Many orders of 
them are known in Hindustan, named after their founder, 
or some peculiar practice or doctrine. They are gene- 
rally divided into two classes : 1 . Those who are Bd- 
shard, with the law, having families, and following the 
precepts of the Koran ; they are also known as SdliJi, 
travellers or pilgrims: and 2. He-shard, without the 
law, or Majzub, 'abstracted,' who lead a life of celibacy 
and seclusion, and whose sanctity is such as to place 
them above the necessity of observing the rules of the 
Koran. The chief Hindustani Fakirs are, 1. The 
f^ddaria or Bdnarcd, who profess to be the spiritual 
descendants of Saiad Abdul-hddir Jildni, of Bagdad. 
2. The Chishtia, followers of Banda-narvdz, whose shrine 
is at Kalbartja ; they are usually Shias. 3. Shutdria, 
descendants of Abdul-skutdr-i-ndk. A. Tabkdtia, or 
JUaddria, followers of Shah Maddr ; many of these are 
jugglers, and bear or monkey leaders. 5. Malang, 
descended from Jaman Jati, one of Shah Maddr's 
disciples. 6. Itafdi, or Gurz-mdr, descended from Saiad 
Ahmed Kab'tr llafdi, who appear to beat, cut, and 
wound themselves without suffering inconvenience, and 
who, in the belief of the faithful, can cut off their own 
heads, and put them on again. 7. Jaldlia, followers 
of Saiad Jaldl ud din Bohhdri. 8. Sohdgia, from 
Musa Sohay, who dress like women, wear female orna- 
ments, play upon musical instruments, and sing and 
dance. 9. Nahsh-bandia, followers of Bahd ud din, of 
Nakshband, distinguished by begging at night, and carry- 
ing a lighted lamp. 10. Bared pidri kafakirdn, who 
dress in white. There are other distinctions ; and at the 
Muharram a number of the lower classes assume the 
character and garb of Fakirs, of different ridiculous per- 
sonations, for the amusement of the populace, and the 
collection of contributions. 

Fakirdna, H. (^l_wis) Appropriated to the support of 
Fakirs (lands, &c.). 


Fakiri, H. (^j&i) Phakiri, or Phaklri, Mar. 
'ific&lcD Alms given to Fakirs. An item in the village 
accounts or charge for alms to Mohammadan mendicants. 
The vocation of a Fakir, or any thing relating to one. 

FAKT, FUQT, H. (A. Jsai) lit., Only, no more ; written at 
the end of a document, deed, petition, &c., to indicate 
that it is completed. 

Phaktu-jarditi, Tel. (q&SoTT 1 CXX>8 J f rom the A. ]axi, 
and (^*djj, cultivation) A richly cultivated country. 
Nothing but cultivation. 

FALAM, whence the English Fanam, H. (*li, but more 
properly, no doubt, Phalam, S. (iB^j) A small silver coin 
formerly current at Madras ; 12^ are equal to one rupee. 

FALAN, or FALANAH, H. (A. ^iti, &JU) A certain person, 
such a one, used to designate an individual whose name 
is not specified. 

FA LIZ, H. (A.JJJU) A field of melons. 

FAL<JS, corruptly, FELOOS and FLUCE, H. (^_/*jli, plural of 
(^^1*) A small copper coin, of varying weight and 
value, current in Arabia and Persia, and sometimes ap- 
plied to the paisa of Hindustan. It was also the de- 
nomination of a copper coin current at Madras : one 
falus was equal to five has or cash. 

FARA, H. (P. ^) lit., Above, over; a term used in the 
Mohammadan revenue accounts for the increased revenue 
derived from new taxes. 

FARARf, more correctly, FIRARI', H. (i^ftj/ ( from A. Firdr, 
jj>, flight) Mar. (HRKt) Tel. C&T^S) A fugitive, espe- 
cially a cultivator who has abandoned his lands and 
home. The head under which the names of absconded 
revenue defaulters are entered. 

FARAZI, H. (^Jjl^i, from P. Faraz, j\j>, above) Elevation, 
exaltation. The name of a sect of Mohammadan re- 
formers, who object to many of the practices of their 
Indian brethren, established in and about Dacca since 
1828, by a man named Sharkatullah. 

FAHD, FURD, incorrectly, FERD, or FIRD, vernacularly, 
PARAT, and PHARAD, or PHAHD, H. (A. J^i) Mar. (TR|) 
A single thing or individual, one out of two, a single leaf 
or sheet of paper, a written list or statement, a long 
slip of writing containing a list, a catalogue, &c. 
Fard-i-hakihat, H. (from A. &SjJi-, actual state) A 
memorial, a statement of circumstances, a return made 
by the officers of government to a requisition for in- 
formation, a report. 


Fard-i-kdsht, H. (from P. c^>, cultivation) Statement 
of a Ryot's cultivation. 

Fard-i-satudl, H. (from A. (J'y> asking) A petition, an 
application. The recommendatory report of a revenue 
officer in former times in favour of the grant of a Za- 
minddri sanad to the person named in the application, 
and specifying the districts to be granted. 

Fard-i-tafritt, H. (from ,j?ii*J>> separation) A paper or j 
deed of partition. 

Fard-i tashkhis, H. (from (jaJ^s^, settlement) Record of \ 

a revenue settlement. 

FARIAD, FURYAD, H. (P. jU/) vernacularly, PHARIYAD, 
or PHAIHAD, Ben. (^FfinrtTf, f^sTtTf) PHIRY.XD, Mar. 
(fttfTS) PHIRYADU, Tel. (^O-&>) FARYADI, or 
FARAYADJ, Kara. (^JtTcJga, &Sc&Tc>e>) PfRi YA DU, 
Tarn. (|_J cflllJrTS]) Cry for help, complaint, accusation, 
the entering of a law-suit, 

Fariddi, Furyadee, H. (i^J^J) also Phariyddi, Phairddi, 
Phiry&di, &c., as before, and corruptly, Feriaudy, A 
complainant, a plaintiff. 

Faryddiyava, Kara. (qJO~Sg>O&3) A plaintiff, a com- 

Faridd-ras, H. (from P. ^j^j, who arrives) A defender, 

a protector, one who listens or attends to a complaint 
FARfB, or FARED, H. (l^_~J,J) Fraud, deception, trick, 


FARIOH, H. &c. (A. c^li) PHARIK, or PHARIKH, Mar. 
(iSrrNr, -*) PHARAG, Guz. (yl3.3l) Free, discharged, 

settled (as a debt, &c.), concluded (as a law-suit), &c. 

Fdriflh-hhatti, or -khuttee, A. ( .Jai- i;li , from c\, and 
lai-, a writing) changed, vernacularly, to Phdrkhat, Ben. 
Phdrkhat, or Pharikhat, Mar. (TRK^TT, 
Pdrikhattv, Tel. (Tc)630&3) and written 
corruptly, Farilthut, Firaghkhuttee, and Farughuttee, 
A written receipt and acquittance, a deed of release from 
all demands, a deed of dissolution of partnership or of 
parcenership, a bill of divorcement 

Fdrighhhatdna, H. (<fclia^l) A fee for making out a 
release or discharge. 

Fdrkhati, or rather Phdrkhati, Ben. (adj. ft?T^\ft) Set 

free, acquitted, divorced. 

FAHIK, H. (A. ,J^s, from Jiji, separating) A troop, a 
party, a party in a law-suit. 

Farih-drval, H. (from P. Jjl , first) The first party in a 



Farik-duyam, or sdni, H. (from the P. fij^> OT A. 4^U, 
second) The second party to a suit. 

Farikain, H. (A. dual) Both parties to a suit 
Ben. (IFsTSTt^T) PHARMAS, Mar. (TOHH) An order, a 
command, a direction, a commission to execute any work, 
a present to a superior. 

Far-farmds, or Phar-pharmdt, corruptly, Fur-furmanesh, 
Phaur-phurmai-sh, Mar. (ihiifctJIU) Petty articles of pro- 
vision formerly exacted from a village by the government 
or public officers : it occurs also in this sense as Far- 
maixh alone. It was also applied to all sorts of produce 
payable to the government in kind, or at an under- 
valuation, as part of the government dues. 
FARMAN, FURMAN, vernacularly, PHARMAN, corruptly, 
FIRMAN, FIRMAND, PHIRMAUN, &c., H. &c. (^jU^, 
IRHM) A mandate, an order, a command, a patent. 

Farmdn-barddr, II. (from P. j\ &jt , who conforms to) A 
subject, an officer, one who obeys or executes a mandate. 

Farmdn-bidzi, H. (from (_/ibj) A command under the 

royal signature or stamp. 

FAROD, H. (J^i) lit., Alighting, coming down ; a term used 
in the customs department to express the arrival and de- 
posit of goods within certain limits. 

FAHOKHT, FUROKHT, vernacularly, PHAROKHT, H. &c. 
(t^~a-jj>, T53Ct*3ir) Sale, selling. 

Farokht-khat, H. (iai- O-_j/ ) Pharoht-hhat, Mar. 
(w^^ti ^ir) A bill or deed of sale : also Farohht-ndma. 

Farosh, H. (P. {J~)jj Sale, selling. A seller, a dealer. 

Farosh-i-namah, corruptly, Feroosh-nemuch, H. (P. 
Llo ^jZjji) Sale of salt. Public sale of salt on account 
of the government The revenue derived from the mo- 

FARSJI, H. (A. ^_/~/, from {J*f, spreading) A carpet, a 
mat, a floorcloth, a bed, any thing spread out 

Firdsh, H. A. (^]/) A bed, a couch. A female, a wife. 
In law, a female slave taken to her master's bed. 

Farrdsh, H. (A. ^ p'^>, it is commonly written with one 
r, Fardsh) A servant whose business it is to spread and' 
sweep the mats, carpets, &c. 

Fardsh-khdna, H. (P. iloU-, a house) A room in which 
carpets, &c., are kept. 

Murda-fardsh, H. ((_/]/ *'irO ^ man of low caste, 
whose business it is to remove dead bodies when lying 
in the way. 


FARSANO, H. (tL&*w/) A Persian measure of distance 

the Parasang of the ancients about four miles. 
FARZ, H. (A. (jof, from (jt>j>, to command) A divine or 
positive command or ordinance, a statute, an injunction 
that is not to be disobeyed, a duty not to be neglected ; 
especially applied to the five indispensable obligations of 
purification, prayer, almsgiving, fasting, and pilgrimage, 
in contradistinction to other acts which are optional or 
meritorious only : also (as derivable from (jOji, to divide) 
a definite payment or portion, inheritance, share or por- 
tion of inheritance due to an heir : also, a widow's jointure, 
or her share of the succession to her husband's property. 

Farz-&in, A. (with ( .j*z, special, essential) An absolute 
obligation. See the preceding. 

Farizat, A. (vj^aj^i) A divine positive statute. A de- 
finite share. 

Fardiz, H. (A. (_^w|/. plur. of (j^ji) The obligatory or 
divine precepts or statutes of the Mohammadan religion, 
those which are not to be neglected. The law of in- 
heritance or partition of property. 

Far-fan, A. 0-/, adv.) Specially, definitely : as applied 
to law, conformably to the special right of inheritance. 

Farzan-o-raddan, A. (from Jj, bringing back) Conform- 
ably to direct or special claim, and also to an indirect 
or reversionary claim, as coming back from failure of 
nearer heirs. 

Farz-kifdiat, A. (from (jof , and jl*, sufficiency) The 
sufficiency of a religious obligation, as fulfilled by one 
person of a party, association, or township, on behalf of 
the whole. 

Farz-rakdt, A. (&*$j (Jf} Fixed rules of performing 

Farzi, H. (A. .5^*) Ben. Farji, (Tp^T) By way of 
proposition, supposititious, fictitious. It is applied espe- 
cially to a person who is either altogether an imagi- 
nary party in a suit or purchase, or to one who, although 
the ostensible, is not the real principal, or to a suit or 
purchase conducted or effected under an assumed or fic- 
titious name. 

Farzi-mudai, H. ( ,dXo ,<**/) Pharji-bddi, Ben. (tFJfT 
<l^l ) A fictitious plaintiff or prosecutor, a person put 
forward in that character. 

Farri-mukaddama, H. (A. <C3JU> , a law-suit) A fictitious j 
suit or prosecution ; one set on foot by other ostensible 
parties than those really interested. 


Ism-far&, H. (A. *M>t, a name) A fictitious name; any 

thing done under a fictitious name. 

Furuz, A. (yajji, plur. of (joj, a portion) Shares, por- 
tions, the proportions in which property is divided among 
those entitled to inherit. 

FARZAND, H. (P. J0;y, plur. ^^j_f) Offspring, pro- 
geny, a son or daughter, a child, children. In Mo- 
hammadan law, lineal descendants in the male line : 
females and their posterity 4 are excluded from the order 
of descent, except the person's own daughter. See Bd- 

FASAD, A. (t)Lj) Vice, depravity, corruption. In law, any 
species of mental depravity not arising from defect of 

Fdsid, A. (ii*wU) Base, vile, wicked. In law, one who, 
according to some authorities, may be deprived of the 
management of his own affairs, as unfit to be trusted 
with them. 

FASKH, H. (A. *"**) Breaking an agreement, dissolving a 
contract, breaking off or dissolving a marriage. 

FASL, FUSL, corruptly, FITSSUL, H. (A. <J-fl, from the verb 
{J-ci, to divide) A section, a chapter ; but in India more 
commonly a section of the year, a season; thence also, a crop 
or harvest. There are two principal harvests in the year, 
spring and autumn, to which a third is sometimes added ; 
they are 

Fasl-i-rabii, commonly, Fusuli-rubbee, or simply, Rubbee, 
(j; (JMCJ) The spring harvest, which yields dry crops, 
as wheat, barley, different kinds of pulse and grain that 
do not require irrigation or much water: the seed is 
sown towards the close of the periodical rains, or in 
September-October, and the crops are gathered about 
February and March. 

Fasl-i-hharif, or -khureef, H. (A. <_ saj>- J^ii) The 
autumnal harvest, consisting chiefly of rice, or grains 
requiring irrigation. . The seed is sown at the commence- 
ment of the rainy season, and the crop is usually reaped 
after their close, or about October-November. 
Fasl-Bhddonrvi, H. (^yjOl^ J-ai) This is an inter- 
mediate harvest of occasional cultivation, consisting of 
grains of quick growth, as millet and different sorts of 
pulse which may be sown at the beginning of the rainy 
season, and gathered in the month of Bhddra, or about 
September : this is, however, commonly included in the 

2 s 


Fasldna, H. (xJlLai) Relating to the harvest or the crop; 
a fee or perquisite derived from it, &c. 

FoxU, Fuslee, corruptly, Falsify, Fusly, H. (^a) Be- 
longing to the harvest, or season when cultivated, or lands 
productive of crops assessed according to the value of 
the crops, or frequency and abundance of the harvests. 
The harvest year a mode of computing time prevailing 
throughout India, and one of the forms used in giving a 
date to all public orders and regulations. The era 
originated with the emperor Akbar, who, finding different 
eras current, thought to simplify the existing chronology 
by introducing a new mode of computing time. In fact, 
however, he only aggravated the confusion, by adding to 
the number ; the old eras still continuing to be current 
along with the new. According to Akbar's directions, 
the year of the Samvat, corresponding with the Hijra 
year 963=A. D. 1555, and which was therefore Samvat 
1612 (1555 + 57), was arbitrarily shorn of G-J9 years, 
and called the Fasli year 963, the same as the Hijra. 
Starting from this point, it has since gone on concur- 
rently with the Samvat, or luni-solar year of the Hindus ; 
so that by adding 649 years to the Fasti year, we get the 
Samvat year ; and by adding 592-93, the difference of the 
Christian era (649 57=592), we obtain the Christian 
date. The Fasli year began on the 10th of the lunar 
month Axrvin, corresponding to the 10th September 1555 : 
if more than four months of the year have expired, the 
addition is 593. Thus, the date of Reg. i., 10th Fe- 
bruary 1833, corresponds with the 1st of Phdlgun 1889 
(1833+56) Samvat, and with the 1st of Phdlf/un 1240 
(1833 593) Fasti. In the Dakhin the Fadi year is rec- 
koned somewhat differently, being two years later than the 
same year in Hindustan, having been introduced by Shah 
Jehdn. The addition to the Fadi therefore, to convert 
it into the Christian year, is only 590 ; thus, the Bomb. 
Reg. dated Fasli 1239 is equivalent to A. D. (1239 + 
590) 1829. The Tamil year of Fadi, 1257-58, cor- 
responds with 1848 (=1258 + 590). The year is, or 
ought to be, sidereal ; but the Madras government fixed 
its commencement to the 12th July. Its subdivisions are 
little attended to, as its sole use is its application to revenue 
matters; and the year only is specified, not the months. 

Fasl-jdsti, Tel. (qStfogS"^, from P. ziddati) An 
extra crop, one more than usual: an extra cess imposed 
on land bearing more than one annual crop. 


Fad-hami, H. (from P. *, less) Deficiency of harvest. 
Deduction from the revenue on account of a scanty crop. 

Fadi rdiyat, H. (*ACj ( _^ a >) A cultivator paying revenue 

according to the crops he raises. 

(A. is^U, from r w , to open) An opening, a commence- 
ment. The first Sura or chapter of the Koran, which, 
being read for the benefit of dying Mohammadans, the 
word has come, in India, to signify prayers offered up 
for defunct persons on different days after their death, 
accompanied by alms and distribution of food, as, Fd- 
tiha-chahdram, on the fourth day ; Fdtiha-bistam, on 
the twentieth, &c. : also, oblations and offerings to saints, 
and a variety of prayers and ceremonies used at mar- 
riages and funerals, including one observed by women in 
commemoration of Fatima, the daughter of Mohammad, 
called the Fdtiha-sahnah, from sahnak, a dish, sweet- 
meats in small vessels being distributed to the female 

Fdtiha-buzurgn-dr, H. (from P. i^Jjjs, great) Offerings 
and prayers for the benefit of the souls of deceased an- 

FA TWA, H. (jjj-w) A judicial sentence, a judgment ; but 
more usually applied to the written opinion of the Mo- 
hammadan law officer of a court 

Fatdrvd, A. (plur. J.jUi) A collection or digest of ju- 
dicial decisions, several of which are current in Hin- 
dustan, especially the Fatawa Alemgiri, compiled by order 
of Aurangzeb, printed by the Bengal government (to its 
great credit) in six quarto volumes. 

FAUJ, FOUJ, H. &c. (A. _.y, l^H) An army, a multitude. 
Police jurisdiction. 

Faujddr, H. &c. (j'j^y, tfiTT^TT) An officer of the 
Mogul government, who was invested with the charge of 
the police, and jurisdiction in all criminal matters. A 
criminal judge, a magistrate. The chief of a body of 

Faujddrdn, H. (P. plur. of Faujddr) Assignments of re- 
venue for the maintenance and remuneration of Fuujddrs. 

Faujddri, H. subst, The office of a magistrate or head 
of police, or criminal judge, adj., Relating to the office 
of Faujddr; criminal, as opposed to civil; levied as a 
tax for the support of the police, &c. 

Faujddri-abrvdb, H. Cesses or imposts levied for the sup- 
port of the Faujddrs, or in commutation of the charge 


so incurred ; or upon the Faujddrs, or commandants, or 
military chiefs on the frontiers of Bengal. 
Faujdari Addlat, H. (from A. ei^llj*, court of jus- 

tice) The chief criminal court, more usually called in 

Bengal the Nizdmat Addlat, but this designation is 

in use at Madras and Bombay Mad. Reg. vii. 1802, 

Bom. Reg. xiii. 1827, and subsequent Regs. See also 

Fauj-jaigir, or Fauj-sardnjdm, H. (^jJjU--. .y, -Jar'^y ) 

Lands or revenue assigned for the support of troops or 

of police. 
Faiij- or Phavj-sarar>jdm, Mar. (Sii,ini) Assignment 

of revenue for the support of troops and maintenance of 

Fauj-sehbandi, or Fauj-sihbandi, H. (,_jJajk^j>Mj, militia) 

The troops of the Faujddr, provincial troops or militia 

employed in garrisoning forts, escorting treasure, and in 

revenue and police duties. 
Fara-faujddri, H. (from A. pf, a bough or branch of a 

tree, met., produce) In Mohammadan finance, the produce 

of the Faujdari, or criminal court, arising from fines 

and confiscations carried to the credit of government. 
FAUTI, corruptly, FOWTEE, H. (A. ^jly, from tuy, death) 

A person deceased, or one who is legally defunct, from 

profligacy or any legal disqualification. The property 

of one who dies intestate and without legal heirs, which 

therefore reverts to the sovereign. 
Fauti-fardri, H. (^y, and ^ji, disappearance) Dead, 

and absconded. A list of cultivators who have died, or 

have deserted their homesteads. 
Fauti-ndma, H. (P. <tU) A document stating the death 

of an incumbent, and the names of his heirs. 
Fautiydsdmi-bdhi, Kara. (P"3orS?3BS)o5~s6) Ba- 

lance due to government from a person deceased. 
FAZIL, H. (A. J~o'J) PHAJIL, Mar. (il|1^) Much more, 

abundant, excessive, a surplus, excess over an estimate, 

receipt in excess of revenue, &c. 
Fazil, H. (A. J-l, plur. La) A learned or pious man, 

one learned in the law. 
Fdeil-niaful, H. (A. J^j, collections) Extra or additional 

Fazuli, H. (from A. <sLaJ, redundance) In Mohammadan 

law, an unaccredited agent, one who acts for another 

without authority, and whose transactions are invalid un- 

less confirmed by the principal. 


Fazuli-bid, H. (;W ^y^i) Sale of another's property 
without his authority : the sale may be confirmed or an- 
nulled at pleasure by the owner. 

FAZIH, H. (A. ^ > ) Disgraceful, vile, infamous : mis- 
managing an estate or property. 

Fazihat, H. (A. iv-j-ai) Phajeti, Guz. (X^f!) Dis- 
grace, infamy. 

FJ, H. (A. .j) A particle and prefix to nouns, signifying 
in, with, by, with respect to; before Arabic nouns it is 
followed by the article J) , the initial of which merges 
into the final of the prefix. 

Fil-faur, (j$\ ^y) Now, immediately, in brief. 
Fi'lkal, H. (JW' .) Instantly, presently, actually, on 

the spot. 

Fi'l-hakikat, H. (e^Juas'' ^y) In truth, in fact. 
Fil-jumla, H. (<d*J' ^ji) Upon the whole. 
Fil-rvdkid, H. (j*'j!' ,_) In fact, certainly, in truth. 
Fi-kasi, H. (P. ^j^, some one, an individual) Tax per 

individual, poll tax. 

Fi-sad, H. (from the P. <Jw0, a hundred) Per cent. 
Fi-sabil-ullah, A. (SS! <J~U> ( J) In the way of God, or 
for his service : applied to alms given to persons to 
enable them to equip themselves for a holy warfare, or 
for pilgrimage. 

FIDIAT, H. (A. %V3, from bi, ransom, sacrifice) In Mo- 
hammadan law, a redemption or redemptionary atonement 
for what would else be forfeited ; ransom or redemp- 
tionary fine paid by a master for his slave who has com- 
mitted some fault, which would make him the slave of 
the injured party. 

FIDWI, H. (A. i s f)'*7 from t jj, devoted to) Servant, slave ; 
but only used as a term of humility in speaking of one- 
self, Your slave, your humble servant 
FmmsT, H. (P. ti^^J) PHIRASTU, Tel. (>&g) A list, 

a catalogue, an inventory. 

Fihrist-i-dihdt, H. A list of the villages of an estate or 
district ; one of the accounts kept formerly by the Ka- 
nungos in Bengal. 

FIKH, H. (A. <XJii) Knowledge of religion and law. Prac- 
tical jurisprudence, in which there may be difference of 
doctrine without involving any sectarial opinion. 
FIL, H. (A. (J*i) Act, action. In A. grammar, The verb. 
Fil-sfumid, or Fial-i-shania, corruptly, Feeal-shuneea, H. 

(A. r*JM> (J**) An abominable or unnatural offence. 
Fil-zdmin, H. (A. ^UrJ**) Phailjdmin, Mar. 



Phiydl-ydmin, Uriya (&Cl|R.Cl|flft) A surety for good 
or peaceable conduct. 
Fil-zdmini, H. (A. ,Jtl (J**) Security for conduct, 

surety for good and orderly behaviour. 
FIL, H. (A. J.AJ) An elephant. 

Fil-khdna, (<*Jli- Jjj) Elephant stables. 
FISK, H. (,_*) Iniquity, villainy. 
Fdsih, (A. .y*il) Wicked, abandoned, depraved ; one 

unworthy of credit as a witness in a court of law. 
FJTH, H. (A. Jai) Breaking a fast. Eating at sun-set daily 
during the Ramazdn. The ceremony of breaking the 
fast at the end of the month. See Id-ul-fitr. 
Fitrat, H. (A. *Jaj) Alms given at the Id-ul-fitr. 
FITUH, H. (A.^yj) PHITUR, Mar. (ftsinc) Treachery, de- 
ceit, fraud. In India it is applied more especially to 
traitorous or rebellious conduct; revolt, insurrection, 
Fituri, H. &c. ((_s^)Is) A traitor, a rebel, an insurgent, 

a deserter, one who has changed sides. 
Phitur-phdndd, Mar. (furt^Mii^r) Seditious risings and plots. 

FOTAH, H. (P. Ay) A bag, a bag of money, a purse. 

Tax, revenue, land-tax, annual rent of cultivated land. 
Fotaddr, H. (^b<sLy) Potaddr, or Potddr, Ben. (itt^Tftif) 
Mar. (tllimO Podddr, whence the common term Podar, 
H. (iliiOjo) A banker, a cash-keeper, a money-changer, 
an officer in public establishments for weighing money 
and bullion, and examining and valuing coins. 
Fotaddri, or Potad&ri, H. &c. The occupation or bu- 

siness of a Fotaddr. 

Fota-khdna, II. &c. A treasury, a banking-house, a money- 
changer's shop. 

FUBNADAYAM, (?) (perhaps from purna, full, and ddyam, 
to be given) spelled corruptly Fournaydyem and Four- 
nydiam, The money rent in commutation of the revenue 
in kind in the south of India. App., 5th Rep. 771. 

FURSAT, H. (A. i^^^ji) Leisure, opportunity, suspension 
of public business for a season. 


GABAR, GUBUH, incorrectly, GUEBRE, H. (P. ^M) An in- 
fidel in general, but commonly applied to a Pdrsi, or 
fire worshipper. 

GABASAN, Ben. CtTtJR) A skinner, a currier, a tanner. 

GABBADU, Tel. (X|^&>) Gruff goods ; small articles, as 
treacle, cocoa-nuts, spiceries, &c., sold by hucksters. 

GABDI, GABTI, or GABID, Mar. (*ira<ft, JIHril, 

GABHAN, GUBHAN, (?) Land contiguous to a village. 

GAflHiN, H. (jj^jvS, S. irf&Jlft) A pregnant woman, or a 
cow with calf. 

GABRAUTA, H. ^j^Jj) A large beetle, found in old cow- 
dung and dunghills : also called Gobraura and Goba- 

GACHH, Ben. (fft^) A tree; applied to any thing fibrous, 
as, 3J^ Tff^ JT"M, a rope of a single cord. 

GACHCHU, Kara. (X|TO) Mortar, plaster. 
Gachchtigdna, Karn. ( X&rp A d3 ) A lime-mill. 

GACHCHHAVAT, Ben. (? from the S. J|dNi^, having gone, 
passing) The compulsory sale of articles at a higher than 
the market price. 2d Rep. 1772, p. 293. 

GACHHAGACHHI, Ben. (ft^trtf^, from tt%, to deposit or 
receive in deposit) Mutually deposited or intrusted, a 
mutual deposit. 
Gachhita, Ben. ('t^T) Deposited, a pledge. 

GAcHHi, H. (15**-'') A pad for the back of a beast of 

GAD, H. (*>l>) Sediment of dirty water. 

GAD, Gup, H. (*w) A boundary mark (Dehli). 

GAD, Gup, Mar. (*T5) also GADI and GADHI, (*r^, Jfift) 
GADI, Karn. ("**) in Hindustani also GADH or GARH, 
&c., q. v. (the cerebral d being pronounced something 
like r, and in Hindustani being always aspirated) A small 
fort, especially a hill fort. 
Gadhari, Mar. (JlictO ) A soldier or peon serving in a 

hill fort. 

Gadnis, Mar. OliH*l*0 An officer who keeps the account 
of the charges of a fort 

GADA, Mar. (TTST) A common cart for carrying loads. 
See Gdtli. 

GADA, Karn. (*) A ferry. A stipulated term for pay- 
ment of a debt or sum due. 

Kaigada, Karn. (O)AO) A loan without interest. 
Mungada, Karn. (cXXOOAQ) Advance of pay. 
Tengala-gada, Karn. (ooX^TXcS) Monthly term of pay- 

Varshada-gada, Karn. (3ovOX(5) Annual payment, or 
payment at the end of a year. 

GADAM, GUDUM, Mar. (n^H) Watery, moist (as land), 
receiving and retaining water (soil). 

GADAMU,Tel. ("TT^^XX)) Grass growing infields of dry grain. 



GADAR, also GADDAR or GUDDUR, H. (jJlO Half-ripe 
fruit or corn. 

GADAH, GADUH, H. (^jl^, ircO A sheep. 
Gadarid, Guduria, H. (\JjJ$, isR*rt) Gddariyd, Ben. 
(*t1r<nil) A shepherd, one by caste as well as occupation. 
There are several subdivisions of the caste in the north- 
west provinces, between whom no social intercourse sub- 
sists. Amongst the Gadarids the younger brother mar- 
ries the elder brother's widow : the elder brother has not 
the same privilege. 

GADDA, Tel. (X&) GAUDE, Karn. (XSJ ) A bulbous root. 

CO * * Co 

URLA- or URALA-GADDA or GADDE, A potatoe. 
GADDA, Tel. (Xg) A water-course (Ganjam). 
Gaddateru-indmu, (?) Rent-free grant for bringing waste 

land into cultivation (Madras). 
GADDAD, GUDDAD, (?) Broken uneven ground brought 

into cultivation by the hand. A class of landholders 

in the ceded districts, holding their lands at a reduced 

rent, on account of their having levelled and brought 

broken ground into cultivation. Ceded districts. 5th 

Rep. 794. 
GADDE, corruptly, GTJDDEY, Karn. (^) Wet or paddy 

land ; land fit for rice cultivation, or on which rice is 

grown. An embankment, a bank or dike. 
Gadde-bedalu, Karn. (Xl3eo) Wet and dryland, or 

wet and dry cultivation. 
Gadde-gada, Karn. (XoXQ) A ridge or bank dividing 

rice fields. 
Gadde-hasj-hullu-liana, Karn. (XgZfci8cOttSbQ) A tax 

formerly levied in Mysore on grass grown on the banks 

of the paddy fields, half of which was given by the cul- 

tivators for the horses of the Raja. 
Gadde-kattu, Karn. ( Xgobj ) A bank, a dike, an em- 


Gadde-madi, Karn. ( Xg'&DtS ) A paddy field. 
Gadde-niru-kuli, Karn. (XQ)OJCX>^) A tax on water 

supplied by government reservoirs to rent-free or pagoda 

Gadde-zamin, (?) Lands on which crops that depend upon 

the rains are grown. 

GADUEMU, Tel. (XoSx)) Force, compulsion. 
GADDHRI, H. ((.f^S^S) The unripe pod of the gram plant 

(Cicer arietinum). 
GABDI, Tel. (^) Grass, straw. 
Gaddi-gdval, TeL (X^T^^v) Waste land (Salem). 

GADE, Tel. (~^~S>) A barn. 

GADI, Ben. (^ifi?) GAoi, Mar. (iT^t) GADDI, GUDDEE, 

H. (<_?J>0 A cushion or any padded seat, or sheet, or 

carpet on which a person sits. The seat of rank or 

royalty, a simple sheet, or mat, or carpet on the floor, 

with a large cushion or pillow at the head, against which 

the great man reclines. 
Gaddi-nashin, H. (from P. ^.jAujj, who sits) A chief, a 

principal, a prince, one who sits upon the yaddi : the 

heir-apparent is sometimes so designated. 
GADGARA, Hindi (n^i<j) Abounding in moisture (soil, 


GADGOL, H. (J/^) Muddy water. 
GADHAN, Asamese (*tt*R) Poll-tax. 
GADHE-KA-HAL, H. (<Jj& ^ ^^ ) An ass's plough, one 

drawn by asses over the ruins of a captured fort, as a 

mark of contempt. 
Gadhe-par-charhdnd, H. ( Ulfty^j ^^ftjo) To seat upon 

an ass, a kind of punishment or disgraceful public ex- 

posure ; sometimes the culprit was seated with his face 

to the tail, or had his face partly blackened. 
GADI, or GARI, Mar. (*nft) A person or individual of a 

class or caste ; used in this sense in composition, as, 

Brdhman-gadi, an individual Brahman, &c. 
GADI, Ben., Mar. (ftt^, TO*) Tel. and Karn. (~^S&) 

A carriage, a cart, especially for the carriage of persons. 

In Hindustani it is written as well as pronounced Gdri, 

q. v. 
Gdde-baydr, Mar. (jfl% ^TT^) Swinging round a mast 

fixed in a cart which moves round the idol. 
GADI, or GARI, Guz. (Ol^l) A common labourer, a 

GADI, Karn. (XO) A district It has a similar meaning 

in the Rajmahal hills, or a small division of country ; 

also in Karn., a boundary. 
Gadi-kallu, Karn. (^^) A stone set up to mark a 

GAM, Ben. (*ttft) Mar. (TTT^) GADI, Karn. (Xo) Half 

a ream, or ten quires of paper. 

GADI, Mar. (m^) An exclusive right of sale, a monopoly. 
GADIANUN, Guz. (3L^lll^) A goldsmith's weight, 

equal to 20 vals, 8 mashas, or half a tola, or about 52 

grains troy. 
GADICHAT, or GUDEECHTJT, H. (e^=?.iW ) A sort of grass 

similar to Dub, but much larger, also used as fodder. 


GADIPATI, Ben. (?lt'?Hf3, from Qadi, a bench) The 
chief of a body of religious mendicants. 

GADRA, GUDRA, H. (};J^) Unripe corn or fruit 

GADUBA, -BU, or GADUVA, Karn. ( X&>2D ; .20J, X&>3 ) 
GADUVU, Tel. (Xcio^) A fixed term for payment, an 

Gadu-hundi, Karn. (XSb^OOO) A bill payable after a 
certain date, or by instalments. 

GAEL, Thug. Treasure. 

GAGARA, Thug. A class of Thugs so called. 

GAGGARI, or -RE, Karn. (XX8 _o) Pieces of loose iron 
fastened to a stick to frighten animals and reptiles, com- 
monly carried by post-runners. 

GAGRA, H. O^o) A subdivison of the Bhangi, or sweeper caste. 

GAHAI, H. ((J\^J>) The custom of treading out the sheaves 
of corn by bullocks. 

GAHAK, H. (tl&l, from S. U1^3T) A purchaser. 

GAHAM, Thug. Food. 

GAHAN, GUHUN, H. ( { .^, S. ^T!J) An eclipse. 

GAHAN, corruptly, GHAAN, Mar. (T?TO, from S. TX^iH, 
taking) GAHNA, H. (Uy) A pawn, a pledge or thing 
in pawn, a mortgage. Land held by mortgage tenure. 
Gahdnkhat, Mar. (from P. lai-, a writing) A mortgage- 
bond, a pawnbroker's ticket. 
Gahdn-patra, corruptly, -putr, Mar. (n^TCHre) A deed of 


Gahdnrvat, Mar. Ol^KlHj) In pledge, by way of pledge, 

GAHAN, GAHUN, H.'C^jftlS) A harrow with teeth for eradi- 
cating grass from ploughed land. 

GAHAHI, II. (,_^>, J|^1) Low swampy ground, fit for 
rice cultivation. 

GAHARWAH, GUHUHWAR, corruptly, GHERWAL, (jjjj**) 
A tribe of Rajputs, extensively spread through the north- 
west provinces : one of the thirty-six royal races, appa- 
rently at an early period settled at Kanoj. 

GAHI, H. (^jftli) Five, a total or aggregate of five parts, 
a mode of reckoning ; counting by ydhis is counting by 

GAHINA, Hindi (U^S, nfrnn) also read GAHAN and GAHAN, 
('llSt, TijnO A heavy plank or flat piece of wood on 
which a man stands whilst it is dragged by oxen over a 
ploughed field, to level the ground. See Gdhan. 

GAHIRA, Ben., Uriya CtftjT, from S. JTrfr, deep) Land 
lying low, or in a hollow. 


GAHLOT, or GAHILOT, H. (c^Jji^i) A tribe of Rajputs, ex- 
tensively spread through the north-west provinces and 
Rajputana. The Raja of Udaypur is a member of one of 
their most celebrated branches, the Sisodya. 

GAHV, Mar. (lj^) Wheat. See Gehun. 

GAHtJRi, H. d_J)j^) Demurrage. 

GAINI, also read GENI, and, corruptly, GUENIE, or GUENY, 
Karn. (~^&) Rent paid to the landlord or proprietor. 
(The Glossary, 5th Rep., explains it incorrectly, Tenant). 
The word itself is rather doubtful, and does not occur 
in Reeve's Karnata Dictionary. It should possibly be 
Gehini, from Geha, S. and Karn., a house, Relating to 
a house, house-rent, &c. Brown says it is the same as 
Kaini, (%ltrO A field. 

Gaini-chali, or Chali-gaini, corruptly, Guenie-chalie, or 
-chally, Karn. (AS>axe)) A tenant-at-will, one whose 
rent is resumable. 
Gaini-kdr, Gaini-gdr, or Gaini-rvdld, Karn. A tenant, 

a rent-payer. 

Gaini-nairmul, (?) Karn. A proprietor of land. 
Gaini-shadmal, (?) Karn. A tenant at a fixed and per- 
petual rent 
Gaini-chiti, corruptly, Gueny-cMt, Karn. Agreement for 

payment of rent, receipt or acknowledgment of rent. 
Mul-gaini-gdr, Karn. Original lessee or mortgagee. 

GAIHA, H. (j^S, rfcl) A sheaf of corn, as much given at 
harvest to the lower classes of a village as will yield a 
ser and a quarter of grain. 

GAIRADA, Tel. (2"^"^) Waste, uncultivated. 
Gairddd-sthalamv, Tel. (from S. Wc5, soil) Waste land. 

GAITA, Tel. (3**) Name of a barbarous tribe in the 
Rajamahendri district 

GAJ, GUJ, Ben., Mar., &c. (Tt^, or JT5T, a vernacular cor- 
ruption of P. Guz,j) A measure of length. See G az. 
Gaj-mojani, Mar. ( JnTHTSTOfO Measuring fields by the 
gaj measuring rod. 

GAji, H. (l=>-'j) First sowing of rice at the foot of the 
hills, which takes place in the month Baisdkh. 

GijAN, Ben. (Tttel) A band or company of persons in- 
flicting tortures on themselves in honour of Siva, at the 
swing-festival. See Charah. 

GAJAR, H. (j>-^) A carrot. 

GAJGIR, Ben. (TfSr'frjO A plasterer, a terrace maker: a 

GAJJAR, GUJJUR, H. (Jff) Swampy ground. 

GAL ( 

GAL, H. ( Jtf) A kind of tobacco. 

GALA, H. &c. (P. V$, JTTcJT) A pod of cotton, or a ball of 

carded cotton. 

GALA, Ben. (^TW) Lac, sealing-wax. 
GALA, Mar. (iiae) A hook, a fish-hook, the hangman's hook, 

that by which those who swing are suspended. 
GALA, H. &c. (JK, T^T) The throat, the neck. 

Galdphdnsa, Mar. OlsblHii*!) A halter, a noose for the neck. 
GALAMATi, Hindi OloMwl) Rich free mould ; from gala, 

rotted (Puraniya). 

GALANTA, Mar. Olcfed) A cypher placed after the first letter 
of a word, or the first word of a sentence, to denote the 
omission of the rest. 
GALAY-DARI, Ben. (^TtVTfPs, from galay, on the neck.and 

dari, a rope) Hanging, strangulation. 
Galdyadariyd, Ben. (^W^Ttff^Tl) Deserving to be hanged. 
GALEVU, Kara. (Xo,^i) A complete ploughing apparatus. 
GALI, H. &c. (Jtf) Abuse. 

GALi, Tel. (~7^0) A heap of salt, equal to 15 garces. 
GALIA, H. (L*i) A bullock that lies down in the midst of 

his work. 

GALIGE, Kara. ( A^~A ) A large basket for storing corn. 
GALLA, GULLA, Mar., Tel., &c. (HWT, ^T 9 , vernacular 
corruption of the A. Ghala, *Le) Grain of every kind : 
also Ghalla, q. v. 
Galld-kharidi, Mar. ('IdlttO^t) A cess levied on all 

purchases of corn by the village. 
Galld-tolapatti, Mar. ( 

A cess levied on a 
village, to cover any possible loss of weight in dividing 
the crop with the cultivator. 
Gallekari, Mar. (TWliTt) A corn-chandler. 
Galle-patti, Mar. Olcjilgl) A tax imposed upon villages 
under the Maratha government, in lieu of grain formerly 
exacted for the public stables. An extra money cess 
charged on the amount of the crop, at so much per 

GALLI, GULLEE, H. &c. (^J, TWt) A lane, an alley. 
GALLU, Kara. (X^U) Hanging, as of a culprit 

Gallinahaya, Kara. (XS^SbX) A halter. 
GALTANS, H. (^J*JM) Dying without issue. (From the S. 
galita, lf^5TT, lost, and ans, ^$F, portion or inheritance). 
GALUA, Hindi (Tcra) Soil excessively humid, in which 

the crops turn yellow and rot (Puraniya). 
GAM, pronounced GOM, Ben. (ffa, abbreviation of S. 



GAM, corruptly, GAUM, H. &c. (J/, abbreviation of 

A village. See Gram. 
Gdmagdnelekhkha, Kara. ( A dSD A cJfoGSO) Revenue 

account of a district containing several villages. 
GAMBHIR, Hindi, also abridged, GAIHIR and GAHARI, 
(iwfa, *tf?t, '(?i,1, from the S. *Trte, deep) Deep, 
commonly applied to soil of a rich quality, descending to 
a more than usual depth before reaching the sub-soil: 
most of the soil of Malwa is so termed. 
GAMALLAVADU, Tel. (X^O^^&j) A toddy drawer ; the 
caste following that business, said to be derived from a 
Sudra father and Kshatriya mother. 
GAMRI, Hindi (n*Kl) The corn when swelled out with the 

ear not yet protruded. 
GANA, Kara. (~7T9^Q) An oil-mill. 
Gdnaterige, Kara. (~7TcU3o6 A) A tax on oil-presses in 


GANA, S., adopted in most dialects, (*TO) A troop, a flock, 
a multitude ; an assembly of families to decide upon a 
domestic difference or impropriety. In Mysore it is ap- 
plied apparently to the sect or society of Lingayats. 
Gandchdr, Kara. (ATO33 r c)O ) f rom g. xHHK, usage) A 
fee formerly paid by the Lingayats to their priests at 
their marriages ; subsequently included in the cesses pay- 
able to the government (in Mysore). Properly, the ob- 
servance or established usage of any associated body. 
Gandchdri, incorrectly, Gunnacharee, Kara. ( XEJ3FS6 5 
from S. TOST, and 'STP^nrt, a teacher) A censor, an in- 
spector of morals appointed originally by the government 
of Bidnur, but continued under the Marathas in Karnata. 
His duty was especially to notice violations of caste, eat- 
ing forbidden food, intercourse with impure castes, for- 
nication and adultery, which he was empowered to punish 
by expulsion from the caste, and restoration to it could 
not be effected without his concurrence. He received fees 
on marriages and deaths, and fines for minor offences 
against caste, for which the office still subsists partially, 
although usually set up by the castes themselves; the 
individual invested with the authority being one of them- 
selves, recognised as a chief or head. 
Ganadravya, Kara, (from S. '5^31, thing) Common stock, 

common property. 
Ganagoshthi} Ben. (ft f lZ''tw^) A race, a family, family 

lineage or genealogy. 
Ganakumdrika, Karn. (Xraoo&J~S60) A tax on the 


income (? the marriages of the daughters) of Lingayat 
priests. . 

Ganapati, S. (TT!nifTT) A name of Ganesa. 
Gandrddliana, Karn. (XTO?TS$rC5) A feast given by a 

Jangama priest to his followers. 

Ganesa, S. (TlB^l) A Hindu divinity, characterized by an 
elephant's head, who, in his character of remover of ob- 
stacles, is worshipped especially at the commencement of 
an undertaking. This, and similar terms as the pre- 
ceding, imply that he is lord or chief (f^J -ifrT, &c.) over 
various classes (ganas) of inferior divinities. 
Ganexa-chaturthi, S. A festival in honour of Ganesa on 

the 4th of the light half of Bhadra. 
Ganikd, Hindi, &c. (S. J|flU4l) A prostitute. 
GANAKA, S., adopted in most dialects, OUUck:) An astro- 
loger, a caster of nativities, a keeper of genealogies, and 
negociator of marriages. 

GANANA, S., and in many dialects, OUJH) Computing, cal- 

GANAURI, H. (i_Sjy) A bulrush (Eastern Oudh). 
GANDA, GUNDA, H. (s3J^) GANDA, Ben. CW1) A money of 
account, equivalent in reckoning to four haunris or cowry 
shells, or the twentieth part of an ana. Twenty gandas make 
one pan. The value of the yanda in practice varies, 
and from four to six may be rated as a c/tliaddm, but 
as a mode of reckoning in general it invariably implies 
four. To count by yandas is to count by fours. 
Ganddkiyd, Ben. ( 't^Qt^Tl ) Method of counting by four, 

the most usual multiple in Bengal. 
GANDA, (?) Lands situated nearest to the village. 
GANDA, H. (3JJi) Fetid, foul smelling. 
GANDA, H. (IjJo, *TT%T) Sugar-cane, or a cane when ready 

for cutting. 

GANDA, H. (lJii) A knotted string round a child's neck 

to protect it from evil eyes. Mar. (itel) A string bound 

round the wrist or ancle, as a charm or protection against 

evil influences. 

GANDAGHAM, Ben. (Tt^SfN) A principal or respectable 


GANDADA-POMMU, Karn. (Xo>r|j/e}&O) A fine, for- 
merly levied from the cultivators of gardens for turning 
up sandal seedlings in ploughing (Mysore). 
Thatching grass, the root of which, or khashhas, is used 
for Tattis (Andropogon muricatum). 


GANDAM, GUNDUM, H. (P. ,iJJ6) Wheat. 

GANDAPENDARA, Karn. (Xo&~ioo~S~c>&) A badge of 
honour, a medal, &c. 

GANDARWALA, GUNDURWALA, H. (^^iXJ^) Part of a sugar- 
mill, the receptacle of the cane before it is cut. 

^ilxii) A sickle in general, one used for cutting down 
sugar-cane, jarodr stalks, or thorny bushes. Also, in 
Dehli, a tax formerly levied on the number of such im- 
plements in the hands of the Ryots. 

GANDEHI, H. (,^1X0) Pieces of sugar-cane. 

GANDHA, S. &c. (ifW) Smell, fragrance, any fragrant sub- 
stance, sandal-wood or other odorous matter pounded for 
rubbing on the person or on the figures of the gods, &c. 
In Karn. Ganda or Gandha, (AOQ, XoQ) means espe- 
cially, Sandal wood. 
Gandha-banih, Ben. (from ^f*1^, a trader) A druggist, a 


Oandha-biroza, H. (xj^jJoS) Frankincense, the resin of 
the Boswellia thurifera : also of a kind of pine (P. lon- 
Gandhanari-nellu, Karn. (Xo$^>6?eu) A sort of rice 

grown in Mysore. 

Gandhel, H. ((J.-Aa>Xii) A fragrant grass (Andropogon 
calamus aromaticus), from the leaves, culms, and roots 
of which a sweet-smelling essential oil is distilled. 
Gandhila, H. (lysJols) Fetid, bad smelling, The name 
of a low and vagrant caste in the north-west provinces, 
who make mats, and exhibit feats of activity : they are 
also thieves. 

Gandhottama, Tel. (XcQ^^D, s. JTO, and -31m, best) 
Spirituous liquor, the fermented juice of the palm, tdri 
or toddy. 

GANDHA, Ben. (*t *f ) Relationship, connexion, friendship. 

GANDHARBBA, S. (JPV^O A kind of inferior divinity, at- 
tendant upon Indra and Kuvera, and distinguished for 
musical proficiency. 

Gdndharbba, S. (JTPtrw) Relating to a Gandharbba, as 
music, singing ; a form of marriage formerly recognised as 
legal, depending solely upon the mutual consent of par- 
ties of the Kshetriya, or military order. 
GANDHU, H. (^a>Ja) A branch of the Jat tribe. 
GANDI, Tel. ( Xo& ) A breach in the bank of a tank made 
by the water, a channel cut in it to let out the water 
for irrigation : also a pass in the hills. 


GANDHUPIN, H. (^j;^) A Hindu dancing-girl : (perhaps 

an abridgement of S. Gandarbha-rupini). 
GANGA, GUNGA, S. (jfrn) The river Ganges, the river 
Godaveri, any river. (The word occurs in all the dialects, 
but sometimes in composition with the final shortened or 

Gangdla, H. (<XllQb) Lands subject to inundations of the 

Gangd-jal, Gunga-jv.l Ben. (TtTftlS30 The water of the 
Ganges, sometimes applied to the water of any river re- 
puted holy. A kind of oath, swearing by the Ganges 
water ; more correctly, Gangd-jal-sapath, oath by the 
Ganges water, or Gangd-jal-sparsa, touching the water 
of the Ganges, which forms part of the ceremony. 

Gangdjali, Ben. (S. *t 0i H<swl) Swearing by the water of 
the Ganges. 

Gangdjaliyd, Ben. (S. ?t T||>sT!<jl) A person who has ad- 
ministered, or who has taken an oath by the Ganges : 
used contemptuously. 

Gangdldbh, Ben. (S. ffftfata, from S. c-TW, obtaining) 
Being brought to the banks of the Ganges to die there. 
Committing a dead body to the river. Also Gangdprdpti, 
(from S. info, obtaining) and Gangdydtrd, (from S. 3JTTT, 
a going). 

Gangdputra, or Gungapootr, S. H. (from S. trg, a son) 
A tribe of inferior Brahmans, who pretend to be a branch 
of the Kanoj Brahmans, and who call themselves sons of 
Ganga, claiming a right to attend pilgrims and direct 
their ablutions at Benares, and other holy places on 
the banks of the Ganges. At Benares, where they are 
most numerous, they claim a hereditary right to the bank 
between high and low-water mark. Some follow agri- 

Gangd-Itdm,Thng. Rama and Ganga, two divinities ; but, 
as used by the Thugs, a hint that danger is nigh. 

Gangdsdgara, S. (from TTRt, the ocean) The place where 
the Bhagirathi branch of the Ganges debouches into the 
Bay of Bengal. 

Gangd-yamund, commonly, Gunga-jumna, (from JiTT, and 
*npn> the river Yamuna, vulgo Jumna) A mode of ad- 
justing an account of borrowed money, interest paid to 
the creditor until the whole debt is discharged, and, on 
the other hand, interest allowed to the debtor on all the 
instalments he may pay. 

Gang-bartir, or -bar-dmad, H. (J\j*t', or &*}j*&, from 


P. ji , and Jn> I , or j\, bringing or coming) Alluvial land 
recovered from a river, especially from the Ganges. 
Gangodaka, S. (from 7^ir, water) The water of the Ganges, 

or any holy river. 

Gang-shihast, H. (from P. ^^wCi, to break) Encroach- 
ments of the Ganges, or any other river. 
Gangthari, also Gangdtir, Mar. (jfrlT^j "T'linlO The 
country along the banks of the Godaveri river. (From 
S. Wcjft, a place, or wfa, a bank). 

GANGANA, Tel. ( /fCTK'Kr' ) By villages, settlement of 
revenue by villages ; the same as Mauzaivdr : (vernacular 
corruption of gaon, or grdma, repeated). 
GANGUTIA-BANDI, Uriya (9^82110)01) An embankment, 

a dike. 
GANIGE, Tel. (X5)A ) An oil-mill, one worked by oxen. 

Ganigdr, Kara. (Ao)"7T > 0) An oil-maker or vendor. 
GANIME, Tel. (A& X>) A ridge of earth dividing two fields. 
GANITA, S. (JlftflTT) Counted, computed; computation, arith- 

Bija, or Vija-ganita, Algebra. 

GANJ, GUNJ, corruptly, GUNJE, H. &c. (P. #x) A mart, 

a market: in Bengal and Hindustan a village or town 

which is an emporium for grain and other necessaries of 

life : in the designation of such a place the word is 

commonly compounded with some other word, not un- 

frequently English, as, Isldm.-ga.nj, Captain-ganj, Revel- 

ganj, &c. In Maratha the word also signifies a heap or 

pile of grain, a rick, a stack, &c. 

Ganji, Mar. (jfift) A small stack. 

Ganjikhdna, Mar. (P. <X;l-, a house) A yard with many 

stacks of hay, &c. : a lumber-room. 

GANJA, or GANJHA, H. (iWlS) The hemp plant (Cannabis 
saliva), or, according to some authorities, a different species 
(Cannabis indica) : according to others, it is applicable 
to the plant only whilst young. In the north-west pro- 
vinces the term also designates an intoxicating liquor, an 
infusion of the young flowers and leaves in water. In 
Bengal the same are dried and pounded, and then used 
in smoking. The intoxicating property depends in either 
case upon the resinous exudation of the plant adhering to 
the vegetable substance. See Bhang. 
Gdnjdhhor, Ben. ( < stt<5Tfe 1 'tt3') A smoker of hemp, one 

addicted to its use. 

Gdnjatvdld, H. (11^ iXar'li) A vendor of intoxicating pre- 
parations of hemp. 

2 u 


GANJAP, H. (,=J'^) A kind of grass. 

' 't 

GANJELI, H. ( ^J^s~ ) A kind of coarse sacking or can- 
vas made from the fibres , of the hemp plant. 

GANJIFA, H. &c. (P. *ajar^, !flM) Cards; the game, or 
the cards with which it is played. The pack consists 
of ninety-six cards, divided amongst eight suits. 

GANKAH, or GAKAR, H. (/Jl, ^) A kind of coarse 
bread, made from inferior grains or pulse, and imper- 
fectly baked. 

GANNA, GUNNA, H. (U) Sugar-cane, a cane especially 

when ready for cutting. 

Gankdfa, H. (<Kj&) A man whose business it is to cut 
the cane into lengths of about six inches for feeding 
the mill. 

GANNEL, H. (Jxx) A species of long grass used for 

OA.VNJ, commonly, GUNNY, H. (,<^) A. name given to the 
coarse bags made of a sort of sacking from the fibres of 
the Pat (Corchorus capsularis) : the word is a corruption 
of that first given to the Pat by Rumphius, Gania, which 
was no doubt the Mara ha, or rather Sanskrit Gona or 
Qoni, q. v. 

GANG, Thug. A class of Thugs. 

GANOT, Guz. ( 3HlTU"l) Ground -rent of land let by pro- 
prietors to tenants or cultivators for the purpose of cul- 
tivating and improving it. 

Ganut-ndmun, or -ndon, Guz. ( OlUfl^lll r *3) A lease of 
land given by the proprietor to cultivators, stating the 
extent, name, and site, as well as the amount of rent. 
Ganotio, (Ol(iilftlTO A tenant, a leaseholder. 

GANTH, GANTHA, or GANTHI, H. (<&'., Uil, {J SM^, S. 
ufrVj) A knot or tie ; fig., an engagement. In the 
north-west it is applied to the refuse of straw, com- 
prising the knotted parts of the stalk and ear-ends, which 
are formed in a separate pile on the threshing-floor : the 
colder of English agriculture. 

GANTHA, H. (l^^) A fractional part, one twentieth of a 
jarib, equal to three (jaz. In Guz. the Gantha Ol U) 
is a measure of eight feet in length. 
Gdnthi-ddr, H. (;lj ^JjlS) An occupant of lands under 

a landlord at a fixed rent and by heritable tenure. 
Gdnthi-jamd, A. (**=> .ypijl) Hereditary under-tenancy 

of land at a fixed and permanent rent. 
Ganti, or Gdnit, Ben. (*ttfi>, Tft^i>, S. TTfal) A knot, 
a tie, a parcel, a bale of goods. 


Ganthio, Guz. Ol^ltl) A pickpocket, a swindler. 
Gdnti-kdfd, Den. O^I^falitl) A cutpurse, a pickpocket : 

the natives usually tie their money up in a corner of 

their upper garment in a knot, whence the expression. 

Also, a plunderer or cutter open of packages. 
Gdnti-chhdrd, Ben. (?tt < Ti>^l>5l ) Tying the bride and 

bridegroom together, as part of the marriage ceremony : 

a cloth, with fruit, &c., is placed upon their hands, and 

one end is fastened to the borders of the dress of the 

woman, the other to that of the man. 

GANTI, Ben. (tt^ft) Insertion of an article among others. 
O anti-jama, Ben. ( ftt^5Nl )Including a small parcel of 

land in the general rent. 

GANTRI, Ben. (S. Tt i5t) A car or cart drawn by oxen. 
GANTU, TeL Karn. (Xoe^O) Stock, capital, principal as 

opposed to interest : a debt 
GANU, Thug. One of the gang who on occasions shams 


GANUA, Thug. Any fraud or trick of Thugs. 
GANUOA, Tel. ("TT'rCXJA) An oil or sugar press. 
GAXW, always pronounced, and sometimes written GAON, 

H. (yl, Mar. nfa) A village. A measure of distance, 

four has, varying from four to nine miles. (The word 

is a vernacular corruption of Gram, q. v. ; also see below 

Ganrvdr, H. (j'y^i abbreviation of Gdonndr) Village, 

rude, rustic ; a clown, a villager. 
GAO.V, corruptly, GONG, H., Mar. (^, the same as GANW, 

or nfa, corruption of Wl) A village. See Gram. 
Gdonbat, H. (tJL~Ju^) A division of a Taluk into se- 

parate villages, or of the several additional or subordinate 

villages attached to the one originally assessed. See 


Gdon-devatd, Mar. (JlN^fll) The village idol. 
Gdondlte, or Gdondttcgaon, Mar. ( ilfa, JTi^nfa) A 

small village, a hamlet. 
G don y anna, Mar. (TN'ln) By villages; distributively, 

as village assessments, &c. 
Gaonkar, Gaonhur, Mar. (JTN*O A villager : a Sudra 

appointed in a village where there are no Brahmans to 

attend upon the village idol. 
Gdonhdr, Karn. ("TTSo^D^)^) The head-man of a village 

Gdonkltarch, H. Mar. (_yi j jli, >riw) Village charges. 

See Grdmakharch. 

Gaonkusun. Mar. 
Gaonnemnuh, Mar. 

Gdoiution, Mar. 

or villages. 
Gdonsai, Mar. 


The village wall or fence. 
Expenses of village esta- 

A general term for a village 

Annual propitiation of the vil- 
lage bhuts, or goblins, by offerings of fruits and flowers. 
Gdonthan, corruptly, Gaoton, Mar. (JIN44, from WR, 
place) Site of a village, whether in ruins or still stand- 
ing; also Gaonlhal (from S. Wt<5, soil). 
Gaontd, H. (Ixiy ) Village expenses. 
Gdonti, H. Mar. (.J^j^) Of r belonging to a village. 
Gaontid, H. (UjujS) A small hamlet 
Gaolikd, H. (&JjS) The head manager of a village, 
equivalent to a Mukaddam elsewhere (Sohagpur). (The 
first term is an abbreviation of Gdon or Gram). 
Gum-gdon, Mar. (JWIN, from P. *S, lost) A village, the 

site of which is unknown. 
GAPAN, Ben. (^tW^O Denial or concealment of facts, pre- 

varication, self-contradiction. 

GAPSA, GUPSA, H. (L*oi ) Hard soil, of a whitish appearance. 
GAR, or GARBHANG, Thug. A share of spoil. 
GARA, GURA, H. (V^i) A large sheaf; except in the Dehli 

district, where it denotes a small one. 
Gardbatui, H. (^liy) Division of produce without 
threshing, by stacking the sheaves in proportionate shares. 
GARA, GAHUH, H. (s,) Low land on which water does 

not lie long (Upper Doab). 
GARA, H. (l;o) A class of Mohammadan cultivators in 

GARADA, Mar. OKI3I) A body (of troops, &c.) forming a 

cordon or investment. 

GARADf, Mar. (fl4.ul) A cart-rut: the groove in which the 
wheel moves that bruises lime and prepares it for mortar. 
GAHAGADAMT-, Tel. (AOAcSSX)) Marks made with cow- 
dung and water upon heaps of winnowed grain to pre- 
vent depredation. 
GARAGESANNANEMJ, Karn. (X#A#O8aJ) A sort of 

rice grown in Mysore. 

GARAKANATTU, Tel. (AOSroLXi) A tough and deep- 
rooted grass, growing in some fields, and weeded only 
by ploughing. 

GARA-KATA-JARTB, TJriya (1|QQS|QQ1Q) Measured by a 
rod, exact measurement. 


GARAO, H. (^) An instrument for cutting jawdr stalks, 
&c., for fodder (Central and Lower Doab). 

GARAPA, Tel. (X&53) Stony, gravelly (as soil). 
Garapa-bhumi, Tel. (X83&T ( S J from S. rfa, land) 
Sandy or gravelly soil. 

GARAPAGAR, or -GARI, or -GARYA, Mar. (nminK -tf -aT, 
from Mar. JTR, a hailstone, and S. ^njeRTT, who drives 
away) An individual supposed to have a power over hail- 
storms, and who is retained in some villages as part of 
the establishment, to prevent their injuring the crops. 

GARARI, GURAREE, H. d_<r;]/) The block over which the 
rope of a well traverses. 

GARASI, H. (^J^S) An implement for cutting jarcdr 
stalks, thorn-bushes, &c. 

GAHATA, Karn. (AO8 5 vernacular form of S. T?W, 

q. v.) A householder. 
GARAWA, Hindi (*KT^t) A light and poor soil, in which 

the crops never come to perfection (Puraniya). 
GARBHA, S. &c., vernacularly also, GABH, (T>I, JTw) The 
embryo, the fetus ; sometimes, but less accurately, the 
womb. In Bengal the term is also applied to the whole 
space covered by the Ganges when at its utmost extent 
in the height of the rainy season. 

Garbhddhdna, S. (lf, the womb, and ^SUTR, holding) 
A ceremony performed on the first indications of preg- 
nancy ; one of the Sanskaras, or essential rites of the 

Garbha-griha, or Garbha-stkala, S. (from T$, the womb, 
and ^Tlf, a house, or WcS, a place) The interior of a 
dwelling, the inner apartments, the sanctuary of a temple, 
the adytum in which the idol stands. 
Garbhaja, S. (jT*Nt) Born of the mother, a son, whether 
begotten illegitimately or of a wife by another father 
than the husband under special appointment, when the 
child is legitimate. 

GARDEZI, H. (u?jiiXs) A class of Saiyids in Muzafferpur. 
GARDI, (English Guard) Native soldiers disciplined after 
the European mode to act as guards : (an obsolete 

GARDI, GURDEE, Mar. (ff^f) Dustiness, confusion, disorder, 
tumult, rout of an army, state of public dismay and 

GARDORA, H. (\j.^) A small pit. 

GARERAN, H. (jjy^) The receptacle for the sugar-cane 
before it is cut. 


GAHE, Karn. ("7Tc>o) A plaster or mortar of chunam or 

burnt lime, used to coat the walls of apartments. 
Gdrekdr, Karn. (TTS^O~9^) A plasterer. 
Vajragdre, Karn. (*>\22j A ciQ) A mixture of lime, plaster, 
and small stonesi used for making floors: the Khoa of 

GARG, H. (i^/ from the S. JTT|:, a celebrated Rishi, and 
founder of the Garga family) One of the sixteen sub- 
divisions of the Kanojia Brahmans. 
Gargbansi, H. ( ( <Ju^) A tribe of Rajputs so called, 

chiefly in Gorakhpur and Azimgarh. 
GAUGAWA, H. UfJ>) A- grass growing in low ground during 

the rains, and sometimes injurious to the rice. 
GARH, GURU, H. (a^) also GADHf, or GARnf, (,jft3^, 
,/>,$, JT 2 : A fort, a hill fort, a mud fort, or one the 
walls of which are of very thick clay, strengthened 
by bastions. The word occurs also in this and other 
dialects with the cerebral unaspirated d, as, Gad, Gud, 
(is), but in either case the d is pronounced much the 
same as r. The word also occurs with an initial aspi- 
rate, Ghar or Gliari, but this is incorrect. 
GARH A, H. (lay, T3l) A pit, a cave, a ravine. 
GARHAI, H. ( ( _ s >ft ; ?) A small pond. 

GARHAL, Hindi (iir?T^) Land without moisture (Puraniya). 
GARHAPATYA, S. OlI^Mfl) The sacred fire of the house- 
holder, (Grihapati,) of which this is a regular derivative. 
GARHIBAND, GURHEEBUND, H. (jJo ( X^) Tenure of land 
in Bundelkhand, on payment of a quit-rent much below 
the usual amount, arising out of the successful resistance 
which the possessors of the Garhis, or forts, made to the 
Maratha government, who were compelled to reduce their 
demand to the lowest sum which the landholder would 
consent to pay. The holder of land on these reduced 
terms (Bundelkhand). 

GARI, GUREE, Uriya (S1Q1, from Ben. *tf^5, a wave) Undu- 
lating ground. 

GARI, or GADI, H. &c. (t.jjtf, t^^, TTTt) A carriage of 
any description, a carriage or a cart for the conveyance 
of persons : see Gddi. 

Gdribdn, or Gdriivdn, H. &c. (^^o, ^'ji/^) A coach- 
man, the driver of a coach or car. 
Gdri, Gdli, Guz. (^ll-tl) A cart-load, a corn measure 

of thirty maunds. 

GARIA, or GADIA, Uriya (S1|Qle||) A small tank or re- 
servoir of water. 



GARIM, (?) Tel. An apparatus for raising water from a well. 
GARISA, corruptly, GARCE, Tel. (X6#) GARASI, -SE, Karn. 

(Xo3 ? ."&) A measure of grain equal to 400 markdls, 

or 185.2 cubic feet=9860 Ib. avoirdupois. See Markdl. 
GARJANTAIL, Ben. (T|w2\sti) Wood oil, an oil that exudes 

from incisions in the bark of several species of Diptero- 

GARJAT, Uriya (S15>!?|G>) Estates in the hill country of 


GARKHA, Thug. The neck. 
GARMATTU, Karn. (X^^i^b) Any kind of reed, grass, 

or corn. 


GARRI, GURREE, H. (i,jf,>) A haystack, a rick (Lower 

Doab). A large stack of wheat or barley, the produce 

of one field (Upper Doab). A large stack of hharif 

produce (Rohilkhand). 

GARTHA, Thug. The dead body of a victim. 
GARUSU, GARASU, Karn. (X&>o, XSrCX)) Gravel. 
Garusu-nela, Karn. (AOOriOcOO) A gravelly soil. 
GAHUVU, Tel. (X&><^) Gravelly soil. 
GAHWA, Mar. (JI<<0) Ripening late ; applied to particular 

grains which are slow of coming to maturity. 
GASA, Karn. (~A~3rO ( vernacular corruption of both S. 

grdsa, TTRT, and H. ghdsa, Tire) Subsistence, salary, pay : 

forage for cattle. 
GASHT.H. (P. c^vi^) GAST, Mar. (JTCf) Tel. (^) GASTI, 

Karn. (X^,) Watch, patrol going the rounds, the 

boundaries of a division of a town or village, a division 

or ward of a town, that is, the range or beat of the patrol. 
Gashti, Gushtee, H. (^jXi^, from P. { J& , to turn round) 

Presents to a revenue officer, on his making the tour of 

his district. 
Gasht-mahdl, H. ( JlyoO^j) A toll or transit duty 

levied in some Zamindaris upon boats passing. 
Gasht-saldmi, H. (^L* c>vi) A tax or fee levied by 

public officers under the native governments, when making 

either a revenue or judicial circuit. 
GATA, H. (<XjlS) Yoking bullocks together to tread out 

grain (Dehli). A plot or piece of land, a part of a 

Gdtabandi, Gatalundee, R d.5^ <*^) Division of a 

village by parcels or plots of land, some of which may 

be scattered among the fields of several other villages. 

Also termed Gdtewdr (j\^u^\ 
GATA-AWAJI, Ben. (Tt^lTSft, from S. THT, gone, and A. 


ana-, (jfi exchange) Transfer of land or of revenue 

payment from one Ryot to another. 
GATA-KHAMAR, Ben. (*t'*>t5Tt?r, from *ffcrf3, a threshing- 

floor) Lapse of a Ryot's holding into the possession of 

the Zamindar. 
GATHA, H. (lfi>) The twentieth part of a Jarib. Also 


Gatk.7vd.nsi, H. (^jiuj^jb) The twentieth part of a Gathd. 
GATHAUND, H. (jj^li) A pledge or deposit tied up in a 

GATHBANDHAN, H. (^.yfcjJUaii, fromGdnth, a knot) Tying 

a knot, especially tying the clothes of the bride and bride- 

groom together, as part of the marriage ceremony. See 

GATHI, H. (^$) A pad put on the back of a beast of 


GATHIA, H. (\J$>) A pannier, a sack, a bundle. 
GATHONI, Thug. A knot in a turban, or any piece of cloth 

in which money or jewels may be concealed. 
GATHIU, GUTHREE, H. &c. (i B f^Jii, 173^) A bag: money 

brought in payment of revenue in a bag (Benares). A 

bundle, a package, a parcel. 
GATKUL, or GATKULI', II., Mar., &c., corruptly, GHUTKOOL, 

(TIH^S, mrajc-rt, from S. im, gone, and ^5, a family) 

Applied to property, lands, houses, &c., the proprietors of 

which are extinct ; unclaimed inheritance ; lands of a 

village uncultivated, or without owners, considered in some 

respects as village property, so that they may be disposed 

of, sold, or leased by the community, but when not so 

disposed of they were often granted in Indm by the 

Maratha government. 

Gatkul, Mar. OlrtFc$) An emigrated or extinct family. 
GATTU, Tel. (A^O) A bank, an embankment, a dam or 


Gattii-tumu, Tel. (Xbj&T^&O) One twentieth part of 

the gross produce collected by Zamindars from each vil- 

lage for the repair of tanks and embankments. 
GATTU, Karn. (^^) A large trading town. 
GATWARA, GUTWAHA, or, more correctly, GANTHWARA, 




A tribe of Jats in the Doab. 

GAU, GAO, also in the uninflected form, especially in com- 
pounds, Go, also GAI, or GAY, S., but adopted in all 
the dialects, (*ft, ift, Trrq) A cow, an ox, a bull. 
Gduchardi, Gaochuraee, (^^-j^) Grazing, grazing or 
pasture ground; a tax levied on pasture lands. 

Gaudivya, Mar. (jfrfVai) Form of oath, swearing while 
holding the tail of a cow. 

Gdukhdna, H. (<!6U^l) A cow stable or stalls. 

Gaukos, Mar. ('Jlcfft^O A land measure, the distance at 
which the lowing of a cow may be heard. 

Gduli, Gaolee, (^Jj) A cowherd; a caste living by 
keeping cows and selling milk : different classes of them 
are known in the Dakhin, distinguished sufficiently by 
their appellations, as, Ahir-Gduli, a branch of the Ahirs; 
Konkani-Gauli, natives of the Konkan ; and TAngayat- 
Gduli, followers of the Jangam sect. 

Gdtishumdri, Gaoshoomaree, H. ((^Uwjls) An enume- 

ration or census of cattle, a tax upon cattle. 
GAUCHANA, GOUCHUNA, H. (lx-^) Land sowed with 

wheat and chana. 

GAUp, pronounced GAUH, H. &c. (jf) S. GAUDA, (jfte, 
*tfa) The ancient name of Central Bengal, and that of 
the ruins of its former capital. A name applied to one 
of the two great divisions of the Brahmans, or the Five 
Gauras, (see Brdhmana) ; also to one of the five, the 
Brahmans of Bengal proper, who are distinguished 
again as Varendriya, Rarhiya, Sdtxhati, and Vaidika 
Brahmans : the two first from their being settled in the 
several portions of Gaura, called Varendra and Mark ; 
the third as descended from 700 Brahmanical families 
who were settled in Bengal before the introduction of the 
families from Kanoj, who are said to have been fugitives 
from Orissa ; the fourth from their knowledge of the Vedas. 
The Gaur Brahmans were also classed by Dalai Sen, a 
Rajaof Bengal about the eleventh century, in three divisions : 
1. Kulinas, from kula, a family, the most respectable 
members of the community ; 2. Srotriyas, those who had 
passed through the established institutions, and had read 
part of the Vedas ; and 3. Vansajas, merely born Brah- 
mans, possessing neither respectability nor learning. 
There are other divisions of Bengal Brahmans of a still 
inferior description, degraded by acting as priests for the 
mixed castes, or by some peculiarities of a fanciful and 
fabulous character. The term Gaur is also applied to 
other castes or tribes, as specified by Mr. Elliot 

Gaur-Brahman, H. (j.r**rfjij) The Brahman of the 
Gaur tribe or caste, one of the five Gaurs, but located 
in the upper provinces throughout the Subah of Dehli 
to the hills. There are many subdivisions of these Gaur 
Brahmans of Hindustan, who are apparently unknown in 
2 x 



Bengal, as, the AdJi-Gaur, Kaitkal-Gaur, Gujar-Gdur, 
Sidh-Gaur, &c., amounting in all to forty-two. 

Gaur-kdyath, H. (&j\ jf) One of the twelve divisions 
of the Kayastha tribe, or writer caste. Although pro- 
perly of Bengal, many are found in the upper provinces, 
where they settled under the patronage of Nasir-ud-din, 
son of Bulban, about six centuries ago. 

Gaur-Rajput, H. (cu^>-lj j) One of the thirty-six 
royal Rajput races whose origin is doubtful. They are 
numerous in the north-western provinces, divided into 
three principal branches: the JBhat-Gaur, Bdlnn<ui- 
Gaur, and Chamar-Gaur ; names derived, Mr. Elliot 
supposes, from some intercourse with Bhats, Brahmans, 
and Chamars. 

Gaur-tagd, H. (Uo^ji) An important tribe of Brahman- 
ical descent in the north-west of India, extending through 
a great part of Rohilkhand, the Upper Doab, and ter- 
ritory of Dehli. According to the fables current among 
them, they were originally invited from Bengal by Raja 
Janamejaya, king of Hastinapur, for the purpose of ex- 
terminating the Takshakas or snakes, in concert with the 
Raja. Mr. Elliot considers the Takshakas to have been 
Buddhist Scythians from the north, who invaded India 
about 500 years B. C. The Tagas are so termed, it is 
said, from the S. tydga, abandoning, as they abandoned 
their Brahmanical character by accepting and cultivating 
the lands granted to them by Janamejaya. 

Gaur-thdkur, H. (J*\# j) A tribe of Rajputs, settled in 

the Farakhabad district. 

GAUD, GAUH, or GAUDA, also spelt GAVUDA, corruptly, 
GOWDA, and GOWDOO, Karn. (^>&, X<^i&) The head 
man of a village in the Karnatic who superintends the 
cultivation and the collection of the revenue, correspond- 
ing with the Pdtil of the Maratha provinces: or one who 
farms the lands of a village, and lets them out to cul- 
tivators, in which case he corresponds with the Zamin- 
dar of Bengal. 

Huttu-gdra-gauda, Karn. ( 8<X>^X*"7rs^7T3^) A head 
man, who is also a native of^the village. 

Phatle-gdra-gauda, Karn. (& pTTci&K^Q ) A head man, 
who is not a native of the village over which he 

Gaud-dya, Karn. (TT^cSaoa}) Proportion of the crop 
formerly set apart for the head man, resumed by the 
Mysore government. 

Gauda-mdnyam, Karn. The privilege land and fees of the 

head man of a village. 
Gauda-mirds, Karn. The hereditary privilege land of the 

head of a village. 
Gauda-teriye, Karn. (7T 5) <SoB"A) A fee formerly paid 

to the head man by the villagers, resumed by the govern- 

ment of Mysore. 
GAUDA, or GAURA, corruptly, GOWRA, (?) The head man 

of certain castes of the potter, the shepherd, and the 

weaver ; also, in parts of the Sahyadri hills, of the cul- 

tivator and cowherd caste. (From the locality of its use 

this should be a Maratha term, but it is not found in 

GAUDALU, Karn. (A*OttJ) A caste or tribe in Mysore 

following agriculture as labourers, or sometimes small 

farmers under a lease from the landholder. 
GAUH!N, H. (^jbfcji) A village made over by its pro- 

prietors to any person, on a permanent revenue assess- 

ment, with all the privileges of a Zamindar (Eastern Oudh). 
GAUHANi, H. (^la^s, Jft^Tfft) Lands situated close round 

a village, and commonly left for pasturage : also, the 

entire lands of the village, or the village itself. " 
GAULIOA, Kara. (A 3 ^?^) Name of a pastoral and migra- 

tory tribe in Mysore, who rear buffaloes, and sell their 

milk and ghee, and accompany camps ; also, a seller of 

GAUNA, S., Ben., &c. (jflHJ, from THST, quality, property) 

Secondary, supplementary, special, or specific. 
Gauna-mdsa, S. (from UTO, a month) The lunar month, 

as reckoned from full moon to full moon. 
Gauna-putra, S. (from T^, a son) A subsidiary or re- 

presentative son, one by adoption, &c., or any form except 

by birth. 
GAUNDI, Mar. (*nift) The name of a caste, or individual of 

it, by calling a mason or bricklayer. Nagpore. Jenkins, 

204. (It ought to be Maratha). 
GAUNI, Uriya (|;si) A measure of rice in the husk, 

equal to twelve sera. A basket used for measuring grain. 
GAUNJI', Hindi (jfhTSfl) Fresh shoots of rice put forth after 

the crop has been cut and cleared. 
GAUHA, H. (V^) A tribe of Ahirs. 
GAURAHAR, H. (j^jf) An obscure tribe of Rajputs on the 

borders of Badaon and Aligerh. 
GAURO, corruptly, GOWRO, (?) A person employed to esti- 

mate the crop while standing. 


GAURUA, H. (*)jy) An inferior class of Rajputs in Agra 
and Mathura, and other districts west of the Jamuim. 

branch of the Chandravansi, or lunar family ; very nu- 
merous in the Lower Doab, and formerly very powerful. 
Gautamidn, H. (jA-MJjS) A class of Rajputs in Azim- 
garh and Gorakhpur, offshoots of the preceding, but of a 
spurious breed. 

GAUYARA, or GAUYKND, Hindi, (iffaltT, jfnfe) also written 
Goyara, or Go'ird, and Goyend, ( jfl*(J,T, jft^te) Land 
immediately next to a village. 

GAVADA, Karn. ( A c><5O) A measure of distance, the largest, 
between eight and ten miles. 

GAVANKAB, Tel. (X,>jrO-r<>#) The head man of a village. 

GAVARIQA, Karn. (XSS^X) A basketmaker. 

GAVYA, Tel. (XS^) A kaunri shell, used as money. 

GAWAH, H. (P. !ji) A witness, an evidence. 
Garvdhdn-chaihm-didiili, H. P. (from **"*-, the eye, and 

SAJ J, having seen) Eye-witnesses. 

Gawdhdn-samdi, H. P. (from A. *, hearing) Hearsay 
witnesses, persons speaking from what they have been 

Gandhi, H. P. (^y ) Evidence, testimony. 
Gwdlti, Mar. (J"311fO Evidence: a witness ; in the latter 
also Gmdhiddr. 

GAWALI, Mar. ( r NJb1 ) The caste of cowherds, or an in- 
dividual of it 

Gama/wada, Mar. ('N<Jb=lI3l) The part of a town or vil- 
lage inhabited by the caste of cowherds. 

GAWANDI, GAWANUYA, Mar. (n^Tt H^n) A bricklayer. 

GAWAT, or GAVAT, Mar. (TT^TT) Grass. 
Gamatkattai, Mar. (TT^I I grass, and W$^, cutting) A cess 
formerly imposed on villages in lieu of grass for the go- 
vernment stables, or the grass so furnished ; the wages 
of labourers employed in cutting grass for the public 
stables ; grass-cutting in general 

GAWHALA, Mar. ('l^dbl, from 7T3T, wheat) Fitted for wheat 

(soil, &c.). 

Gawhdl, or Gawhdli, Mar. Olc^ldb. -3Eft) Wheat grounds, 
fields, &c., suited for wheat crops. 

GAWI, Mar. (JT3^) A combination among the villagers to 
reject th^e government terms of the assessment, or to resist 
any orders of a public officer. 

GAYAL, Mar. Omi) Neglected, left uncultivated, as land. 
Emigrattd, as cultivators. 


Gaydlu, Tel. (XoxriJC>) Land unfit for cultivation. 

GAYAL, also GAYARI, H. (JLw, uSj^f, from Gf/yd, gone) 
Land of deceased shareholders unclaimed, or coming un- 
der the management of the Mdl-guzdr upon its being 
abandoned by the cultivator. 

GAYATRI, S. (JUr^t) A form of metre, and thence applied 
to a verse in the Vedas, which is held to be of peculiar 
sanctity, and is repeated inaudibly in the daily morning 
worship of the Brahmans. The sense is, We meditate 
on that excellent light of the divine sun : may he en- 
lighten our minds ! " Tat samtur-varenyam bhargo de- 
vasya dhimahi : dhiyo yo nah prachodaydt ! 

GAYAWAL, or GAYALI, corruptly, GYAL, H. OU4NI<5', 
'im^sl) GAYAWAL, Mar. ( J|<4Ndb) A Brahman of a 
class or tribe which claims the privilege of conducting 
the ceremonies of the pilgrimage at Gaya, and receiving 
fees for the same. They also officiate as collectors and 
conductors of pilgrims to the city of Gaya. 

GAYRA, or GAIRA, Mar. (from TTTH, a cow) A cowherd. 
Gdyrdn, or Gairdn, Mar. (TrTOTT^) Open pasture-ground, a 
common; loosely applied to all lands unsuited for cultivation. 

GAZ, Guz, vernacularly, GAJ, or GUJ, H. (P.Ji) A measure 
of length, a yard. In the reign of Akbar there pre- 
vailed a great number of measures of this denomination, 
varying in length from 18 to 58 inches ; to correct 
which disorder, they were all abrogated, and a standard 
<jaz established in their stead, termed the Ildhi-gaz. The 
actual value of this measure was made the subject of 
many inquiries and experiments upon the institution of 
the great revenue survey of the western provinces, when 
it was found to be the basis of all the records of land 
measurements in that part of India : as no standard 
had been preserved, a fixed object of comparison could 
not be procured, and the different reports and measure- 
ments made it vary from 29 to 35 inches, and as the ma- 
jority of actual measures of land made it 33 inches, that 
was assumed as the fixed standard value, and it con- 
stitutes the basis of the survey measurements. In trade, 
a greater latitude prevails, and the cloth merchant, in 
particular, has a (jaz of his own, equal to two hdts, or 
cubits, or an English yard. 

GAZAH, H. (P. ij") A. washerman by caste as well as oc- 

Gdzar-mahdl, H. A tax formerly levied on washermen in 


GEDATA, Karn. (~/??G3k3) Ploughing or tillage. 

Gidara, Earn. ("A^OBtf) A ploughed field. 
GEHUN, GEHOON, H. (P. ^y^) Wheat, which is exten- 
sively cultivated in the upper provinces. Several kinds, 
but resolvable in native opinion, into two families, red 
and white, are grown : there is also a beardless species 
similarly divisible. 
GELI, Tel. O?8) A heap of salt 
GENJA, Ben. (f13fi) The tops of hemp, used to make an 

intoxicating beverage. See Ganja. 
GENTOO, (derived from the Portuguese Gentto, a Gentile or 

heathen,) A Hindu, a native of India. 
GENU, Kara. (~'?J) A span from the top of the thumb 

to that of the little finger. 
GERU, H. (jjy>>) Soil of a red colour, red ochre, or ochreous 


Geramdti, Hindi (TRIHIil) Loam of fine clay. 
GERwA, Mar. (nT3TI, from ^, red clay) Blight, turning the 
crop of a brickdust red colour. (The word appears to be 
the same as the Hindustani Oirrci, q. v., which is applied 
in the north-west provinces to the insect causing the disease 
or blight). 

GESTA, Kara. ( A^rO^, from Grihastha) A householder. 
GHABAR, Mar. (TI^TS) A lucky conjunction of the planets. 
Ghabdrmdp, Mar. (Tr^r^m) A weight or measure rather 

in excess of the market one. 

GHABN-I-FAHISH. A. (^i-ls ( . } J^) Shamefully fraudulent ; 
applied, in Mohammadan law especially, to the sale of 
property for a price grossly inadequate to its value ; also 
termed Nultsan-i-fdhish. (From ,j-ji, fraud, or ^Uaii), 
loss, and ^j^a~\, shameful). 
GHADI, or GHARI, Mar. (TETTS^) A Sudra attendant in a 

village temple. 

GHADSI, or GHARSI, or GHURSEE, incorrectly, GURSEE, Mar. 
(*tsn) A caste, or person belonging to it, by calling 
vagrant or village pipers and drummers. They are said 
to be descended from the aboriginal inhabitants of the 
great forest of the south, the Dandakaranya. 
GHADI'R, A. (^jAi) A festival observed by the Shias of 
India on the 18th of Zilhaja, when three images of dough 
filled with honey are made to represent Abu-bakr, Omar, 
and Othman, which are stuck with knives, and the honey 
is sipped, as typical of the blood of the usurping kbalifs. 
The festival is named from ghadir, a pool ; Mohammad, 
it is said, having declared Ali his successor at a place 


called Ghadir-khum, a watering-place for caravans half 
way between Makka and Medina. 

GHAEJA, (?) Guz. The village barber and barber-surgeon. 
GHAFIL, H. (A. Jjlc) Careless, negligent. 
Ghaflat, H. (A. ol f. ) Carelessness, negligence, in- 

GIIAI, or GHYE, H. ( ( -xei) Ground cleaned and raised, on 

which to raise a stack of straw, or pile of grain. 
GHAIB, vernacularly GAIB, (the aspirate being rejected and 
g substituted for the A. 17/1,) H. (A. (^.^c, ^r) Hidden, 
concealed, missing, lost. 
Ghaibat, or Gaibatu, Tel. (2.^0^) Lost, missing ; ex- 

tra (as collections); distant (as an outstation). 
Ghaibat-i-munJfaiaa, A. (jlaaXe tji^jjx) In Moham- 
madan law, remote distance. The absence of a husband 
at such a distance as renders the acts of his wife, with 
regard to his property, valid. 
GHAINS, Thug. Uproar, confusion. 

GHAIR, when adopted in the Hindu dialects, GAIR or GAR, 
H. (A. jb.} GAIRAH, Hindi (nT?) Mar. (rfc) Tel. 
(2.^) Ben - C^) Guz - ( 3 l3.) Different, other, without; 
used as a particle to imply the absence or want of a 
Gar-dbdd, Ben. (ffaWf) Devoid of cultivation; land 

cultivable, but neglected. 

Gairddd, Tel. ( Q J^ r ~^) Uncultivated, waste. 
Gairdddsthalamu, Tel. ("A^^^) Waste land. 
Ghair-band-o-last, H. (ci^>-J j jJu .ji) Unsettled ; applied 

to lands not included in the revenue assessment. 
Gair-dasta, or -dasti, Mar. (nt^ET, -^cft) Exempt from 

government imposts (fields, &c.). 
Ghair-hazlr, H. (^cU-^) Gair-hdjir, Mar. (rk?Tff*.) 

Absent, not in attendance. 
Ghair-hdziri, H. Gair-hdjiri, Mar. Absence, being away 

especially when called for, as in court. 
Garjdbd, Ben. (Tiat<T, for A. kj^Ac, f/hair-zabt) Omitted, 
excepted; applied to lands in Sylhet not included in any 
measurement, and consequently unassessed. 
G hair-jama, H. (f^-jJ^) Not paying revenue, rent-free. 
Gairhi-kharck, Hindi ( Jfc^fa^T^r) Expenses of various 

kinds incurred by a village, or on account of establish- 

ments and collections. 
Ghair-kabul, H. (J^-W^c) Gar-kabul, Ben. (Tla^i) 

Denying, not admitting or confessing, not agreeing to. 
Gair-kharch, Mar. (ifc?^) Extra or miscellaneous expenses. 


Ghair-khirdj, H. ( l_^->*c) Not paying tribute or revenue, 

rent-free lands, &c. 
Ghair-mahdi, H. ( ,_$ Ji^-vc) A sect of Mohammadans 

who deny the re-appearance of the 12th Imam, or the 

Imam Mahdi. 
Gair-marang, Hindi (JtVR'l) Low river lands based on 

sand, and unable to support vegetation in the dry months 


Gftair-man/iula, H. (^SyLx^c) Immoveable or real pro- 
perty, property other than personal ; (mankul) 
Ghair-mashrut, H. (Jsjy^ji) Unconditional ; applied 

to grants of land, &c., without any stipulations of service, 

or the like, being attached to them. 
Gkair-maurusi, H. ((jj^^ji) Not holding by hereditary 

descent ; a tenant or farmer ; not inherited ; acquired. 
Gftair-mazrud, H. (A. Asj^j^JJ) Uncultivated land. 
Ghair-mdzun, A. ( ^.lil^-c ) An absolute slave, one not 

allowed to do any work on his own account (Moham- 

madan law). 
Ghair-mumkirt, H. (A. ( .f^^f) Barren, waste ; land not 

capable of cultivation: (from tjhair, not, and mumkin, 

Ghatr-mnttabiK, A. (^^u^^i) A totally irregular and 

invalid deed (Mohammadan law). 
Gair-panchdlti, (?) Lands formerly held in Cuttack, which 

were exempt from any taxes but those specified in the 

deed of grant 
Ghair-sdl, H. (A. JL^xc) Of a different year ; applied 

to coins or currency, implying also their being base or 

Ghair-sanadi, corruptly, Ghir-sundee, H. (^JJu^jj:) Extra, 

extraordinary, contingent, not included in the sanad or 


GJtair-sarsari, VL(jjfHpuje) Regular or legal proceedings. 
Ghair-silsilti, H. (A. <jLJu*^.xi) Irregular, summary ; ap- 
plied to judicial proceedings. 
Gkair-relu-nni, or, -valdni, corruptly, Guirc-vekenny, or 

-valauny, (?) Resumption of an allowance of land given 

up to the Ryots, being the tenth of a birjita.. Gl. ath Rep. 

(The first word is no doubt intended for ghair, the others 

must be blunders). 

Gair-n-dhd, Mar. (^t^T^iT) Misrepresentation, a false state- 

GHA IT, Ben. (^Tt^) Fault, crime, misdemeanor. 
GHAU-PATTUTA, Tel. (O^)>&>$) Winnowing. 


GIIALLA, H. (A. (idi) Grain, corn; it is sometimes used to 

denote money. 

Ghalla-farosh, H. A corn or grain seller. 
Ghalla-mislat, A. (kUUndi) The proportion of the pro- 
duce of the labour of a licensed slave which has been 
reserved for the master. 

GHAMETA, (?) A subdivision of the Kurmi tribe in Bahar. 

GHAMUS, A. (j^-^Ai) Mysterious : in law, Perjury. 

GHANA, Ben. (^R) Struck, as a rupee ; but applied only to 
rupees of native coinage. 

GHANA, Mar. (^Rj) A sledge-hammer. 

GHANA, GHUNA, H. (li$i) A preserve for game. 

GHANA, GHANI, H. (Ul^, (jl^) A sugar-cane press. Mar. 
(HHUl) An oil-mill : (see the next). 

GHANA, GulNi, Mar. (TTTOT, '^Tnift) The quantity of material 
put into a mill at once, or of cane into the sugar-mill, 
rice into the mortar, or of any thing to be pounded or 
triturated into the triturating machine. A heap of grain 
which, at the Makara Sankrdnti, or sun's entrance into 
Capricorn, the mistress of a house places on a mortar to 
be given to a Brahman. 

GHANCHI, Guz. (m*Hl) An oil maker, an oil dealer, one 
who expresses it or sells it. 

GHANCHO, Guz. (&ll*Hl) A man of a caste whose occu- 
pation is mat-making. 

GHAND, H. (jj^i) A branch of the Jat tribe. 

GHANGHAS, H. (^.aHigi) A branch of the Jat tribe. 

GHANI, Ben. (*Ttft) An oil mill. 

Ghdni-gdchh, Ben. (^1fT*tt^') The hollow trunk of a 
tree forming part of an oil mill which receives the seed, 
and having a hole through which the oil issues. 

GHANI, A. ( JLt) A rich person: in law, one not poor 
enough to be entitled to alms. 

GHANTA, S. &c., in some dialects, GANTA, ('for) A bell, 
a plate of metal on which the hours are struck ; an hour. 

GHAR, GHUR, H., Ben., Mar., &c. (^zi, ^TS 1 , TI^) A house, 

a dwelling, a habitation: a family, the people of the house. 

Gharbaithd, Mar. (TR%7t) Whilst staying at home; said 

of work or business done at home ; without employment 

or service abroad. 

Ghar-bandi, H. &c. ((_jAi>j^S) A slave born in the house. 
Gharbdr, H. (j\jj& ) Household concerns. 
Gliarbdri, H. d_?;^$>) A householder, the head of a 

Ghar-bdn, Mar. (TTWlTt) Rent of houses without owners, 

2 Y 



levied in some towns by the former govenment. Uriya, 

(QQQ|j>) A dwelling-house. See Gharwdri 
G/tar-bhddd, or -bhdrd, H. (1t)l^S) Ghar-bhaden, Mar. 

( TOTT^ ) House-rent. 
Ghar-bharani, Mar. (trwnjft) Ceremonies observed on 

taking possession of a new house, house-warming. 
Ghar-chdr, or Ghardchdr, Mar. (TTWtT, trrPJTC) The 

rules or customs of a household or family. 
Ghar-ddr, Mar. (^QT^K) A family, a household. 
Ghar-dme, Mar. (tfT^^l) House tax. 
Gtiar-dredri, corruptly, Ghur-deivary, H. d_fji^j^) House 

tax: also an illegal cess upon shopkeepers and house- 

Gharganti, Mar. ( tR J UUfO) Enumeration of houses in a 

town or village. 
Ghar-jamd, (?) corruptly, Gltur-jummah, Mar. (TRSpn) 

House tax. 
Gharjdrcai, Mar. (*K1N^) One who with his wife lives 

in the house of his father-in-law, and manages his affairs. 
Gharltan, Mar. (til'cnO) The master of a house, the head 

of the family. 
Gharpatti, Mar. (tHMjl) House tax; levy or collection 

per house, from which Brahman village officers were 

Gharsabil, H. ((JjOM^S) Advances to peasants to enable 

them to build their cottages. 
Gharsdrd, Mar. (tRWU-t) House tax. 
Gltarti, or Ghartis, Mar. (*K^, M<4lB) Relating to 

each house severally, per house, as contributions, charges, 

taxes, &c. 
Ghartip, Mar. (tf^Tj) The numbering of the houses in 

a village or town ; the list so taken. 
Ghanvan, Mar. (TR^jr) House tax. 
Gharrvdri, Mar. (tR^Tsft) An inclosure in which is a 

dwelling-house. See Gharbdri. 
GnAR, GHAR, H. (j\, orjl^, from H. \&,t, S. TH}, a cavity) 

Clay soil in low situations where rain lies for a long time ; 

land that has been worn away by running water ; a sub- 

division of Matiar soil ; a name given in the north-west 

provinces to strips of land lying along the banks of the 

Jamna, or, in the Agra districts, to the tract intermediate 

between that and the more northern portion. 
GHAR, H. (A. jlc) A cave, a pit, a ravine. 
GHARA, H. ( \j$>, S. TTJ) An earthen water-pot or jar. 
GHARA, Uriya (QQ) A column (in a book or account). 

GHAHAB, commonly GRAB, A. (tjl^) GUUAB, Mar. (*ttT*f) 
A vessel of a peculiar build used on the Malabar coast 
and in the Arabian gulf. 

GHARAMI, Ben. (*iflt^, from TT3, a house) A man whose 
business it is to construct the mat houses of the poorer 
natives, or roof them with thatch. A thatcher. 

GHARANI, Mar. (TJ3Hfl) Document kept by the Kulkarni in 
account with the several families of a village. 

GHARAR, H. (;_^) The dry Moth plant, given as fodder 
to cattle. 

GHARENE, Guz. (fct^Ui) Mortgaged, pledged. 
Gharendun-ltltat, Guz. (fcT^MU 1<1) A mortgage-bond, 
a written acknowledgment of money borrowed, or pro- 
perty mortgaged or pledged. 
Gharenia, incorrectly, Gerania, Guz. (6llMU :tf U) Lands 

held in mortgage or pledge. 
Gfiarenid-naltarid, Guz. (eftU&a>U <J l%:>l a >tl) Private 

lands in mortgage. 

Gharemd-mldmid, Guz. (fcT ; (. l Ul :y il*t ( Hl v fl. a 'U) Mort- 
gaged lands paying a quit-rent 

GHARI, GHUREE, inaccurately, GHURREE, H. (L^) GHARI 
or GHATI, Ben. (Wf, ftl?^) GHARI and GHATI, Mar. 
(tlTt, TJTt) GHADI or GHALIGE, Karn. (^, ^*W) 
GHATIKA, Tel. (^X)fc3) A measure of time, a term of 
twenty-four minutes, being one sixtieth part of a day and 
night: in common use it has also come to signify an 
English hour. Any instrument for computing and an- 
nouncing time ; originally the Hindu clepsydra and the 
brass plate or gong on which the hours were struck, but 
latterly the English watch or clock. The term, in its 
signification of an hour of twenty-four minutes, was ap- 
plied also, in the Delhi district, to one mode of dis- 
tributing the assessment of a village : each cultivator 
being charged one sixtieth of the whole for each ghari 
in the day during which he had drawn water for the 
irrigation of his lands from the royal canal. It also de- 
notes the subdivision of a village in the Dehli district, 
as, Khandigaon, which is divided into 144 langrif, and 
each langri into eight gharis. The vernacular terms are 
derived from the S., in which ghati is the timepiece, and 
ghatihd the hour which it marks ; but in use both mean- 
ings are commonly attached to the same word. 
Gharidl, H. &c. (JVj^) Gharyal, Mar. (TOTc*) The 
plate or gong on which the hours are struck with a 
wooden mallet 


Ghariald, or Ghariali, H. &c. (S'jJ, ( _^) Gharydl- 

chi, Mar. (n/HlcUl ) The gong striker, the bellman. 
GHAHI, GHADI, Mar. (TJTTt) A Sudra attendant on a temple, 

corresponding with a Gurav. 
GHAIUB, H. (A. U^A^C) Strange, foreign; poor, distressed, 

Gharib-parwar, or Gharib-namaz, H. (from P. tjji, who 

protects, orjljJ, who is kind to) Cherisher of the poor; 

an expression commonly addressed to a superior, or to a 

European functionary, by natives of inferior rank, espe- 

cially if supplicants or suitors. 
GHARIM, A. ((/=) A debtor, so helpless as to be a proper 

object of zihdt or alms. 

GHARRI, GHURKEE, H. (A. ^5*^) Overflowed, inundated. 
GHARPHANT, also written GCJHPHANT, (?) H. (oJL;^) 

An arrangement made by the manager of an estate, or by 

the shareholders themselves, for the payment of the govern- 

ment revenue by each village, when more than one is 

included in the lease (Kamaon). 
GHARSI', Mar. ( HJ~I) A man of a particular caste, or the 

caste itself: the members are musicians and singers. 
GHARSU BHUMJ, (?) Tel. A strong red soil (Warangal). 
GHARTA, or GHARTI, Mar. (TJT5T, iHil) A large hand- 

Gharti-bhar-sdrd, Mar. (?) A tax formerly levied by the 

Maratha government on millstones. 
Gharti-k/toti, Mar. (tRZl^lil) A contract or farm of 

the exclusive privilege of grinding corn. 
GHARWA, Hindi (VJ4l) Gleanings from the threshing-floor 

fallen amidst rubbish and dirt, the perquisite of the 

lowest castes. 

GHAS, Mar. (*O?) Loss in trade, loss in drying-, leakage, &c. 
GHAS, H. B. ( O -V, ^TfrT) GHANS, Dakh. ( L<r Jltt) also either 

GHAS, or GHANS, Mar. (TITO, TfRf) Grass, meadow grass, 

hay, forage. In Mar. it also implies a mouthful, or a 

/ \ * 

quantity equivalent, (more correctly, Grds, q. v.) ; also the 

quantity of grain put into a mill at once, and the grain 
which falls into the hollow and remains unground. 
Gkds-berd-mahdl, Ben. (*TfJTc<iN^il) Land inclosed or 

set apart for pasturage, meadow lands. 
Ghds-ddnd, Mar. (*)!*<( Wl) A military contribution ; grass 

and grain for the horses, or a contribution in lieu of it 
Gfids-gahdniya, Mar. (?) corruptly, Ghas-grenia, A mort- 

gage with possession, under which the produce of the 

land is taken instead of interest See Gahdn. 


Ghasidrd, H. (\.\J^MJ) A grass-cutter. See Ghds-kdtd, 
Ghds-kar, -kur, Ben. (frbl^fO A tax on grass or 

Ghds-Mtd, corruptly, Gras-kut, H., Ben. (UO^, Mt>l*t&1) 

A man whose business it is to cut fresh grass daily for 

the horses of his employer. 
Gkds-hdtani, corruptly, Ghas-kuttanee, Mar. 

Cutting grass, a fee or tax for cutting grass on govern- 
ment land. 
Gkdsud-bhumi, Uriya (Ct|512||G).SO Pasture land. 

o~ d 

GHASB or GHAZAB, GHUSB, GHUZB, A. (l r *^r, c_<ir) 
Violence, oppression, seizing any thing by force. In 
Mohammadan law, forcible or unauthorised possession and 
use of property belonging to another. 

GHAT, corruptly, GHAUT, or GAUT, H. (cL>l$0 Ben. (*TtT) 
Mar. (Trrj, from the S. TJg) which the Tel. and Karn. adhere 

to (tfjp&X>, ^0|X, ^y|j) A landing-place, steps 


on the bank of a river, a quay, a wharf where customs 

are commonly levied. A pass through the mountains: the 
mountains themselves, especially applied to the eastern 
and western ranges of the south of India ; or, in the 
Maratha country, to the SaJiyddri range, and to the Dex, 
or tract above. 

Ghdtdni, H. (,Jlj\^S) A toll levied on crossing rivers or 
hill passes. 

Ghdt-bdri, H. (ijrjV^^) Lands attached to a ferry. Duty 
or toll levied at landing-places upon the boats that come 
to at them. 

Ghdt-bandijMar. (Mli^K^) Blocking up a pass over a hill. 
Toll or tax levied on passengers for keeping a pass or 
landing-place in repair. 

Ghdt.i, or Ghdtid, Uriya, A watchman, a police or re- 
venue officer, especially one in charge of passes or land- 
ing-places. Mar. (VliT) Of or belonging to the country 
above the Sahyddri range (products) : when the people 
are meant, the term is Ghdt.wal (irtT^SE). 

Ghdtiyd, Ghdtyd, H. &c. (U)l^, mfolT, Tnesp) A Brah- 
man who attends where pilgrims bathe, as at Benares, to 
take care of their clothes, and supply sandal, flowers, &c., 
for certain fees, which he exacts as a right, denouncing 
imprecations on any who resist his exactions : these people 
sometimes repair to a distance to escort pilgrims to their 
places of ablution. 

Ghdtmdnjhi, H., Ben. ( ( ^$=E J Uol$S) A ferryman ; applied 
also to a man who regulates the hire of boats, supplies 



boats, provides crews, and generally superintends, more 
by usurpation than by authority, the details of a landing- 
place on the river. 

Ghdlmdrd, H., Ben. (l^ttJl^S) Smuggling; a smuggler, 
one who evades the tolls at landing-places. 

Ghdtpdndyd, Mar. ( MI4Mii|l) An officer presiding over 

Ghdt-rahlirvdli, Mar. ( VIZWMIcjft) A guard at a pass in 
the hills. 

Gliatti, Ben. (*ri^ ) A private wharf or steps to the river. 

Ghattiyhoshanu, Ben. ( wtc*il*id) Proclaiming news, 
making any thing public. 

Ghdf-thikdddr, H. (jloKj^Icul^j) The farmer or con- 
tractor for a ferry. 

Ghdfn'dl, or Ghdtmdld, H. (Jlyl^s, Slyl^S) A ferryman, 
a person in charge of a landing-place, or a mountain pass. 
A member of a class of landholders in Birbhum, holding 
lands under a peculiar tenure : (see the next). It is also 
read with the short vowel, Ghatrvdr or Ghatwdl. 

Ghdtwdli, Ghdtrvdli-mahdl, or Ghdtivdli-zamin, H. (from 
Jlsc", places, or ( ^ej, land) Lands granted either rent- 
free or at a low rate of assessment to public ferrymen, 
or to officers guarding passes in the hills. In Birbhum 
the lands were granted at a fixed rate of assessment in 
perpetuity to the holders and their descendants, as long 
as the revenue is paid, although apparently no longer 
connected with the performance of any particular duty. 
Reg. xxix. 1814. 

Ghatnan, (?) Ben. A man of a low caste, frequently a 

predial slave, in Ramgarh. 

GHAT, GHUT, H., Ben., &c. (<^L^>, from the S. GHATA, IT?) 
A water-pot or jar, representing, on some occasions, the 
goddess Durga. 

Ghatapujd, S. ( HiMl) Worship of the water-jar as 
Durga. See Ghatasthdpana. 

Ghatasphota, Mar. (lliwili , from the S. Sphota, a 
breaking) Ceremony of the ejection of a person from his 
caste, or of the repudiation of a wife; typically expressed 
by the actual breaking of a pitcher on the occasion. 

Ghafasthdpana, S. (from WITT, placing) The ceremony 
of placing a water pot as a type or receptacle of Durga, 
who, after certain invocations, is supposed to be present 
in it, and to receive the worship addressed to her. It 
is one of the essential ceremonies of the Dtirga-Puja. 
GHAT, GHATI, or GHATTI, H. (ci^^, .J*^, from the v. 

IxX^S, to abate) Deficiency, decrease, lightness in weight, 
fall in price or value. 

GHAT, H., Ben. (S. dAp, *Tt\) A blow, a wound, striking, 

killing ; what is struck or hurt. 
Ghdtaka, H., Ben. (uL&t^, *Tf^) A murderer, one who 

wounds or kills. 

Ghdta-chandra, Ghdta-tithi, Mar. (from ^5, the moon, 
or finft, a lunar day) An inauspicious day. 

GHATA, Ben. (wl) A crowd, a procession. 

GHATAKA, Ben., Mar. (t|2*) A person who negociates 
marriages between families, especially in Bengal ; also, 
a manager, or leading man in general. 

GHATI, Ben. (^Ttfl) A clock. The native clock is a brass 
plate, or gony, on which the hour is struck with a 
wooden mallet. See Ghari. 

(Unit Hid, Ben. (S. tiPu*l) Ghatakd, Mar. (TRTJTT) An 
hour, properly of 24 minutes : the little metal vessel, by 
the sinking of which in water the hour is measured. See 

GIIAYI, or GHAI, Tel. ( "^XJ^CXXr" 1 " ) An embankment to con- 
fine water, a reservoir. 

GIIAZI, A. (j^U) A champion, a hero ; especially one who 

fights against infidels. 

Ghazi-midn, H. (jj^x* i^f/^) A saint held in high repute 
in Hindustan, in whose honour an annual festival is 
celebrated in most large towns, but particularly at Barech, 
in the month of Jeth. It is commonly called the Shiidi, 
or marriage of the saint, in allusion, according to one 
tradition, to his having suffered martyrdom on the eve of 
his nuptials. The origin of the festival, which is equally 
popular with Hindus and Mohammadans, is, however, 
doubtful, and much uncertainty prevails regarding the 
person of the saint. The most particular accounts make 
him a nephew of Mahmud of Ghazni, born at Ajmer, 
and killed in battle with the Hindus at Barech, after 
Mahmud's death. 

(]j^ , \j*4 ) The unripe pod of gram. The unripe 
bole of cotton before it bursts. 

GHELAUNI, H. (^.Ij^S) An addition to an article sold in 
favour of the purchaser. An additional per centage of 
an article counted, as, 110 Iambus, or 120 mangoes, rated 
as 100 only. 

G HEN A i, Thug. Fetters. 

GHENEDENE, Mar. (^1!J?(% fiom '^B, to take, and ^U,to 


give) Borrowing and lending, dealing with, traffic, mer- 
cantile intercourse. 
Ghetadeta, Mar. (wiipn) A regular customer, one who 

punctually pays what he owes. 
GhetAndetdn, Mar. (ijrii^dt) On the conclusion of a 


Ohepodepo, Mar. (Tpft^Tfl) Money lending without in- 
terest, unprofitable or troublesome lending and taking back. 
Ghewdderva, or -n'i, Mar. (VMI<*u) Traffic, dealing with, 
borrowing and lending, &c. 

GHENTI, H. ( (J iixz) The unripe pod of gram and other 
kinds of pulse. 

GHER, or GtiERA, H. &c. (j&, from Gherna, to surround) 
Enclosing, surrounding ; an enclosure, a fence, a bound- 

GHEHUA, (?) H. A mortgagee holding land in possession as 
security, and in payment of the interest. See Giro. 

GHEWARI, Mar. (ifaTT^) A retail dealer, a huckster; in 
some places limited to one who buys and retails garden 

Gin, GHEE, H. &c. (^, from S. TpO Ben. GHI, (ft) 
GHI, Mar. (Tft) Clarified or oiled butter; butter boiled 
and then set to cool, when it remains in a semi-liquid 
or oily state, and is used in cooking, or is drank by the 
natives : (the primitive GHRITA is also current in most 

Ghi-guttd, corruptly, Glieecottah, or Gheegootah, Mar. 
(tffrrar) The exclusive right of the renter of a village 
to the buying and selling of yhi in retail. 

GHISARI, Mar. ( fvflisl ) A low caste, or individual of it, 
whose occupation is manufacturing common iron utensils. 

GHOI'LA, Thug. Copper coin, pice. 

GHOL, Ben. (CTfa) Butter milk. 

GHOL, Mar. (^35) A ring, with bits of iron attached to it, 
at the end of a staff, to make a noise with to frighten 
reptiles, birds, &c. 

GHONTA, or GHOTA, Mar. (Tffel, gfcr) An intoxicating 
potion, an infusion of the leaves of the hemp. 

GHONGHI, H. ( ( _ s $&j^) Tying the end of a blanket in a 
knot, and placing it on the head, so as to keep off rain. 
Wrapping oneself up in a blanket. 

GHORA, H. &c. (S. \,y , ^ftrO A horse. 
Ghoravira, (?) (from Ghoda, or Ghora, a horse) A tax 
paid by Rajput tribes to their chiefs in commutation of 
a gift of a horse. 



Ghorcharha, H. (from Ghora andcharhnd, ti*/-, to mount) 
Ghordchara, Ben. (^Tt^lFSl) A rider, a horseman: a 
subdivision of the Kurmi or Kumbi tribe, which is exten- 
sively spread throughout India, and follows principally 
agricultural occupations. 

Ghore-khdd, Mar. (Tft^T<j) Grazing or pasturing of horses. 
Ghore-rdut, Ghore-sndr, Mar. (^tiUJid, Tft^TC) A trooper, 

a horse-soldier. 

Ghorevdt, Mar. ( Vls^H?) A horse-path; especially a 
practicable path for horses over hilly ground. 

GHOSH, corruptly, GHOSE, Ben. (OTft, from S. ire, to cry) 
The name of a division of the writer caste, and com- 
monly used as their family name, as, Chandra-ghose 
also the name of a tribe of herdsmen in Bengal. A 
station of cowherds. 

Ghoshand, Ben. (S. t*ilMl) A proclamation. 
Ghosi, Ghosee, H. (S. ^M^) A herdsman, a milkman : 
also, in the north-west provinces, a class of milkmen, who, 
although said to be descended from the Ahirs, are now 
mostly Mohammadans. 

GHOTAKHOR, Hindi (v1<Hfa, from "^7, a gulp, and P. l^ft, 
who swallows) A diver : in some villages in the western 
Maratha states a diver forms one of the servants, and is 
employed in recovering articles dropped in tanks and wells. 

GHOTI, H. (<_}^i) Land which has been under a rice crop. 

GHUORI, Mar. (TJlO) Grain boiled in the husk. Grain 
presented to the head of the village, or the government 
officers, on the ripening of the crop : a cess formerly im- 
posed in its stead. 

GHULAM, in some dialects, GULAM, corrupted in pronoun- 
cing to GUL!P and GULAB, H. (A. *5Lc) GULAMU, Tel. 
(toCT'cAX)) A youth, a servant, a slave. 

GntJMAO, GHOOMAO, H. (jU^?, lit, a turning round, from 
Uu^S, to turn round) As much land as can be ploughed 
in one day by a pair of bullocks. 

GHUN, GHOON, H. (^^i) A weevil destructive of wood and 

GHUNDI, H. (^jJl^S) A herb that grows in rice fields after 
the crop is cut : camels are fond of it, and it is used in 

GHUNOCHI, H. (^5=:^ ) The seed of the Abrus precatorius ; 
especially as a standard measure of weight : more usually 
Gunja, q. v. 

i, GHOONOEE, H. (^j&j$S) An insect destructive of 
growing gram ; also Gindar. 



GnUNGHtJ, H. &c. (jj&, girc) Small bells fastened round 

the ancles or wrists of women, sometimes worn on the 

toes, especially of dancing girls. 
GHtiNT, GHOONT, H. (i^Jj^) Rent from lands granted as 

endowments of religious establishments (Kamaon). 
GHI>R, GHOOR, H. (jy, *TC) The soil of the sandy ridge 

east of Muzaffarnagar. 
GHURA, H. (Ij^O Soil, manure. 
GHURAB, Mar. (tnu, A. "-J^i ) A kind of vessel, a sloop 

with long projecting bows, used on the Malabar coast 
GHURAT, GHOORUT, H. (ei^i) Cattle pens (Eastern Oudh). 
GHUH-BAR.R, GHOOR-BURAR, H. (Xj,y?) Dues levied on 

every sharer and under-tenant, in proportion to the ex- 

penses of the village for the year: from II. GIIURA, a 

dunghill or sweepings, all miscellaneous charges being 

heaped together (Bundelkhand). 
GHURRAH, or GHURRAT, incorrectly, GHORRA, A. (2^) 

A fine of 500 dirms, being the value of a male or female 

slave of that price, to whom also the term is applied 

(Mohammadan law). 
GHURRAT, H. (A. S^c. , whiteness, &c.) The first day of 

the moon's age. 

Gnus, H. (^j-^O GHUSH, Ben. (^) A bribe. 
GHUSL, H. &c. ((J**i) Bathing, ablution; especially the 

ablutions of the Mohammadans. 
Ghassdl, H. &c. ( JLwc) A bather, an attendant on a bath ; 

but applied inore especially to one who washes the dead. 
GHUSRAND, H. ( jJl^*u^$ ) A creeping grass with a yellow 

flower, bearing a bitter fruit ; used as a condiment for 

horses, but considered poisonous to men. 
GIARWAN, GIARWIN, Dakhini H. (glj/^i (-jijj^t for 

Igarali) Eleventh. The eleventh of Rabi-us-sani, a day 

dedicated to the homage of Pir-i-Dastagir, a Moham- 

madan saint in the south of India. 

GICHUVALI, Earn. (^S^oS 1 ^) Farming, agriculture. 
GIDA, Thug. Impure, unclean ; a man of a very low caste. 
GIDAGAWAL, Tel. (^&TTS3e>) Taxes levied on forest 

GIDARMAR, H. (jitj&p, lit., jackal-killer) A vagrant and 

thief in Upper India. 

GIBDA, GIDDE, Tel. (\<, ^~S) The smallest measure of 

Crf CJ 

capacity in use, varying in different places, but calculated 
by Captain Jervis at 900 grains =5'837 cubic inches, the 
fourth of a Sola. 

GIDDANA, Karn. (^^) The fourteenth part of a maund. 

Giddani, Karn. (^<^&) The 256th fraction of a fanam, 

or a rupee. 
GippANGi, Tel. Karn (^gOA) A shop, a storehouse, a 

granary, a jail. 
GI'DIA, GEEDEEA, H. (bj..*) A class of vagrants and 

thieves in Upper India. 
GIIJNA, Karn. C^*-^) A measure of grain, equal to four 

Solige, q. v. 
GILA, H. (*tf) GiLLA, Mar. (fr?n, both from the P. *&) 

A complaint, a remonstrance, abuse, reproach. 
GlLANDizi, II (,_$jljJJ^, from (_Ji, clay, earth, and i^fj'Jo' f 
throwing) An embankment : charge for making and repair- 
ing embankments, allowed formerly in the village accounts. 
GI'M, Thug. Search after Thugs : also theft. 

, or GIMHWA, Mar. (fJTT^T, fh*^l, from >ftn, or 
, vernacular of S. TTfaR, the hot season) Grain raised 
in the hot season by irrigation. 

Gimrvas, Mar. (fj|HM) A field prepared for the growth of 
grain in the hot season by irrigating ; the grain so 
GINDAR, H. (jjj) An insect very destructive of growing 

pulse : also Ghungi. 
GINDURI, II. ( (^Jo^) A circular twist of straw or grass 

to support a vessel with a round bottom. 
GINNA, Karn. (^OO) Cheese. 

Ginnayadde, Karn. (^oeaXg) A cheese. 
GINTI, Karn. ("AO&J) Double-thread texture. 
Gintadavalli, Karn. (^voU&S^) A single cotton cloth 
woven with double threads. 

Gintadabattc. Karn. ('AOfcjOiD CJ) A double cloth woven 

with double threads. 

GlNTl, H. ((_JJ6 , from S. TTO, to count) Number, reckoning : 

the first day of the month : a specimen, a muster. 
GlRi, Mar. (frKT) A measure of length, a Tasu and a half, 

or one-fourteenth or one-sixteenth of a ya~, q. v. 
GIRAKALU, Karn. CA#5~dO) One-sixteenth of a rupee. 
GIRAN, H. (P (_;!/) Dear: heavy. 

Girani, H. (^5-'^) Dearness, dearth, scarcity : weight. 
GIRASI, GiRAsi, Mar. (ftrCT^ff -*ft) A caste, or individual 

of it, living by piracy &c. 
GIRD, H. (P. J^) Round, surrounding, a wall, an inclosure, 

a circle, a department. 
Girdwdr, or Girddn-ar, H. (j^j>> j^f) -A- patrol, a 

watch, a guard, a superintendant or inspector of police 

or customs. 



Girddrvari, H. ((jyj'^) Inspection, patrolling, going the 
rounds : looking after smugglers or contraband goods : a 
circular order. 

GIRDA, Karn. (^Qf~) The fourth of a fanam. 
Girdana, Karn. (^OFT3) The fourth of a Solige, a dry 


Girddsaga, Karn. (^(3BE~<OA) The eighth of a fanam. 
GIRDI-NAWAYA, Mar. ( f'K^l^^nn, from A. Naw&h, en- 
virons) A surrounding tract, land round any particular spot 
or fort. A tax levied on villages so situated, in lieu of sup- 
plies to the garrison, &c. 
GIRHAIK, Mar. (Ol-^l^k, from S. V\'^ ) A purchaser, a 


GIRIFT, H. (P. \^J>) Capture, apprehension. 
Giriftdr, H. (j&>f ) A prisoner, one seized or apprehended. 
Giriftdri, H. (P. (_jili.S) Apprehension, seizure, taking 
up, arrest 

_9 e. yf -9 

GIRIKE, GIHUKE, Kara. (AOO, A COD) An instrument 

for separating cotton from the seed. 

GIRO, or GIRAU, H. (P. ^j>~) GIRAVU, Tel. (^0^) A 
pawn, a pledge, a mortgage, a contract. (The term Gher- 
roas, holders of lands on mortgage, Ben. Reg. ii. 1795, 
is no doubt intended to represent some derivative from 
this word). 

Girvi, or Girtvi, or, vernacularly, Girbi, H. (i_yj^) A 
pledge, a mortgage ; the thing pledged or mortgaged. 

Girrviddr, II. (j\&>jj>) The holder of a pledge or mort- 

Girmindma, H. (&olb.^) A deed of mortgage. 
Jiawf, H. (P. (_fji ) An insect mischievous to standing corn : 
see Gerrvd. 

ift, properly the crude form of the S. noun, nom. Gau, 
or Gao, iflj, in which form it is most commonly used), 
A cow : (the word Go is also used singly in the dialects for 
any animal of the cow kind, but its more common ap- 
plication is in forming derivatives and compounds). 

Gao, H. &c. (j'i) or Gdi, Gay, Mar. (Tt^, TPJ) A cow, 
a bull. 

Godla, pronounced like Grvdld, Ben. ((CTtt^Tfal) A cow- 
herd, one whose business or caste it is to attend cattle 
and sell milk, (the word, orignally Gopdla, is modified 
vernacularly as Gonrcdla, or Hindi, Grvdla, &c. q. v.). 

Godld-pdrd, Ben, ( ftt^TW'Tf^l) A village, or part of one, 
or of a town, inhabited by cow-keepers. 

Gol.aidya, Ben. (Ctf\C3.TR) A cow doctor, a quack. 


Gobar, Gobur, H. (j>f) Gorvar, Mar. Ofl<fO Dried cow- 
dung, used as fuel, or for plastering floors. 

Gobar at, Ben. (i'MUaliJ) The threshold of a door, from 
its being made smooth with cow-dung effused in water, 
forming a sort of plaster. 

Gobari, or Gobri, H. (<^j>f ) Gotvari, Mar. Oft'<(0) A piece or 
cake of dried cow-dung ; paste or plaster made with it 

Gochar, Gochard, Gochardi, H. &c,(^-jS ']r?"r ' ^J^f ^ 
Pasture land, land kept free from cultivation as the graz- 
ing ground of the village. 

Gocharma, Mar. (S. jftawf) A cow's hide, a measure of 
land as much as can be comprehended by a cow's hide. 

Godandd, Uriya. (G1|QC1Q|) Pasture land. 

Goddna, ( S. 'ft^Tf) The gift of a cow to a Brahman, to a 
bridegroom, or at religious ceremonies : it is also, among the 
Marathas, a name of the Sanskdra of shaving : see Chudd. 

Godhul, Mar. ( nfaj?) lit. cow dust : hence, Evening twilight 
(from the dust raised by the cows returning from pasture). 
A certain division of time, thirty palas before and thirty 
after sunset : it is considered an auspicious hour for mar- 

Gogrdsam, Tel. (^^5^60) Fodder of a cow. 

Gohdi, H. (^ylfcj^) Treading out grain by bullocks. 

Gohar, Gohur, H. (j^) Abroad pathway for cattle, the pre- 
servation of which is considered as obligatory as that of 
a boundary. 

Gohatyd, S. &c. (ntfTTt) Killing a cow a heinous crime. 

Go-in, Goeen, H. (^f) A pair of plough oxen, sometimes 
called Do-garvd, also Gora. 

Gohallu, Karn. (^~OW) Cow-stone, stones set up in 
Kanara for cows to rub themselves against. 

Gokhadd, Uriya (et|S1Q|) Damage done by stray cattle 
to the crops of the cultivators, for which an allowance is 
sometimes made. 

Gokhati, Uriya, (GSt|1Q) Fine for stray cattle. 
Gokul, H. (J^/) A herd of cattle. The country about Brin- 

davan, where Krishna passed his boyhood. 
Gomaya, Mar. (S. jflHil) Cow-dung. 
Gomedh, S. (nftvO Sacrifice of a cow. 
Gomvald,or Gonn-dfd, Mar. (ift^SBT, *ft%T35t) A cowherd. 
Gap, H. (i . >f) Gopa, S. (iftat) A cowherd, a man who 

by caste breeds and attends on horned cattle, and sells 

their milk, butter, &c. fern. Gopi, (?fo$\) a woman of the 

same caste ; also Gopikd. 
Gopa- or Gopi-chandana, S. &c. (jft*HrH) lit., cow- 


herds' sandal, a sort of whitish and saponaceous clay 
found at Dwaraka, and valued as the most appropriate 
pigment with which to mark the person with the sectarial 
insignia of the Vaishnava sects ; also called Gopa-mdti, 
cowherds' earth. 

Gopdla, H. (S. *iim<i5J ) A cowherd by caste and occupation. 

Gopandhdbhumi, Tel. (/T'&oTF'&r^X)) Pasture land, or 
place where cattle go : (see the next, Pandha being the 
same word as the S. Pantha). 

Gopanth, Ben. (S. jfrfHl) A road or path for cattle. 

Gopdshtami, S. &c. Oftmg*ft) The eighth day of the light 
half of the month Kartik (Oct.-Nov.), when cattle are 
fed, and decorated with garlands, in commemoration of 
Krishna's passing his youth among the cow-pastures of 

Gopmahdl, H. (JU^iy) Pasture grounds. 

Goratish, or Gorahshaka, vernacularly, Gorakh, H. &c. 
(from S. TEf, to preserve) A cowkeeper, a cowherd. 

Goras, Gorus, H. &c. (from S. t*, juice) Milk, curds, 
&c., the fluid produce of a cow. 

Gorsi, more correctly, Gorasi, H. (,^jf, from S. 
milk) A milkpail. 

Goru, Goroo, also Mar. Guru, Gooroo, q. v. H. 
from S. ft) A cow, an ox. 

Gorud-dhultdn, II. (^1^*3 \y) Twilight, time of bring- 
ing home the cows. 

Gorudri-berd, II. (^ t/j'jy/) Evening, time of bring- 
ing home cattle. 

Gorukhiyd, Uriya (G?||C^SiCI^|) Damage or destruction 
by cattle. 

Gosdld, H. (S. SI I oil, a hall) A cowhouse. 

Goshfha, S. &c. (ifttf:) A station of cowherds, a cowpen, 
pasture, or the like ; a herd of cattle : also, vernacularly, 
as in Bengali, Goth, or Gotha (i'tt^'). 

Goshtdshtami, H. S. The same as Gopdshthami, q. v. 

Gothdn, H. (^V/' from s - ^^T, a place) Place of as- 
sembling the cattle of a village. 

Govd, Hindi (<?}qi) Manure, cow-dung. 

Gorvdri, Mar. (jffaTrt) A cowherd. 

Gotvdri, H. (<_^ji) A dwelling-house, a family, a cow- 
house (Dehli). 

Grvdl, or Gn-dld, also read Gual, Gooal, but less cor- 
rectly and more barbarously, Grvaller, H. ( J\, Sl^, S. 
'UHICJ) A cowherd, one whose caste it is to tend cattle, 
and sell milk, butter, &c. The caste of cowherds in Orissa 


furnishes also palankin-bearers and domestic servants to 

Europeans and natives in Bengal. 

Grvdlin, orGrvdlan-i,H.( ( J^') A female of the cowherd caste. 
Go-iL, H. (JljS) Unclaimed land (Dehli). 
GOBBA, Thug. A circular grave. 
GOBRI, H. (uf^jS) A tribe in Rohilkhand, now living just 

under the hills. 
GODA, Tel. (^"") Any horned cattle. 

GODAGARA,orGoDA" RI-VADU,Tel. (fT*&X$ t /T1SS T) 6J^&) 
A shoemaker, a worker in leather, sprung from a female 
of the barber caste by a potter. 

GocARA, H. (j^ltJjS) A large subdivision of the Jat tribe 
on the borders of Hariana. 

GODARI, H. (i^Tpy ) A circular twist of grass or twine 
supporting the bottom of a round vessel. 

GODHAH, H. Obiiy) The weeds and grasses collected from 
a ploughed field by a harrow. 

GODI, GODE, Kara, C&&>, ~^>^>) Wheat. 

GODIYABHUMI, Tel. (X~*Q>orfrr'&) ) Stony soil. 

GODNA, H. (lijijs) GONDNE, Mar(Tft^^) Tattooing, punctur- 
ing the skin, and rubbing it with the leaves of plants, 
yielding a dark dye chiefly produced by women. Brand- 
ing as a criminal punishment, (abolished Act. ii. 1849). 

GODOWN, Ben. GUDAM, ("Jftsi) (from the Malay GADANQ, 
cJ>S) An outhouse, a warehouse, a place where house- 
hold implements or goods are kept The 'black hole" 
was nothing else than a Godown. 

GOEND, GWEND, or GWENDA, H. dxijji, l>ioj>) A suburb, 
fields near a village, a homestead or neighbourhood. 

GoGA-PlR, H, (y-WujS) A saint held in much veneration by 
the agricultural population of Dehli and the Upper Doab, 
who, in the month Bhadon, present offerings at his shrine 
which is at Dudiera, 200 miles south-west of Hisar, 

GOHANI, Hindi (ift^Trft) Land near a village, well manured 

GOHARI, H. (ufjt&ji) Rich highly-cultivated land (Sagar). 

GOINDA, commonly, GOYINDA or GOYENDA, H. (xJou^, 
from P. ^/a^, to speak) GOENDA, Ben. (Tfte)Tft) An 
informer, a spy. 

GOJAI, GOJYEE, also GOJI, and GOJARI, H. (^jj**-^) Wheat 
and barley sown in the same field. 

GOJARA H. (x^ji) Barley and chana, or chick-pea, sown 

GOJHA, H. (If^ji) A species of thorny grass which- springs 
up during the rains. 



, Uriya. (GS1|SI|) A caste of fishermen, or a man 
of that caste. 

GOKHRU, H. (jj&f) A herb which spring's up on bhur land, 
bearing a fruit coverered with small prickles (Tribulus 
lanuginosus) : in seasons of dearth the poor of Hariana 
feed on the pounded seed : a large kind called Gokhru Da- 
khini bears a fruit of a triangular shape, with prickles at the 
angles, and hence the same name is given to the iron crows' 
feet thrown on the ground to check the advance of cavalry. 
GOL, H. &c. ( J^S) A ball, a circle, any thing round, a 
mass of people, an associated body or society, a crowd, 
a troop, a brigade, a party from a different village sojourn- 
ing with their cattle for pasture. 

Gold, Goli, H. (.If, \^y-> fr m ^'> roun( l) A ball, a can- 
non ball ; a mode of trial by ordeal, in which the accused 
carried a heated ball of iron in his hand for a given 
distance, and, if his hands were unscorched, was de- 
clared innocent. 

Golanddz, H. (from the P. J^Jol , who throws) A native 


GOLA, H. (If, from Got, round) A granary, a storeroom, 
a place in which grain or salt is kept for a season. In 
Bengal it is usually a circular structure of mats or clay, 
raised two or three feet from the ground upon short 
pillars of wood or stone, and covered by a thatch. A 
grain or salt store or market ; a place where it is sold 
wholesale. A salt or saltpetre manufactory (Agra). 

Goldddr, H. &c. (j\<fl) Gaidar, Ben. (C*lll>Hd) A 
wholesale grain merchant or salt dealer, one who keeps 
a store. 

Goldkhati, Uriya (G1|R|S1S ) Depot for salt after weighing. 

Goldpaliaru, Uriya (GSIIRIO^C^) A watchman over a 

salt store. 

GoLi, H. OJ^) Name of an inferior caste, who are em- 
ployed as cleaners of rice ; or of one whose business is 
the manufacture of salt 

Goldpvrab, H. (t-JSjj^) An inferior tribe of Sunadh 

Brahmans, who cultivate lands in the Agra district. 
GOLAKA, S. &c. (jft^SeH) A son born of a widow. Among the 
Marathas, the term Golak is considered to apply to a 
caste supposed to be descended from the illegitimate off 
spring of a woman of the Brahman caste ; distinguished 
as the Kunda-golah, ( *'<!i'ft<35l?) the adulterous pro- 
geny of a woman who has a husband, and Randa-golali, 
the illegitimate son of a widow. The mem- 

bers of this caste at Puna act as astrologers, agents, 

money-changers, and are held as no better than Siidras. 
GOLKAR, Kara. (A>9 ( 5fO~9o) Sons of female slaves or 

GOLLA, Tel. Karn. (^""^j) A shepherd, a man of a caste 

whose duty it is to graze sheep or cattle, sdmetimes em- 

ployed as confidential servants and assistants in public 

treasuries. Also Gollddu, Gollavddu, plur. Golla- 

vdndlu, Karn Gollar, or Gollaru. 
Golla-haramu, Tel. (/T'oSS'^X)) A tax on herdsmen 

and shepherds. 
Golla-palli, Karn. ( A ^^^ ) A village of cowherds or 

Gollar-mdnyam, Karn. (^Vtf&J^ivSgO) Taxes levied 

from shepherds. 
GOLLI, Thug. Coral. 
GOLYA, Mar (ifrcTl) A rice pounder or pestle, a man who 

gains a living by pounding rice. 
GOMA, Thug. Omen from the flight of a shrike, considered 

good on whichever side it is observed. 
GoMAjf KAPASA, Mar. (jftoisft <*IM5ll) A fictitious name ; 

sometimes inserted in accounts as the name of a revenue 

defaulter for arrears for which the head of the village, or 

revenue officer, is responsible : (from Gomd, pretended 

ignorance : Mpasjd or kdpsd appears to be merely an 

unmeaning adjunct). 
GONA, or GONI, Ben., Mar., &c. (S. *tt1, ifaft) A coarse 

sack made from the fibres of the Pat. The coarse sort 

of canvas of which it is made is commonly called Gunny 

see Ganni. 
Gonapat, or Gonapdt, or Gonatdt, Mar. ( '^tinte , or -TI7, 

or -7TT7) The coarse canvas or sackcloth made from the 

fibres of the Pat (Corchorus capsularis), of which sacks 

or bags of various sizes are fabricated. 
GONA, Thug. The hand ; also, amongst the Dakhini Thugs, 

GONAGAR-AYA-JODI, Karn. C&fcv$'K'9&5C&6*O) A tax 

levied on those who cut betel-nuts for the village. 
GONAKALLU, read also GONIKAL, (?) Kara. Cw& 

A rough stone ; stony or gravelly soil. 
Gonakalluhddi, Kara. (^SO^euSoeQ ) A rough road. 
GONCHI, Kara. (X/O&r) A field, especially one rented 

by different tenants. 
Gonchigdr, Karn. ("/WSoarTTStf') A proprietor or occu- 

pant of a field. 

3 A 


Gonchipafta, Karn. ( 7t/9oa^<oW ) A lease of fields or 

lands held jointly by several co-occupants. 
GoncJidhi, Karn. (7>-/OFE$C>) A man set to watch a field. 
GOND, H. &c. (P. J^^S) Gum; a solution of gum used to 

fasten the envelopes of letters. 
Gond-ddni, H. (P. ^j'j, holding) The gum-stand. 
Gond-kast, H. (P. c^*>, spreading) An instrument for 

applying the gum to envelopes. 
GOND, H. (JJji ) A sort of rush used in making mats and 


GOND, (?) Hindi. Land immediately adjacent to a village, 
and, being richly manured, cultivated for vegetables and 
tobacco (Bundelkhand). 

GoNt), corruptly, GOAND, H. (S. Joji) The half barbarous 
inhabitants of the eastern branches of the Vindliya moun- 
tains, between Bundelkhand and Berar, and subject partly 
to the British government, and partly to that of Nagpore, 
giving its appellation to the country of Gondwana. A 
small portion of them is found in different tracts, bearing 
the title of Rdj-gond, who are looked upon with respect 
by the other Gonds. 

GONDA, H. (IjJ^) A branch of the Ahir caste. 
GONDANA, GONDALA, or GONDLI, Karn. (A/9o<3t3 ) A/SO<3$' > 
^ / P ) ) GONDHALA, or GONDHAL, Mar. (ifftjcS) A 
tumultuous festivity in honour of the goddess Devi, cele- 
brated, even in Mysore, chiefly by Maratha Brahmans, it 
being a Maratha festival, (from the Mar. Gondhala, tumult, 
bustle,) consisting of music, and dancing, and recitation 
of mythological stories. The word in Kanarese, spelled 
with a long o ( TwS^OOy ) i s sa id a l s <j to mean a cere- 
mony performed for the sick, on the birth of a child, 
at marriages, &c., when the tutelary household divinity 
is splendidly attired, and music and dancing are performed 
by hired musicians in the outer court. It is probably 
the same thing as the Gondhal. 

Gondhali, incorrectly Gondali, and Gondli, or Gondlee, 
corruptly Gonedullee, Mar. (jflVcjft) The name of a caste, 
or individual of it, whose business it is to sing and dance, 
and perform the Gondhal: in some places the Gondh- \ 
ali is the village drummer; sometimes he is a vagrant j 
musician, dancer, and tumbler, or subsists by begging. 
GONEWAR, (?) Tel. An inferior division of the Kunbi or 
agricultural tribe in the northern Sirkars. See Gorimdr. 
GONGADI, ' GONGARI, Karn. ("/wQoXtS) A woollen cloth or 
blanket See Kambal. 


GONDHA, or GONRA, H. (l^jJj?, |y^) A reservoir to which 
water is thrown up from a pond or pool below. The 
straw or reeds which are placed to protect the side of the 
upper reservoir. (Central and lower Doab). 

GON i, Thug. A shoe. 

GONIAYAT, Thug. A man who has lost his hand or nose : it 
is unlucky to murder him. 

GoNTii, H. (Ui/) The head man of a village, a Patel. 
In some places the term is restricted to a Brahman hold- 
ing that office. 

GOPHNA, GOPHNI, Or GOPHIA, H. (U^Jj?, lJ-Uy>, lxi> , 

'fllMl, 'fllMl) GOPHAN, Mar. (iftaQl) A sling, espe- 
cially one used by persons stationed on a platform in a 
field of corn to drive away cattle, birds, &c. 
GOPO, Uriya. (GS1|GO| ) The whole household: lit., cows 

and children. 

GOPURA, Mar, &c. (S. >TtaT) A gate, a town gate, but 

more especially applied in the south to the elevated and 

ornamented gateway or entrance tower of a Hindu temple. 

GOPYA, S. (jftoT, from ni, to preserve) To be preserved or 

taken care of, as a deposit. 

Gopyddhi, S. (iffnnfti:) A pledge or deposit to be pre- 
served, one that is not to be made any use of while in de- 
posit : also Gopi/alandha, &c. 

GOHA, H. (\jf) Fair, white, a European ; but, when ap- 
plied to cattle, red. 

GORA, or GODA, Ben. (i'TI^I) A foundation, a source. 
Goragm-i, Ben. (itt^lZ^tlf^) From the beginning, from 

the origin or foundation. 
GORABA, GORAVA, Karn. ("&S#b, "&5>&S) A shepherd's 

GORAI, Hindi (ifrjT^) A clan of Rajputs in the Agra 


GORAI-ZAMIN, (? zamin is Persian, and gordi may come 
from gord, fair, but the compound is not met with in any 
dictionary, nor is it confirmed by any local authority) 
Mixed soil of sand and fine red earth, the latter pre- 
dominating, producing all kinds of grain except wheat 
and rice : on the best kind, sugar-cane, chilis, and tobacco 
may be raised. 
GORANT, (?) A light soil (Bundelkhand) : (probably the 

same as the next word). 

GORAT, Guz. OU3.lfl) A light sandy soil ; one of the 
two principal kinds found in Guzerat : also termed 



GORET, or GORAI-IT, corruptly, GORAYT, GORAYAT, or GHO- 
HITE, H. (u^ijj>, jftW, J fR$4) A watchman, a village 
watchman and messenger, one whose duty it is to guard the 
village and prevent depredations on the crops, also to carry 
messages for the superior village officers : he is, in most 
places in Upper India, one of the municipal establish- 
ment, and is especially employed under the Patwdri to 
call the villagers to the public office when required. 

GOHGAHI, H. (.^jj&jSt perhaps from P. jf, a grave) A 
method of deciding village boundary disputes in Chota 
Nagpur: two holes are dug on a spot in the contested 
limits, in which the watchmen of the two contending 
villages are severally buried up to the waist: whichever 
holds out longest gains the cause. 

GORHA, H. (\&>jf) Fields near a village homestead. 

GORHA, or GORHONI, Thug. Bread. 

GOHHNA, Thug. To strangle. 

GODNA, GORNA, II. C^f, ^>jf , jfl4il, jftfn) A sort of 
hoe used for digging up sugar-cane, and the like. 

GORIWAR, (?) Tel. A division of the Kunbi, or agricul- 
tural caste in the northern Sirkars : (war is the vulgar 
form of vddu, an individual). 

GORRU, Tel. (^^^|p) A land measure, equal to 125 kuntaf, 
or 45,375 square yards, or 3f acres : also an instrument 
of husbandry, used as a sort of harrow, or as a drill-plough, 
or sometimes for weeding after the grain is in stalk. 

GOSAIN, H. (jji'^) A religious mendicant: see Gosrvdmi. 
Gosain tdki, H. (,<u ,^*~S) A cess of a quarter ana 
per rupee on the revenue, formerly granted by a Za- 
mindar of Birbhum to establishments of Gosains in the 
Zamindari, and collected by them from the Ryots : as 
many disputes arose out of the arrangement, the right to 
levy the tax was finally restricted to the Zamindar, and 
the payment of the Gosain-tdki left to his own discretion. 

GOSANGIVADU, Tel. ( ^" T> r6o^oJ~&)) A shoemaker, a 
worker in leather ; a low caste, whose occupation is 
working in skins and leather. 

GOSAVI, Mar. (ijtarfl) A religious mendicant: see Gosrvdmi. 
Go&dvi-pafti, Mar. (jflttmTufg) A cess self imposed for- 

merly by the villagers to raise a fund for paying Gosains. 
GOSIIA-NASHI'N, H. (^^ Ai^i) A Mohammadan ascetic 
or recluse, one who professes to have withdrawn from the 
world ; lit, one sitting in a corner : hence, also said of a 
woman of rank or respectability, though the term for her 
is more properly Parda-nashin. 

GtfSHTA, Mar. (nte) A story, an affair, a circumstance. 

GOSHTHI, Ben. (S. i^tt^) GOSHTA or GOSHTI, the unas- 
pirated letter being substituted for the original, Mar. 
('ft?, iftgl) An assembly, a meeting, especially one held 
for discussion or debate. Family connexions, relations, 

Goshti-srdddh, Mar. (from S. 'Slid- a funeral ceremony) 
An obsequial ceremony performed in words only, when 
circumstances prevent its actual performance. 

GOSHWARA, H. (P. *j(yi } jftljniTCT) vernacularly modified 
WARAH, Mar (jft^fcl, nfalKT, jft^TO) GOSBARA, or GOS- 
WARA, Ben. GfrriTRtaDGoSHUPARA, '?A.(X~tX><3~*~&>) 
GOSHUARA, Uriya (GS1|I2)|Q|) An abstract statement, 
giving the substance of different documents, the ab- 
stract or sum of a village or Zamindari account, shew- 
ing the total quantity of land, and its distribution, as waste, 
cultivated, fallow, productive, &c., made up from the 
Chitthas, q. v. An index, a summary. 
Goshwdra-kabuliat, H. (A. OA!^AJ, agreement) Counter- 

part or acceptance of an abstract account. 
Goshrvdra-kul, H. (from A. Jo, all) A complete abstract 
or summary of the whole. 

GOSWAMI, S. (l\\, sense or passion &c., ^T*ft, master, one 
who restrains his passions, modified vernacularly as GOSAIN, 
SAVI, GOSAYI, &c.) A religious mendicant in general. As a 
special name it is applied to very different classes of per- 
sons, identified only by their professing a religious and 
mendicant life. The most respectable are the reputed de- 
scendants spiritually of Sankara Acharya, of whom there 
are ten chief branches, and who are thence also called 
the Das-ndmi, or ten-named Gosains, attaching to the 
ordinary Hindu appellation one of the terms, Tirtha, 
(shrine), Asrama, (an order), Vana and Aranya, (a wood), 
Sarasruati, (the goddess of eloquence). Bhdrati, (the 
goddess of speech), Puri, (a city), Gin and Parvata, 
(a hill), or Sagara, (the ocean), as, Ananda-yiri 
Vidyaranya, Piiran-yir, Rama-dsrama. These, although 
they are occasionally vagrants, are usually assembled in 
maths:, or conventual residences, under a superior : some 
of their establishments are liberally endowed, and of great 
reputed sanctity, particularly that of Sringeri, in the western 
Ghats, near the sources of the Tungabhadra, said to have 
been founded by Sankara himself. Individuals of the 



three pure castes are admissible, and in some cases Sud'ras 
also ; but as they profess celibacy, their numbers are in 
part recruited by the purchase or adoption of boys at an 
early age. The Das-ndmi Gosains worship preferentially 
Siva, of whom Sankara is said to have been an avatar a ; 
but many have been distinguished as advocates of the 
Vedanta doctrines. One division of them, termed Alii*, 
differs from the more rigid Dandl-yosains, in following 
secular pursuits, as traders and ministrant priests of tem- 
ples : some of them even marry and settle, when they are 
termed Samyogis, or Gharbdris, These Gosains, al- 
though met with in Upper India, are most numerous and 
influential in the south. In Hindustan the name is more 
correctly applied to two different classes, both worshippers 
of Vishnu, the Gosains of Gohul, who are descended 
from VallabhaAchdrya,s.nA, although religious characters, 
are allowed to marry and follow secular pursuits, and the 
Gosains of Bengal, who are the disciples of Chaitanya, 
a native of Bengal, who instituted a new form of Vaish- 
nava worship at the end of the fifteenth century. They 
also marry, and, like the Gohulastha, lead domestic and 
respectable lives. The term is also applied loosely to 
mere vagrants, some of whom wandered about formerly in 
armed gangs, and levied contributions forcibly on the vil- 
lages, plundered them, or now, coming singly, or in small 
bodies, extort money by inflicting disgusting tortures upon 
themselves : these sometimes go naked. 
Gosdvni, Mar. (jftawft) A female Gosain ; one who, 
on arriving at years of discretion, adopts a life of con- 
tinence and mendicancy. 

JDauri-Gosdvi, Mar. (TW 'ftTll^l ) A class of religious 
vagrants, said to be disciples of Gorakhnath ; in which 
case they are not properly Gosains, but Jogis : they siaa; 
hymns in honour of Bhairava, playing on the daura C'3It), 
or a small drum shaped like an hour-glass ; whence their 
name, daiiri, a player on the daura. 

GOT, H. &c. (CLJ^, abbreviated from fta, q. v.) A family, 
a race ; a family of Brahmans, bearing the common name 
of some Rishi, their supposed progenitor, or primitive 
spiritual head, as, Sdndilya, Kdsyapa, Bhdradmaja, &c. 
Any branch or subdivision of a tribe or caste. A caste 

GOT, Thug. A large city. 

GOTA, Thug. Stones, especially from graves. 

GOTA, Hindi (aftfJT) The mustard-seed crop (Puraniya). 

GOTAI, Mar. (*f|H||) Ceremonies observed by Sudras prior 
to the re-admission of a man who has forfeited his caste, 
Gotpat, or -pat, Mar. Oflil'Md-TnTr) A caste or family col- 
lectively. Ceremonies of receiving back a man who has 
lost caste among Sudras. 

GOTH, Guz. (3llU Four; a private number used by mer- 
chants, &c. Gnth-padi, fourteen. 

GOTAMU, Tel. (Ao cXX}) A coarse canvas or ganni bag. 

GOTARA, Hindi (*iV<jl*j) The rich lands immediately ad- 
jacent to the village (Puraniya). 

GOTBASTI, Hindi OflilUrtl) The chief or first assemblage 
of houses erected on the settlement of a village : those 
subsequently built form the thola or piiUi. 

GOTRA, S. &c. (jffal) Family, lineage, relationship by 
descent from a common ancestor of the same name. A 
family, a tribe, especially applied to races of Brahmans 
who profess to regard some celebrated saint as their pro- 
genitor or their primitive spiritual head, and whose de- 
signation they bear ; as, the Bltdradrvdja-yotra, Kds- 
yapa-gotra, Sdndilya-yotra, &c. The term, at least 
in its vernacular form Got, has come to signify a sub- 
division of any common tribe or caste. 
Gotraja, S. (jftasj) A kinsman of the same family and 
name, the 'gentile,' in opposition to the bandliu or kins- 
man of a different family or cognate. Adoption is pre- 
ferably enjoined in the same gotra, while marriage is 
Gotrahatyd, S. (?Wt, killing) Striking or killing a person 

of the same gotra. 

Gotra-varanam, S. (from ^T5J, choosing) Ceremony of 
repeating the genealogy of the bride and bridegroom at 
a marriage : (it should probably be varnanam, describing, 

GRAHA, S. (zTf , from TT^, to take) A planet. 
Grahapatra, S. (from TR, a leaf) A horoscope, a table 
indicating the positions and aspects of the planets at any 
particular moment, as at birth, marriage, &c. 
Grahapujd, S. (from tjrf, worship) Worship of the 

planets, to render them propitious. 

GIIAHANA, S., Ben., &c. (il^l!)) An eclipse. Taking, ac- 
cepting, seizing, apprehending. In the dialects more 
usually Gahan. 

GRAHIA, Uriya (]^>12||) A mortgage, chiefly of lands. 
GRAM, English. The term current for varieties of pulse, 
especially for native chana, the chick-pea (Acer arietinum). 


The word is probably of Portuguese origin, from Grao, 

GRAM, or GRAMA, S. &c. C^nr), the term occurs in all the 
dialects, sometimes in the primitive form, but usually 
modified, as, GAM, GANW, or GAON, corruptly GAUM, 
(*TR, *Tfa> TrefV)> also varied according to inflexion, 
as, GR^MAMU, Tel. (Q^/o&O) ; or to alphabetical 
peculiarities, as, KIRAMAM, (so written though pro- 
nounced GRAMAM), Tarn. (<5SlcrrTLQlii), GRAMAM, Mai. 
((^C/?OClo) A village, literally ; but, as specifying a mu- 
nicipal and fiscal division, a hamlet, a township, con- 
sisting not only of the residences of the inhabitants, 
but of a tract of land around them within determinate 
boundaries, including arable and pasture lands, wood, 
waste, and water. The organization of such townships 
prevails, in principle, throughout India, but varies in prac- 
tice in different parts of the country t they are, however, 
reducible, in the first instance, to two principal classes, 
one of which is so far the property of one individual that 
a single person is responsible for the revenue, and collects 
it from the cultivators as if from his tenants, exercising 
the right to distrain their goods, or eject them altogether, 
on failure of their paying their stipulated or customary 
share of the government demand, and claiming also a right 
to impose upon them occasionally cesses and charges, and,' 
in some cases, to let the lands to temporary occupants at 
a stipulated rent : in the second great class the govern- 
ment revenue is paid direct by a number of individuals 
claiming proprietary rights in the village lands, paying 
either severally, or through a head man, who is one of 
their own community, representing them either by here- 
ditary descent or election. Modifications of both these de- 
scriptions occur : thus, of the first, in Bengal generally, 
and in the north-west provinces occasionally, the pro- 
prietary right is vested in one individual, either by his 
having been in possession of such right from the earliest 
recorded period, or from having acquired it by purchase 
when lands have been sold for arrears of revenue : these 
are known as Zamindari tenures. In the south of India, 
in the Tamil provinces, an Eltabhogam (sole enjoyment), 
or Ijamdn (.yajamdna, or householder) Grdmamis usually 
the property of a single individual, either in his own 
person or as head of his family : sometimes, however, the 
village is distributed amongst a body of hereditary pro- 
prietors, over whom the Ijamdn has a controlling power, 


allotting the lands amongst them according to their shares, 
and apportioning and collecting the revenue : no sale of 
the land can be effected without his sanction. The second 
great class of villages, in which the proprietary right is 
vested in a certain number of individuals, who are respon- 
sible for the public revenue, is the most numerous class, 
and may once have been universal : these coparcenary te- 
nures present many peculiarities, which it is necessary to 
become acquainted with for each in particular, in assess- 
ing the public revenue, but they may be chiefly distin- 
guished as of three kinds : 1. Those in which the whole 
land is held and managed in common ; the rents paid by 
the cultivators, whether they be the proprietors themselves 
or tenants under the proprietors, being thrown into a com- 
mon stock, with all other profits from the estate, and, 
after deducting expenses, the balance is divided amongst 
the proprietors, according to old and established practice: 
these are called in Hindustan Zamindari villages, as the 
occupants are termed village Zamindars, to distinguish 
them from the Zamindars of Bengal, or they are termed 
Bhayachara, or brotherhood villages. In the south of 
India they are called Pasung-harai and Pangu~vali, or by 
the S. terms Samudayam or Samohi, Panguvali and 
Samudayam are especially applied to coparcenary tenures, 
in which the allotments are liable to revision and re- 
adjustment from time to time, on the agreement of the 
occupants. 2. The more general form of coparcenary vil- 
lages is that termed in the north-west provinces, Pattiddri, 
in which the lands are divided into Pattis, or shares, and 
held in severally by the different proprietors, or Pattiddrs, 
each person managing his own lands, and paying his 
fixed share of the government revenue ; the whole being 
jointly responsible, in the event of any one sharer failing 
to fulfil his engagements : in the south these tenures are 
known as Arudi-karai, Achandrdrkam, Bhattavritti or 
Bharttvarti, Palabhogam, q. v. 3. A third form is that 
known in the north-west provinces as the imperfect Patti- 
ddri village, in which part of the land is held in common 
and part in severally ; the profits of the land held in com- 
mon being first appropriated to the government revenue 
and the village expenses, and the overplus being distributed, 
or the deficiency made good, according to a rate on the 
several holdings, when the proprietors are said to pay 
their revenue by Dhdr-bdchh or Bighaddm, q. v. Vil- 
lages may also be denominated from the mode of the dis- 
3 B 



tribution of the lands, as the Biyhati of the upper pro- 
vinces, where the division of the allotments usually held 
in severally is by bighds, or their fractions : the Visabadi 
of the Ceded districts, where the division is by visas, or 
sixteenths, which are usually held in common : the Nirwa 
or Bhdgwdr villages of Guzerat, in which the village is 
distributed into bhdgas, or portions according to the 
original number of sharers : these bhdgas are subdivided by 
dnas, or sixteenths, amongst the heirs of a deceased pro- 
prietor, according to their number and respective rights, 
and these dnas may be again subdivided into fractional six- 
teenths, termed dnis and chdtvah : Bhdyivdr villages are 
usually held in severally. In some parts of Hindustan 
villages are primarily divided into a certain number of 
nominal integral parts, usually twenly, which are called 
bisrvas, and Ihen again into fractions of twentieths, termed 
biswdnsis and karrvdnsix : these portions are distributed 
amongst the representatives of the original proprietor or 
proprietors, constituting the proprietary shares, termed 
Pattjs, or sometimes Peng, q. v. : the Patti is divisible ac- 
cording to the number of the heirs of a Pattiddr, into 
smaller portions, called thohs, tholan, or dheris, and these 
may again be subdivided into smaller shares, termed behris. 
Tlioh is sometimes convertible into Patti : see these terms 
severally, also the Tamil terms, 'Pangu and Karai. When 
the proprietors of a village are of different classes or re- 
ligions, it is primarily divided between them according to 
their respective interests, and the portions in Hindustan 
are termed tarafs ; so that there may be a Mohammadan 
and a Hindu taraf in one village, each being severally 
divisible according to the prevailing usage. Every village 
has an establishment of municipal officers and servants, 
more or less complete, according as its organization has 
been more or less interfered with : see under the word 

Grdmadevatd, H. (S. ^rmJ^Tin) Grdmdebta, or -debtd, 
Ben. and Uriya (SiNdM^I) Grdmdeo, Mar. (TTTO^) 
The tutelary divinity of a village ; sometimes this is one 
of the ordinary pantheon, but it is more usually local, and 
is not uncommonly a rude block of stone : the term is 
also applied to lands appropriated to the expense of the 
village idol. 

Grdmddhikdri, vernacularly, Grdmadhikdr, incorrectly, 
Grdmddikdr, S. (from ^rftjoRTCt, one who has a right) 
The head of a village ; either the proprietor, the head 

man, or the collector of the revenue on government 


Grdmddhinan, Mai. ((^COOQOajloonrt)) A village carpenter. 
Grdmddhipati, S. (from ^rftmfir, master) Grdmddhipan, 

Mai. ((J/)0<2)OU51o_irY6) The head of a village, commonly 

charged also by the government with the general con- 
trol of it, and the collection of the revenue. 
Grdma-hissebu, Tel. (^y&>r D ~>tX), f rom the P. 

ffisdb, t*-->\H*s~) The general account of the collection 

and balance due delivered to the landlord at the time of 

Grdma-kanahan, Tarn. (<Sa<5COTS<3(53r) S. (JTOoRl) Grama, 

karnam, Tel. The village accountant 
Grdma-kanthamu, Tel. ( \^J &>Sb&X> ) A spot of 

ground in a village for building huts upon. 
Grant; or Gdon, or Grama hharch, H. (*-,^- AS) Grama 

Jtharchu, Tel. (l^i&>30Sc&) The private expenses of 

a village ; the charges borne by it independently of the 

payments on account of revenue. 
Grdma-kdvel, Tarn. (<5ITQJ&) The village watch. 
Grdma-ltltarch-taltsim, (S. and A.) Account shewing the 

proportion of village charges to be borne by each Ryot. 

Ceded districts. 
Grdma-hharch-zdbita, (S. and A.) Account of the village 

disbursements. Ceded districts. 
Grdmalu-mulu, Tel. An allowance given by villages to 

Brahmans of a quantity of rice in the husk at the time 

of harvest. Ceded districts. 
Grama mdniam, Tarn. ( LQITCSOflU-JLa) A certain extent of 

land enjoyed rent-free by a hereditary proprietor of part 

of the village lands, as a personal privilege attached to 

such a share (Ellis). 
Grdma-merai, Tarn. (<Elf7rTLaGLa<50Drj) Allowances of a 

portion of the crop to the village officers and servants. 
Grdmamukham, Mai. ((^C/)OG)^>6LJo) A market town. 
Grdmanattam, Tarn. (rflrjrTUirjS^La) Ground set 

apart, on which the houses of a village may be built. 
Gramani, incorrectly, Gramni, S. &c. (i*f*ut) Tarn. 

(eblrjrTLQSCcfl) The head man of a village. It is also 

a title assumed in the Tamil countries by the drawers of 

the Tdri juice. In several dialects, as, Bengali, Uriya, 

Tel., Kara., and Mai., it denotes also the village barber. 
Grdmanyan, Mai. ((^>0t2ff<~^nb) The head man of a 

Grdma-otti-shettu, (?) The mortgage-deed of a village. 


Grdma-purohiian, Tarn. (l_|QcnT<5j)SOTr, from S. Pu- 

rohita) The village priest and astronomer. 
Gramasamishti bhumi, Tel. ( ^^/&> 

Land possessed by the villagers conjointly. 
Grama terige, Kara. (^A^/^9?8"A) A fine levied in Mysore 

on Ryots who have left their own villages and settled in others. 
Grdmattdn, also, corruptly, Graumutta and Graumuttan, 

(eflOTTLDSSrTOT) The head man of a village (in the 

Tamil countries). 
Grdmattan-mdniam, A grant of rent-free land to the head 

of a village, in addition to his own share of the com- 

mon property paying revenue: see Grdmamdniam. 
Grdmattan-sutantram, (&& > rf > &,rj&) Fees and privileges 

enjoyed by the head man of a village. 
Grdmattdr, Tarn., (&\!7m^S,S,n^) sing. An inhabitant 

of a village, the inhabitant par excellence, the head man : 

plur. The inhabitants of a village. 
Grdmbfieti, Ben. ( (JffaTStJ*^) A present or fee to a Za- 

mindar on the marriage of a tenant s children. 
Gram, or Gdm-chdli, Mar. (^n^lijT) Village usage or 


Grdm-josM, or Grama-jyotishi, Mar., S., (uwtfl^tf , 
l) The village astronomer, who casts nativities 

and calculates times and seasons. 
Grdm-lehhaJta, Mar (S. ^SFcfi, a writer) The village ac- 

Grdmopadhydya, S., Mar. (from S. TUTWl) A village 

priest or schoolmaster, if a Brahman. 
Grdm-saranjdmi,, H. (P. .jj^jm , effects) The requisite 

establishment or implements for the business of a village. 
Grammar, or Grdmarvdr, H. By villages, as a village 

Gram-, or Gdm-nisbat-indmati, Mar. (7TW-, <i|IHfVuNrf- 

Rent-free lands granted to village officers or 
servants, on the part of, and by, the village community, 
usually of its own free will, but occasionally under the 
orders of the government. 

Grdmya, S. &c. (yij) Village, rustic; any thing re- 
lating to or concerning a village, or to the practices and 
manners of the villagers. 

Grdmyadebatd,Ben. (S. Stl^K^vsl) A village or rustic deity, 

often represented by a rude stone placed under a large tree., or Grdmaydjaka, (S. Vl*f4i:) The village 
priest, who conducts the ceremonies for any or all classes. 
An attendant on an idol. 


GBANTHA, S. (TT^l) A book in general. The book of 
the Sikhs, a large collection of short moral poems by 
Nanak and others in Panjabi and Hindi. 
GRANTHI, S. (TTfi*K) A knot, a tie, a tying together. 

Granthi-mochaka, S. (from ffaR, who loosens) A thief, 

a cut-purse, or parcel pilferer. 

GRAsA, or GRAS, corruptly, GRASS, or GURAS, S., used in 
all the Hindu dialects, (TTTOt, from TJ1S, to swallow) GHAS, 
or GH.ANS, Mar. (irra, *TO) and GARAS, pronounced 
GRAS, Guz. (313.131) A mouthful, or a quantity equi- 
valent to it Fodder for cattle. A hereditary claim to a 
small portion (a mouthful) of the produce of a village or 
villages by various Rajput chiefs, granted them by the 
local governments in remuneration of military service, 
and commuted for a pecuniary payment out of the revenue 
paid by the villagers. A fixed payment made to military and 
predatory chiefs in Guzerat and Malwa, especially in lieu 
of lands held by them, or in purchase of their refraining 
from plunder. Also lands held by Grasias in Guzerat. 

Grdsid, H. (UJ/, TRTCTta) Garasio, Guz. Pttl$tl) 
A military and predatory chief in Malwa, Rajputana, 
Guzerat, and Cutch, claiming a portion of the revenues of 
certain villages, either as a grant originally from the 
superior authority, in requital of military service, or as 
the price of forbearance from plunder. In Mewar the 
designation applies to military chiefs of mixed Rajput 
and Bhil descent, holding jagirs in nominal vassalage to 
the Rana of Udayapur, and engaging to pay a stipulated 
tribute. In Guzerat the term also designates a plun- 
derer or robber. 
GRIHA, S. &c. (*||r) A house. 

Grihaddha, S. &c. (from ^T?, burning) Arson, house 

Grihadeva, or -devatd, S. &c. (from <^, or ^qm, a di- 
vinity) The household deity, the tutelary deity of a house, 
rarely bearing any specific designation, and not unusually 
represented by a water-pot ; a rude figure ; a Sdlagrdma 
stone or Ammonite, or the Tulasi plant, or sacred Basil. 

Grihajdta, S. (from fTiT, born) A description of slave,, 
one born of a female slave in the house of her master. 

Grihapati, S. &c. (from tifij, a master) A householder. 

Grihapravesa, S. &c. (from TT^K, entrance) The cere- 
monies observed upon taking possession of a new house, 
or upon the first reception of a bride in her husband's 



Grihastha, S. &c., also vernacularly, but incorrectly, Gra- 
hasth, Girhast, Girhist, Giristh, &c. (from tr% , a house, 
and W, who stays or dwells in) A householder ; the 
Hindu of the second order, who, after his course as a 
religious student, marries and keeps house ; a respectable 
person ; a villager or cultivator, whence, Orahasthi, or, 
vernacularly, Girhisti, husbandry. 

Grihayajna, S. (from tRT, worship) Domestic worship, 
especially the oblation of oiled butter on the household 
fire, a fire perpetually preserved by some classes of Brah- 
man householders. 

Grihi, S. &c. (*T^) A householder. 
Grihini, S. &c. (Jjfigufl) The mistress of a house, the 
wife of a householder. 

GainiTji, S., also Uriya, &c. ()1C)|, from S. 75, to take, 
or seize) A creditor, a donor, one who claims or receives 
any thing. 

GuA, GUYA, Ben. ( 1 J 3 Tt, "JttTt, S. TprraO Betel-nut; also 
the tree that bears it (Areca catechu). 

GtinA, or GIJHA, Tel. (XT"* da) A basket for throwing up 
water for irrigation. 

GuuAKU, Kara. (Xb'5~3cx>) Prepared tobacco for smoking 
in a It H /./;<!. 

GfrDALU, Tel. (Xr^&eu) A basket made of woven bambu 
strips for drawing up water. 

GUDAM, Ben. (*tTff!T) A magazine, a storeroom, a ware- 
house : see Godoien. 

GUDAR, orGuDAR-OHATA,Ben. H^l a*l iil, vernacular corrup- 
tion of P. \JJ>, GUZARA, crossing) A ferry, a landing-place. 

GlJDAST, Mar. (n^cf, vernacular corruption of P. e^i}, 
GUZASHT, past) Past, gone by. Sdl-gudast, last year. 
See Guzasht. 

Gudast-bdki, Mar. (from A. ,J>V remainder) Balance 
remaining of a closed account 

GUDAVU, Karn. (X5~*&$) A small hamlet near a village. 

GUDDALI, Kara. (Xo&>) A native spade or hoe. 
Guddali-pommu, Kara. (^S o^&X^) A cess levied 
on vegetable gardeners at so much per spade or hoe. 

GUDDE, Tel. (XJ~S) High ground for dry cultivation. 
Gudda, Kara. (&&) A hill, a mountain. 
Guddada-koti, Kara. (Xo&s!<E>k3) A hill fort 

GUBEMU, Tel. (Xo~Sx>) A hamlet. 

GtJDEMU, Tel. (XJ-~Sx>) A small hamlet near a village. 

GUDAGAVAL-GUTTA, Karn. (AO^-TTsSeXo^) Taxes on 
the gatherers of wild fruits in Mysore. 

GtJDHAJA, pronounced commonly, GURHAJA, S. &c. 

secret, and T, bom) The son of concealed birth, born 
privately of a woman whose husband is absent, the real 
father being unknown : also Gudhotpanna, &c. 

GUDHAH, Mar. (JUSlO Flight of a whole people of a vil- 
lage from an enemy. 

GUDHI, GURHI, Mar. (Tret) A pole erected on the first day 
of the year before the house door, and covered with cloth, 
mango-sprigs, &c. Flowers or grains of rice stuck on 
an idol consulted as an oracle : the answer is inferred 
from the order in which they fall off. 

GUDI', Ben. 

A sort of dry dock, a place made by the 

side of a river for repairing and caulking boats. 
Gupi, Tel. Kara. (X^O) A temple, a pagoda. 
Gudikatle, Kara. (fo&O^) Fixed allowance for a temple. 
Gudikattu, Tel. (XbOSbo) The whole extent of land 


attached to a temple, or a statement exhibiting it 
Gudipdrupatya, Kara. (XbOtO dCQ>8g) Superintendence 
of a temple. 

GUDIGA'R, Kara. (X}Q A do) A caste, or individual of it, at 
Nagar, in Mysore, carvers in sandal-wood, horn, and ivory. 

GupISARAKU, Karn. (Xj&rOODJ) A term used for the or- 
dinary price of a pair of shoes at Nagar (Mysore). 

GUDIVARAM, Tel. (toGiSo'o) The Ryot's share of the crop. 

GUDRI, H. (i^J*i) A daily market. 

GUDU, GOODOO, (?) A money fee payable by landholders on 
the Nilghari hills to the Todas, or native hill-men. 

GtrGARi, corruptly, GtjGHi, GOOGREE, Kara. (X3~~X&) Any 

fee or perquisite of the head of a village. 
Gugari-Ml, Karn. (X3~~X525^') Pasture ground granted 
rent-free to a headman. 

GUGGAL, Mar. (?) Fees leviable on Lingayats by landholders 
in the Dakhin. 

GUGLI, GOOGLEE, (?) Said to denote a class of Brahmans 
attached to the Vaishnava objects of pilgrimage in Kattiwar. 

GUJAI, corruptly, GOOJEY, Hindi (5^) A mixed crop of 
barley and wheat in the north-west provinces. 

GUJAR, H. (j*-, l*^) Th e name f a numerous class in 
the north-west provinces, chiefly engaged in agriculture, 
though formerly notorious for their martial and predatory 
character. They profess to descend from Rajput fathers 
by women of inferior castes. Mr. Elliot considers them 
as having given their appellation to the principality of 
Guzerat, in the west of India, and the district of the same 
name in the Panjab. In the Dakhin the term is con- 



sidered synonymous with Gujardti, and applied to any 
native of Guzerat, but more especially to the traders and 
dealers from that country. In Bengal and Bahar one sub- 
division of the Kurmi, or agricultural tribe, is called Gu- 
jardti, having come perhaps originally from thence. 
GUJAR, also GUJRAN, or GUJ!RA, Mar. (^JIT, JJaHHU, 
TilKI, from P. Guzar,jji, passing) Bare subsistence, 
mere means of livelihood. 

GUJARA, Ben. (''l^lrfl, vernacular corruption of P.^ii ) A 

GUJARAT, Mar. (TTSTTOT) Through the medium, or by the 
hands of; (said of money paid ;) presence or act of witness- 
ing, though without responsibility (in money transactions). 

GUJARATI, Tel. (Xbe^tf) Possession. 

GUJRI, Tel. (foQ , from the H. j^/0 A market or mar- 
ket-place ; in Madras, the thieves' bazar. Mar. (lKl) 
The morning or evening market 

GUKHI, Thug. A person carrying the bones of his relations 
to some sacred stream : he is never to be assailed. 

GUI-, GOOL, H. (<JjO A channel cut to convey water to a 
field. A road, a path (Sagar). A bunch of unripe Indian 
corn (Dehli). 

GUL, Mar. (^5, from S. TJ3 1 ) Coarse sugar, the juice of the 
sugar-cane inspissated by boiling : see Giir. 

GUL, H. &c. ((J-S, n<$) A ball of charcoal ground to pow- 
der and cemented with starch, put, when lighted, into a 
fiukka to cause the slow combustion of the tobacco ; also 
into the irons used for ironing linen. 

GULAL, H. &c. ( JK) The red powder thrown about at the 
Holi, generally the meal or flour of barley, rice, or Sin- 
ghdra, reddened with some vegetable dye, as that of the 
Cesalpinia sappan, or red sanders-wood. 

GULAH, H. (^) Cotton pods before bursting (Rohilkhand). 

GULENDA, H. (ljJul) The pod of the Mahwa tree: see 

GULI', also KuiJ andGuNTA, (?) A measure of length; when 
identified with the gunta, the fortieth part of an acre, but 
it varies in different parts of the south ; at Madras it is 
equal to a square of 33 feet each way, in Tanjore it is 
144 square feet, at Madura 25,030 square feet. 

GULI-GULI, Ben. ('Jjfa TtfH) Severally, individually ; ap- 
portioned to each by share or lot 

GULIVINA-POMMU, Kara. (Xb^x5~t2/ox>) Tax on the 
sock or iron of each plough (Mysore). 

GULLASUNNAMU, Tel. (X^&^^Sx), from &OJ, an 

oyster or other shell) The best kind of chunam or lime- 
plaster, made from burnt shells. 

GULU, GOOLOO, H. (^l) The pod of the Mahwa tree (Bas- 
sia latifolia), which yields a useful oil, and is sometimes 
eaten by the lower classes. 

GuinAsHTA, vernacularly, GOMASTA or GUMASTA, incorrectly, 
GOMASTHA, H. (P. <&iU jflHIw) An agent, a steward, 
a confidential factor, a representative ; an officer employed 
by Zamindars to collect their rents, by bankers to receive 
money, &c., by merchants to carry on their affairs in other 
places than where they reside, and the like : at Madras it 
is also the designation of a native accountant in the re- 
venue department. 
Gumdshta-kdnungo, H. The agent or deputy of the Ka- 

nungo. or village registrar and accountant. 
I GUMA, GOOMA, H. (<U^) A medicinal herb which grows 
on high ground during the rains, and in fields sown with 
the autumn crops (Pharnaceum mollugo). 

GUMAN, H. &c. (P. yjLo) Opinion, imagination, suspicion; sus- 
picion of crime excited by the report of a common informer. 

GUMBARA, or GUMBARA, Karn. (Xbo206^ XDOSTS^ ver- 
nacular corruption of Kumbhahdra) A potter. 

GUMCHI, H. (.js~) A small weight, in apothecary's mea- 
sure about 7 5- grains : it is also a name of the gunja 
seed, q. v. 

GUMKA, Hindi (n*nST) The operation of causing the green 
ears of com to ferment slightly, so as to make the seeds 
separate easily from the husk when threshed: it is done 
by heaping up the ears as soon as cut, and covering them 
with straw (Puraniya). 

GUMMI, Karn. (XboSJJ) A large basket for storing grain. 

GUMNAMA, H. &c. (<ulJu, from the P. Gum, j, lost, miss- 
ing) A document drawn up and duly attested, certifying 
the loss of any thing, as of a title-deed, &c. 

GUNA, S. &c. (n!j:) Merit, virtue; a quality, a property: 
metaphysically there are three Gunas, the Satya-guna, 
or property of truth the source of purity and wisdom ; 
the Rajo-guna, or property of foulness the source of 
passion and error ; and the Tamo-guna, or property of 
darkness the source of inertness and ignorance. Deity 
abstractedly is Nirguna, or without any of the three pro- 

GuNAH,H. (P.*li) GUNHA, Mar. Op?T) Fault, offence, crime. 
Gunagdr, H. (j&&) Gunhegdr, Mar. (J|^J|lO An of- 
fender, a culprit, a criminal. 


Gunagdri, H. &c, (^j^&j) Gunhegdri, Mar. 
Offence, crime. Fine, punishment by fine. Revenue de- 
rived from judicial fines. 
Gunakd, Tel. (Xb^-g^) Fine. 

Gunnegari, Karn. (ADOS' A c)&) A fine, especially for 
stealing ears of corn. 

GUN ARI, Karn. (X3oJc>8) Servant of the head merchant of a 

GUNCHI-PATTA, (?) A lease taken out in the name of two 
or more Ryots in partnership (Madras). 

GUND, Hindi (if?) A furrow. 

GUNDI, GOONDY, (?) Confederacy, association ; engagement 
entered into by individuals, to support and stand by each 
other to the extent of their whole property, and even of 
their lives, if necessary. 

GUNJ, or GUNJA, H. &c. (J$, 1=^) S. GUNJA, (TT^T) 
GUNJI, GUNJE, Karn. (XoC33 ? Xboa) A plant (the Ab- 
rus precatorius) ; also its seed, a small black-and-red seed, 
forming 1 the nominal unit of Indian weights : the average 
weight of the seed has been stated atlf 6 grains troy, but later 
experiments make it a trifle more, or 1.934 grain. The 
jewellers' and goldsmiths' weight of the same denomina- 
tion is about 2f 6 grains. 

GUNJAISH, H. (P. ^U^) GUNJA YASHU, Tel. (Xbo83~*- 
CxWcxX)) Profit, gain. In fiscal language it is applied to 
the capabilities of a village, particularly with reference 
to a proposed increase of revenue. Excess of the real over 
the recorded area of a Zamindari. 
Gunjdishi, H. (P. < j*)}<s) Profitable. 
Gunjdisu, Karn. (Xbo&f~3COJi\X> ) Outbidding another in 
a sale or contract 

GUNTA, Tel. (Xijob) A well or pond; a field, a pit. 

GUNTA, GOONTA, Tel. (ADOO) A square land measure, equal 
to 121 square yards, or the fortieth part of an acre. A 
measuring rod or chain, which, squared, constitutes the 
measure also so named, forty of which make an acre. 
The survey of the ceded districts directed the measure- 
ments to be made in acres, goontas, and anas (or six- 
teenths). 5th Rep. 787. 

GUNTAKA, Tel. (X^obS) GUNTE, GuNTiKE, Karn. (&0 t3, 
/OOfiOD ) A sort of harrow or implement for levelling 
ploughed ground. A sowing machine. 

GUNTH, GOONTH, Uriya (SJ61 ) A land measure of sixteen 
Otswas. (The same word most probably as Gunta, though 
spelled with a final aspirate). 


GUNTH, GOONTH, H. (<UJj>) Lands assigned rent-free for 
the support of a temple (Kamaon). 

GUPTA, S. (*ro) Hidden, concealed, preserved. 
Guptdvadhuta, S. (^pn^VTT) An ascetic of a particular 
order, one who does not avow his profession of mendi- 
cancy, or who observes its practices in secret. 
Gupt-ddn, H. (^j'Je^j) lit., A hidden donation, as where 
a person leaves property with a Brahman and never re- 
claims it ; or presents him with a sealed bag ; or drop- 
ping a present in the bottom of a sacred pool of water at 
Kurukshetra, at a solar eclipse, in which the pilgrim has 
bathed, leaving the officiating Brahmans to search for it. 

GUR, GOOR, H. &c. (S.j, pO GUDAMU, Tel. (Xb&x>) 
Molasses, treacle, raw sugar, the produce of the first in- 
spissation of the juice of the cane. 

GURAB, GOORUB, H. 0-r^/ ' , from Gurabnd, Iw^S, to dig) 
Deep weeding ; also, in the Upper Doab, ploughing 
through a field of bdjra or jarcdr when the plant is about 
a foot high, to loosen the soil, but so as not to injure 
the plants. 

GUHARJ, GOORUREE, H. ( i^fjjf) A twist of rope or straw, 
to form a stand for a round-bottomed jar. 

GURARI-GHAH, Uriya (S1QIQQQ) Place where the salt in 
solution is condensed by boiling (Cuttack). 

GUHAV, or GURAVA, also pronounced GURAO, corruptly 
written GUROW, Mar. (*Tt^) A caste, or individual of 
it, considered as a Sudra, but who is usually employed 
as the servant of the village temple, sweeping it, and 
decking the idol: he is also the village trumpeter. See 

Gurav-punja, Mar. (from ^3T, S., a heap) The share of the 
crop allotted to the Gurav for his remuneration. 

GURDA, GOORDA, H. (k>) A part of a sugar-mill, a scraper 
to prevent the sugar from resting at the bottom of the 

GURGURI, H. &c. djijtjZ) A small pipe for smoking, with 

a straight and inflexible tube. 

Gurguna, or Gulgulia, Thug. A low murmuring sound, 
like the bubbling of the pipe, made by a sort of owl 
an unlucky omen. 

GURHAUR, H. (jjj>) Stacks of cow-dung (East Oudh). 

GURIKAR, Karn. ( Xo8O~c>&) The head man of a village. 
A head man of armed peons. 

GURIYA, Ben. (Ttf^Tl) A confectioner, a worker in treacle. 


GURKATI, (?) A tax or cess formerly levied on the salt- 



makers in the Sunderbans by the officers of government, 
for the privilege of cutting firewood in the Jangal. 

GURKHAI, GOORKHYE, H. (,_yH^/) A kind of mortgage in 
Bundelkhand, in which the mortgager is responsible for 
three-fourths of. the government revenue on the mortgaged 

GURTU, (?) A land measure=3"| English acres (Nellur). 

Guku, GOOROO, S., but adopted in all the dialects ; in com- 
position often abridged to GUR, (jnj:) lit., Heavy, weighty, 
whence, metaphorically, a person of weight or respecta- 
bility, as an elder or parent, and especially a spiritual 
teacher or guide, one who, under the primitive system, in- 
structed the youth of the three first classes in the Vedas, 
but in later times one who merely communicates to him, 
with greater or lesser solemnity, the peculiar prayer which 
is considered sufficient to initiate the disciple, and make 
him a member of any particular sect or tribe. 
Gurudev, or -deva, S. Ben. (TH*^) A spiritual guide, a 

parent or elder, one who is reverenced as a divinity. 
Gurudahshind, S., vernacularly, Gurdachhind, II. (JHj 

Present made to a Guru by his disciple on 

completing his education, or receiving his initiation. Rent- 

free lands originally granted to a Guru. 
Gur-gdntk, Thug. The knot or tie which the Guru in- 

structs the novice to fasten. 
Gurukul, S. &c. (from gfij , a family) The family of a 

spiritual teacher. 
Gurukkul, (?) The head priest amongst the Saivas of the 

south of India. 
Gurumdtd, Panjabi, A convention of the chiefs of the Sikh 

tribes, formerly held on all occasions of importance at 

Gurumukhi, Panjabi (S. JJJjijwl ) The modification of the 

Devanagari alphabet devised by the Sikhs : it does not 

differ in shape, but the powers, of many of the letters are 

Gurupdddsraya, S. (from TTT^, foot, and ^TOPi:, refuge) 

Profound reverence of the Guru. 
Gurupujd, S. (^STT, worship) Veneration of a Guru, wor- 

ship offered to him ; also to the planet Jupiter, who is 

the Guru of the gods. 
Quruputra, S. ( m, a son) The son of a Guru, to be 

held also in profound respect 
Gurpinch, Thug. The strangler who has been duly in- 

structed by the Guru. 

Gurutalpaga, S. (iTBJ, a bed, and *T, who goes to) One 
who has a criminal intercourse with the wife of a Guru, 
a most heinous offence. 

GURUN, (the n very obscurely sounded, and the word in com- 
position shortened to GUR), Mar. (TOJ) Any animal of 
the Bos kind, a bull, a cow, a buffalo. 
GuraJthi, or Gurdkhi, Mar. (TJT^J 1 , or TTTT^, an abbre- 

NJ >* 

viation of Gurun, and S. Rakhshi, who preserves) A cow- 
keeper, a grazier. 

Gurcharan, or Gurchardi, Mar. (JIOK4U, 'IOKl|) Pas- 
turage for cattle. Price paid for its hire. 
GURUTU, Earn. (ADOOOJ) A mark, as a signature, made 

by a person who cannot write. 

GURHAL, GULHAH, Mar. (Jj^lcjS, Jldb^lO A sugar work, the 
place with the machinery for bruising the cane and ex- 
tracting the juice. 

GURZMAR, H. (from ^-jj>, a club, and S. jtc, what strikes) 
A Mohammadan Fakir, who carries a club armed with 
spikes, with which he wounds himself to extort alms. 
The order is said to have originated with a Pir named 
Sayid Ahmad Kabir. 

GuTA, GUTTA, or GUTKA, Mar. (HTTT, *rar, or 7m=FT) An 
exclusive right of sale, or supply of any commodity, a 
contract, a monopoly, farm, or rent, an income of variable 
amount sold or let for a fixed sum. 

Gutgi-patti, Mar. A deed of agreement, of contract, or farm. 
GUTI, GUTI, Ben. ( / 2^> 'Jjj^) The cocoon of the silkworm. 

Gutipokd, Ben. CjffljZ'fW) A silkworm. 
GUTTA, Tel. Kam. ( to^3 ^ ) Farm, lease, rent : (see the Mar. 
Gutd : it is no doubt the same word which is also cur- 
rent in Sindh as Gutto). 

Guttagadu, Tel. (Xb^-^iSo) A renter, a farmer. 

Guttige, Karn. (A 3 ^ ) Assessment, rental on land. 

Guttige-dar, Karn. (from P. j\A, who has) One who rents 
from government the lands of a village ; one who farms 
the revenue. 

Guttigehola, Karn. (Xb_ D ^ > -&^>O) A rented field. 

Phalagutige, Karn. (S. TB^J, fruit) Assessment paid in 

Rokhkhada-guttige, Karn. C&/S|g<3/68^') Assessment paid 
in money. 

Guttinae, (?) Tuluva, The ancient term for the head of a 
village or Patll. 

Gutto-shardb, Sindhi (from A. iJ\j, wine) Tax on dis- 
tillers and venders of spirituous liquors. 


GDTTE, Kara, (eJ) A place where bodies are burnt A 

pile and corpse when reduced to ashes. 
GUTTU, Karn. (^V^) Private or family affairs. 
GUZAH, GUZAR, GUZARA, H. (j& , j\j$ , X;lj, these and si- 

milar words are derived from the P. Guzashtan, ^i j5, 

to pass, to pass by or over, and in other dialects occur 

as Ouddr, Oujdr, &c.) A ferry, a ferry station or boat, 

a place of transit or toll. 
Guzar-bdn, H. (^jjo) An officer appointed to take tolls 

both on the high roads and at ferries. 
Guzar-gdh, H. (P. l^j) A ferry, a ferry station. 
GUZAR, H. (jljS) One who transfers, hands over, or pays; 

Mdl-guzdr, H. (P., from Mdl, wealth, revenue) The per- 

son who pays the government revenue, whether on his own 

account, or as the representative of others. 
Mdl-yuzdri, H. P., Payment of the government revenue 

by an individual. 

Guzdrish, H. (^_^!3i) Payment, transfer. Representation, 
Guzdsht, also, vernacularly, GUDAST and GUJAST, cor- 

ruptly, GOSAUSTH, H. (e^^J^, P. <*Jli!j) Mar. (n^r) 

H. (Jprer) Tel. Kara. (Xbai^) p as t, gone by, relin- 
quished: deduction allowed, payment remitted, or the like: 
in the south it applies, as a revenue term, to the year 
last past only. 

Guzdrat, H. (cL^'j>i) Through the medium, by the hand 
of (payments, &c.) : see Gujarat. 

Gujaatd-jamd, Gujastd-jamin, Hindi 

Statements of the amount of revenue and land of the pre- 

ceding year, for comparison with the increase or decrease 

of the current year. 
GUZRAN, vernacularly, G ujrdn, H. (^j-S) Living, livelihood, 

means or mode of subsisting. 
GUZRI, H., vernacularly, Gujri, (? <_;j>>) A market, espe- 

cially one held by the road-side in the afternoon. 
GYAN, vernacular corruption of Jndn, ($TR) Knowledge. 
Gydn-krita-badh, Ben. and Uriya. Wilful homicide. 


HA, the letter _ , the initial of Huzur-navis, Secretary of 
State, affixed to royal grants as a mark of attestation by 
the officer whose duty it is to issue them. 
HABB, HUBB, H. (A. t_*o-) A grain, a berry. 
Habub, Huboob, also Hububdt or Huboobat, H. 
plural of <*, CuUjXs-, plural irregular of 


Grains, &c. ; but applied to cesses or imposts extra to the 
regular assessment: the terms seem to have been used 
indiscriminately with Abrvdb (Harrington's Analysis, iii. 
236, note), but they more correctly define exactions in 
kind, of articles for the use of the Zamindar or of persons 
in authority, as milk, eggs, sheep, oil, ghee, blankets, skins, 
and the like : they were sometimes commuted for money. 
HABS, HUBS, H. (A. .-.Jo-) Imprisonment, confinement; 
a prison, a prisoner : a reservoir, an embankment, that 
in or by which water is confined. 

HADSHI, H. (A. -*A-) An African or Abyssinian slave 
under the native administration : Habsh being the Arabic 
reading of Abyss-inia, 

HADD, HUDD, or with only one final, HAD, plural HUDUD, 
H. (A. J>- , plural Ojiio- ) Boundary, limit, term, whether 
of place or time. In Mohammadan penal law, statutory 
punishment for certain crimes, distinguished from Kisas 
or retaliation, as not being claimable by the aggrieved 
parties, and from Tdzir, as not being inflicted at the dis- 
cretion of the judge, but defined by law. 

Had-bandi, Hud-bundee, also Had-bast, Hud-bust, H. 
(i^jjJuiXs-, e: ifh-,'- Vg -) Settlement and demarcation of 
boundaries : as this is a constant subject of dispute, great 
pains have been taken in various parts of India, and par- 
ticularly in the north-west provinces, to determine it by 
survey and record. 

Hadddd, A. (iili>-) An obstruction, a doorkeeper, a black- 

Haddu-patrihd, Tel. (r*&>Z>&~r) A statement of 

Had-i-jaiKab, H. ( (_>L- J>=>- ) The replication or rejoinder 
in a legal proceeding. 

Hadmahadad, Hindi (^<*^, vernacular corruption of 
the A. JjJ-, Mahdud, bounded) A term in leases or 
farming-contracts which recognises the power of the farmer 
over all the land and crops within the limits of his farm. 

Hudud-arl>&, H. (A. j^bj.Xs-) Boundaries of the four 

sides of an estate. 

HADA, or HADANA, Kara. (Sb&, Sb&r6) A moderate quan- 
tity of rain, so as to fit the soil for sowing. (In this 
and other senses these words are no doubt the Arabic 
Had, limit). 

Hada-vddamare, Karn. (&&T36&IO) A heavy fall 
of rain, such as to saturate the soil. 


HADAP, HADAPH, Guz. (t^SH, l^Sy) A deposit insecu- 

rity of payment due for a toll or custom-duty. 
HADAPA, Kara. (&>O&) A barber's case, a betel pouch. 
Hadapiga, Karn. (SbcSiA)